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ELEMENTS 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY 



ErIlr'LATHAM, M.A., M.D., F.E.S., Ac, 

LA.TC FELLOW OF KlNC's COLLEGE, CAKBEIOGE ; AND LATE PSOIESSOR OF ENGLISH 
IS UNIVERSlir COLLEGE, LOSDOS. 




LONDON: 
WALTON AND MABERLY, 

UPPEK GOWER STBEET, AND IVI LANE, PATERNOSTER ROW; 

LONGMAN, GKEEN, LONGMAN, EGBERTS, AND GEEEN, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 

186-2. 



The. RigJU of Trandaiion U Reserved. 



HIS IMPERIAL HIGH?rESS 

THE PRIXCE LOUIS LUGIEX BOXAPARTE. 

E3nyK5T FOB THE ZEAL AS© KFWCIEKCT 

WITH WHICH HB HAS COKTKIBUTKD TO OCB KKOWI£II6E OF 

BOIfB OP THE XOST IXFOKTAXT 6RASCHE8 OF 

COMPAKATITE PHILOLOGY, 

AS WKLL AS IS KECOGKITIOS OF MUCH SPECIAL ISrORXATIOX, FRKELY 
IXPARTED, 

C|e fbHohirag ipagts are fitscriBtb. 

Lositox, 

June itk, 1862. 



PREFACE. 



Tbe object of the present work is to lay before the 
reader the chief facts and the chief trains of reasoning 
in Comparative Philology. 

This last tei*m is by no means unexceptionable. It has 
the merit, however, of being in general use, and it con- 
veys no notions which materially mislead even the most 
uncritical. Neither is it, by any means, an easy matter 
to supersede it by one which shall be exactly adequate 
to the subject. Those which have suggested themselves 
to the present writer or to others convey either too 
much or too little. 

That such a work is wanted is known to every 
student. Since the publication of the Mithridates, no 
work equally extensive and systematic has appeared : 
nor has the Mithridates itself been re-edited with the 
proper annotations or additions. 

The main mass of facts lies in the details of the lan- 
guages themselves. Of these details, the ones which 
best suit a general exposition are the actual enu- 
meration of the existing forms of speech and the 
phenomena connected with their distribution over the 
earth's sm-face ; the phenomena of their distribution, 
taken by themselves, being of great importance and 
interest. In some respects they are ethnological rather 
than philological in the strictest sense of the term. They 



viii PREFACE. 

must, however, be known before even tbe rudiments of 
the subject can be studied ; and it is plain that they 
must be known in their integrity. Any important 
omission would damage the systematic exhibition of 
the whole. There is no language which does not illus- 
trate some other ; and the least that is required of any 
general investigator is that he should know the details 
of his subject-matter — not some, but all. 

I notice this, because the purely descriptive portion 
of the work fills more than six-sevenths of the volume ; 
and has the appearance of starving the remainder. A 
larger work would have removed this disproportion. 
Still, with languages and dialects as numerous as they 
are, the preliminary exposition must be accommodated 
to the multiplicity of its details. In some cases, no 
doubt, space might have been saved. In languages, 
however, which are either known from only a single 
specimen or are on the verge of extinction I have given 
more than I should have done otherwise. 

The words which are selected as samples are not 
chosen on ci 'priori principles. This means that I have 
not assumed that the names of certain parts of the 
body, of the sun, moon, &c., are the oldest and most 
permanent parts of a language without an approach 
to something like a preliminary trial. I have not 
assumed beforehand that they are what is sometimes 
called words of primary necessity. On the contrary, 
I have actually tried by the comparison of allied 
languages what words are the most permanent. It is 
only, however, where the materials were sufficient that 
I could thus pick and choose. In many cases, especially 
with the languages of South America, I have been fain 
to take what I could find. 

I must also add, that the short lists of the present 
work are not intended to represent the evidence upon 
which the affinities between the languages which they 
illustrate is founded. For this they are insufficient. They 



PREFACE. ix 

are rather meant as simple examples. Still, even as 
evidence, they ai'e valid so far as they show likeness. 
A few words are enough for this. To predicate difference 
a greater number is required. It follows, however, 
from the fact of their being the words which are con- 
spicuous for their permanence, that, as a general rule, 
languages, when taken altogether, are less alike than a 
list of selected words makes them. 

Failing to find a vocabulary, I have occasionally 
given a Paternoster as an illustration ; and here the 
couverse is the case. Languages, as a general rule, are 
more alike than the comparison of their Paternosters 
suggests. 

As for the words themselves, I am, for an in- 
ordinately large proportion of them, simply under the 
guidance of my authorities : indeed, many forms of 
speech are known only from a single specimen, often the 
contribution of an imperfect investigator. Upon the 
whole, however, I have found that they are sufBcient 
for the purpose. At any rate, inaccurate specimens 
conceal, rather than exaggerate, affinities. 

The several groups, or classes, as given in the classifi- 
cation of the present volume, so far as they depart from 
the ones in general cm-rency, may be divided into three 
classes. 

1. The first contains those where the minimum 
amount of positive evidence is required. Here, the 
criticism deals with the real presumptions in favour of 
my own view as opposed to those against it. Tliis 
means little more than the expression of an opinion 
that the current doctrine is, in itself, improbable ; that 
the onus prohandi lies with those who assert, rather 
than with those who decline to admit, it ; and that, on 
the part of those with whom the onus lies, the case 
has not been made. It is clear that this is a criticism 
of tlie common giounds of assent rather than a matter 
of philological fact. 



X PREFACE. 

2. The second contains those members which have 
the probabilities on their side, but which, from want 
of data, are susceptible of having their position im- 
proved, if not absolutely altered, when our knowledge 
increases. The South-American languages especially 
belong to this division. There is some evidence in 
favour of their being what they are here made ; but 
that evidence is sufficient only because it coincides with 
the a prioH presumptions. 

3. The third class (and this more especially applies 
to the speculations on the original extent of the Slavonic 
and Lithuanian languages) is not only opposed to 
common opinion but has no presumptions in its favour 
— except, of course, such as show themselves when the 
fact is known, and which are, really, no true presump- 
tions at all. It is the intention of the author, if oppor- 
tunities permit, to mend the evidence on these points. 

The second part, or the part which treats of lan- 
guage in general, is short. This arises (as aforesaid) 
from the great amount of preliminary detail which 
was absolutely necessary. The notice, however, short 
as it is, goes at once, to the two main problems, the 
origin of inflections and the origin of roots. Of the 
ground covered by these questions it only gives a 
general view, along with a few suggestions as to the 
method by which it is to be explored. 

What now follows is the qualification of an expres- 
sion which will frequently occur, and one which, without 
explanation, may seem to savour of arrogance. I often 
allude to what I call the cwrrent opinion ; and I gene- 
rally do so to condemn it. 

Tiie notice, however, does not mean that all the world 
is wrong, and that it is the mission of the present in- 
quirer to set it right. Current opinion merely means 
the doctrine laid down in partial treatises, popular 
works, and other productions, which either fail to give a 
sufficiently general view of the subject, or aro taken 



PREFACE. XI 

from second-hand, or third-hand sources; the doctrine 
of laymen, amateurs, and speculators, rather than pro- 
fessed philologues, responsible authorities, and cautious 
critics. With many of these latter, I unwillingly differ. 
Still, wherever I consider myself right, I give every one 
else the credit of being so, who, with a first-hand know- 
ledge of the subject, has not committed himself to any 
of the notions I have objected to. 

The same principle is extended to what may be called 
discoveries. As a general rule, they belong so tho- 
roughly to the domain of common-sense, that, with a 
scientific method, they come of themselves, and, so 
doing, carry with them but slight claims for bold origin- 
ality and the like heroic qualities. Where I am right 
in any view not generally received, I am, unless the con- 
trary be expressly stated, an independent witness : and, 
in claiming this for myself, I award the same merit 
(such as it is) to othere. Where the line of inquiry lies 
in a right direction, any amount of similar results may 
be obtained by independent investigatoi-s ; and that many 
good results are actually thus obtained is certain. Philo- 
logical papers are spread over such a vast variety of 
periodicals, monographs, and different works in different 
languages, that the mere search for them is a matter 
of time and labour — to which favourable opportunities 
must be added. If, then, I pa.ss over many important 
observations without special reference to the observer, 
I do it without, at all, implying that my own are either 
the only or the earliest ones. I often find them in 
other writers ; but I have never encouraged the notion 
that they were borrowed. A like liberal construction 
is what I ask from others. The history of the opinions 
connected with any department of knowledge is one 
thing ; the investigation of the facts themselves is 
anotlier ; and, in proportion as any branch of know- 
ledge advances, agreement independent of communica- 
tion increases. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEB. I. 

PAGE 

Dialects and Languages. — Stages of Languages. — General Distribntion. 
— Large, Small, and Medium Areas. — Insular and Continental Distri- 
bution. — Obliteration of Intermediate Forms. — Classification by Type 
and Definition. — (Jeneral View of Seven Great Divisions. — The Class 
Natural 1 

CHAPTER II. 
Bhot and Burmese Group. — Bhot of Bultistan, Ladak, Tibet Proper, and 
Bfitan. — Written and Spoken. — Local Dialects. — Changlo. — Serpa. — 
Tak.— Maniak. — Gyarung. — Tochu. — Hor 11 

CHAPTER in. 
Nepalese and Sikkim Languages. — Gurung and MnrmL — Magar and 
Bramhfi. — Chepang. — Hayfi. — Kusunda. — Newar and Pahari. — 
Kiranti and Limbu. — Lepclia.-.-Dliimal. — Bodo. — Graro. — Borro. — 
Sunwar ........... 19 

CHAPTER IV. 
Languages of Assam. — Northern Frontier. — Aka, Dofia, and Abor. — 
HirL — llishmL — Southern Frontier. — Easia. — Mikir. — Angami. — 
Nagas. — Singpho 28 

CHAPTER V. 

Continuation of the Graro Line. — The Khumia, Old and New Kuki. — The 
Continuation of the Naga Line. — Munipur Group. — Koreng, Luhuppa, 
Tankhu, Khoibu, &c. — The Karens. — The Burmese Proper . 36 

CHAPTER VI. 
The Thay, or Siamese, Group. — Its Extent and Direction. — The Siamese 
Proper.— The Laos.— The Khamti.— The Ahom.— The Shans.— The 
Palaong. — Cultivation of the Siamese Proper 50 



xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 

The Mdn Language of Pegu. — The Kho of Kambojia. — Their original 
Continuity , . 56 

CHAPTER VIII. 
The Andaman Islanders . .58 

CHAPTER IX. 
Cochin-China, or Annam, and Tonkin 61 

CHAPTER X. 
China. — Canton, Fokien, and Mandarin Dialects. — Stages. — Are there 
any? — Qyami. — Tanguti . 63 

CHAPTER XI. 
Observations on the preceding Groups. — Brown's Tables. — Affinity be- 
tween the Burmese and Tibetan. — Direction of the Chinese. — Nearest 
congeners to the Malay. — Indian Affinities of the Mon . . .68 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Tungtis Class. — Mantshfi and Orotshong. — Orthography of Castren's 
Tungfis Grammar 72 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Mongol Class. — Mongolian Proper. — Buriat. — Olot. — Aimauk. — 
Pelu.— Sok 83 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Yeniseians. — Objections to the Name Ostiak. — Castren's Researches. 
— Northern Branch. — Inbazk, Denka, and Pumpokolsk Vocabularies of 
the Asia PohjfjloUa. — Southern Branch. — The Assan. — Kot. — Castren's 
Discovery of a Kot Village. — The Ara Legend. — Kanskoi and Kamas- 
sintzi Vocabularies. — The Glosses Kot and Kem. — Speculations as to 
the original Extent of the Yeniseian Area . . . . .88 

CHAPTER XV. 
The Turk Languages. — Import of the Term. — The Uighur. — Tshagatai. 
— Uzbek. — Turcoman. — Khirghiz. — Barabinski. — Tshulira. — Teleut. 
— Koibal. — Karagas. — Soyony . — Yakut. — Bashk ir. — Kasan. — Nogay. 
— ^Meshtsheriak. — Eumuk. — Kuzzilbash. — Cumanian . . .98 

CHAPTER XVI. 
The Yukahiri 117 

CHAPTER XVII. 
The Ugrian Class. — Its Importance and Peculiarities. — Gastrin's Re- 
tearches. — ^The Samoyed Division 125 



CONTENTS. XV 

CHAPTER XVin. 

FAGK 

The Ugrian Class.— The Ostiak, the Vc^, and the Magyar . .138 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Volga Fins.— The Mordvin.— The Tsherimis 147 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Votiak, Permian, and Zirianian 150 

CHAPTER XXI. 
The Fin Proper. — Division into Tavastrian and Karelian. — The Tver 
Dialect.— The Vod.— The Estonian 152 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Lap of Norw^ian, Swedish, and Rnssian Lapland . . . 161 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
The Peninsular Langnages. — Korean. — Japanese and LdchfL — Aino or 
Kurilian. — Koriak and Kamskadal 165 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

(Jeneral Observations on the preceding Languages. — Value of the Class. 
— Original Turk, Mantshti, Teniseian, and Ugrian Areas . . .175 

CHAPTER XXV. 
The Darahi (Denwar) and Kuswar. — The Paksya and Tharu. — The 
Kooch 179 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
The Kol Group.— Its AfiSnities with the M6n 183 

CHAPTER XXVIL 
The Khond Class. — Khond. — Gadaba and Yerikala. — Savara . . 186 

CHAPTER XX^III. 
The Ghonds 188 

CHAPTER XXIX. 
Uraon and Rajamahali 199 

CHAPTER XXX. 
The Tamul Class. — Telugu or Telinga. — Tamnl Proper. — Malajalim. — 
Canarese. — Tulu or Tulava. — Rude Tribes. — Tuda. — Bndugur. — 
Irular. — Kohatar 202 

CHAPTER XXXI. 
The Brahtii 210 



xvi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

PAGE 

Languages akin to the Hindi. — Its Dialects. — The Punjabi. — The Hindos- 
tani. — The Gujerathi.— The Marathi.— The Bengali, &c. — The Uriya . 216 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
The Singalese.— The Rodiya. — The Maldivian 232 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 
The Paropamisan Group. — The Dard Branch. — The Shina. — The Deer and 
Tirhai. — ^The Arniya or Kashkari. — The Cohistani or Lughmani and 
Pashai.— The Siaposh 236 

CHAPTER XXXV. 
The Languages of certain migratory Populations of India . . . 245 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 
The Gipsy 248 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 
The Kajunah 250 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 
The Pushtu, Patau, or Afghan 252 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 
The Persian. — The Huzvaresh. — The Parsi. — The Modern Persian. — The 
Biluch.— The Kurd. —The Buruki 254 

CHAPTER XL. 
The Iron 264 

CHAPTER XLI. 
The Armenian 266 

CHAPTER XLIL 
The Dioscurian Group. — Meaning of the Term. — Georgian Division . 268 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
The Dioscurian Group. — Lesgian Division 271 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
The Dioscurian Group. — The Tshetsh Division. — Grammatical Structure 
of the Tushi 274 

CHAPTER XLV. 
The Dioscurian Group.— The Tsherkess, or Circassian, Division . . 279 



CONTENTS. xvu 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

PAGE 

The Malay and its more immediate Congeners. — The Tshampa. — Samang. 
— Nicobar. — Silong. — Malay of the Malayan Peninsula. — Of Sumatra. 
— The Kejang and Lampong. — Of the Malagasi of Madagascar. — Of 
the small Islands oflF Sumatra. — From Java to Timor . . . 283 

CHAPTER XLYII. 
Languages of Borneo, &c., to Ceram ....... 305 

CHAPTER XLYIII. 
The Languages of the Sulu Archipelago. — Phillipines. — Formosa . . 312 

CHAPTER XLIX. 
Micronesia. — Tobi. — The Pelew Islands. — The Caroline and lirlarianne (or 
Ladrone) Archipelagoes. — The Polynesia ...... 320 

CHAPTER L. 
The Papua Class. — Guebe, &c. — New Guinea. — New Ireland, &c., to 
New Caledonia 329 

CHAPTER LI. 
The Viti, or Fiji, Group. — Its Relations to the Polynesian and the 
Papua 345 

CHAPTER LII. 
The Australian Group ......... 350 

CHAPTER LUX. 
Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania 362 

CHAPTER LIV. 
Review of the preceding Class.— Its Characteristics, Divisions, and Value. 
— The so-called Negritos ........ 372 

CHAPTER LV. 
Languages of America. — The Eskimo. — The Athabaskan Dialects. — The 
Kitunaha. — The Atna. — The Haidah, Chemmesyan, Wakash, and Chi- 
nuk ... 384 

CHAPTER LVI. 
Languages of Oregon and California. — Cayfis, &c. — Lntuami, &c. — 
Ehnek. — Weitspek. — Kulanapo. — Copeh. — Pujuni, &c. — Costano, &c. 
— Eslen. — Netela. — San Diego, &c. 404 

CHAPTER LVII. 

Old California 422 

h 



xviii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER LVIII. 

PAOE 

Languages of Sonora. — Mexico. — Guatimala. — Honduras. — Nicaragua, 
&c 427 

CHAPTER LIX. 
Sahaptin, Padaca, and Pueblo Languages ...... 439 

CHAPTER LX. 
Languages between the Athabaskan, the Rocky Mountains, and the At- 
lantic. — The Algonkin. — The Sioux. — The Iroquois. — The Catawba, 
Woccon, Uche, Natchez, Chetimacha, Adahi, and Attacapa Languages. 
— The Pawni, Riccari, and Caddo. — The Languages of Texas . .447 

CHAPTER LXI. 
Languages of South America. — New Grenada. — The Quichua. — The Ay- 
mara. — The Chileno. — The Fuegian 478 

CHAPTER LXIL 
Languages of the Orinoko, Rio Negro, and Northern Bank of Amazons. 
— Yarura, &c. — Baniwa. — Juri. — Maipur. — Carib. — Salivi. — 
Warow. — Taruma. — Iquito. — Mayoruna. — Peba. — Ticuna, &c. . . 485 

CHAPTER LXIII. 
The Moxos, Chiquitos, and Chaco Languages ..... 499 

CHAPTER LXIV. 
Languages of Brazil. — Guarani. — Other than Guarani. — Botocudo, &c. — 
Languages neither Guarani nor Botocudo. — The Timbiras. — The Sa- 
buja, &c 507 

CHAPTER LXY. 
General Remarks on the American Languages ..... 617 

CHAPTER LXVI. 
The Semitic Languages. — The Phenician and Punic — The Hebrew and 
Samaritan. — The Assyrian and Chaldee. — The Syriac. — The ^thiopic 
and Amharic. — Gafat. — Arabic. — Hururgi, the Amazig or Berber . 524 

CHAPTER LXVn. 
The Agau, Agaw, or Agow, and Falasha. — The Gonga Dialects. — The 
Kekuafi 542 

CHAPTER LXVIIL 
The Coptic. — The Bishari. — The Nubian Languages. —The Shilluk, 
Denka, &c. — The Mobba and Darrunga. — The Galla Group.— The 
Dizzela, Dalla, Shankali or Shangalla 546 



CONTENTS. xix 

CHAPTER LXIX. 

PAGE 

The Kaffir Class of Languages .... . . 553 

CHAPTER LXX. 
The Bonny, Brass Town, Ibo, and Benin Languages. — The Mandingo, 
Accra, Krepi, Km, &c. — Remarks on the Mandingo Class. — The Beg- 
harmi. — Mandara. — Kanuri. — Hawssa. — Sungai — Kouri. — Yoruba. — 
Tapua or Nnfi.— Batta.— Fola, &c.— The Serawulli.— Woloff, &c.— 
Hottentot ggy 

CHAPTER LXXI. 
The Hottentot 593 

CHAPTER LXXII. 
On the African Languages in General ....... 599 

CHAPTER LXXIII. 
The Indo- European Languages (so-called).— The Skipitar, Arnaut, or 
Albanian ........... 605 

CHAPTER LXXIV. 
TheSanskrit.—Persepolitan.—Pracrit.— Pali.— Kawi.— Zend . . 608 

CHAPTER LXXY. 
The Lithuania Division of the Sannatian Class.— The Lett, Lithuanian, 
and Prussian ••........, 623 

CHAPTER LXXYI. 
The Slavonic Division of the Sannatian Class. — The Russian, Servian 
and lUyrian. — The Slovak, Tshek, Lnsatian, and Polish.— The Kassub 



and Linonian 



627 



CHAPTER LXXYII. 

The Latin and the Languages derived from it.— The Italian. — Spanish.^ 

Portuguese. — French. — Romance. — Romanyo 632 

CHAPTER LXXVni. 
The Greek . 651 

CHAPTER LXXIX. 
The German Class.— The Moes<^thic.— The High and Low (Jerman. — 
The Anglo-Saxon and English.— The Frisian.— The Norse, or Scan- 



dinavian 



658 



CHAPTER LXXX. 
The Keltic Languages.— British Branch. — Gaelic Branch . . . Q64 

b 2 



XX CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER LXXXI. 

PAGK 

The Bask, Basque, or Biscayan 676 

CHAPTER LXXXII. 
General Remarks upon the Indo-European Class 689 



PAKT 11. 

CHAPTER I. 
Language in General. — Stages • 697 

CHAPTER II. 
On Classes 706 

CHAPTER III. 
Analytic and Synthetic View of Methods. — Origin of Derivatives and of 
Roots. — Of Derived Forms, Voice, &c 713 

, CHAPTER IV. 
Roots 728 



Addenda and Corrigenda • . 753 

Index 758 



TABULAE VIEW 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. 



FIRST PRIMARY GROUP. 

Tibetan and Burmese. 
Tibetan. 
Boltistani of Little Tibet — LadakU, Tibetan — written (or older) ; spoken 
(or newer) — Butani or Lhopa (divisions chiejly political) — Changlo. 
Bhot of Kunawer. Milchan — Theburskud — Sumchfi. 
Serpa (details doubtful). Thaksya — Sunwar. 

Eastern Bhot (transitional lo Burmese). Takpa — Manyak — Thochn — 
Gyami. 

Northern Bhot. Hor. 

Kepalese. 
(a) Gurung — Mnrmi ; (b) Magar — Bramhfi ; (e) Chepang — V&yfi — Ensunda 
(Nepalese leading to Northern India) ; (d) Newar — Pahri (do.) ; (e) Eirata — 
Limbu (do.); (f) Lepcha (leading to Asam) ; (g) Dhimal — Bodo — Borro — 
Garo (leading to Singpho through Jili). 

Asam, tL-e' 
Dofla, Abor, and Aka. Miri (ore the northern frontier) ; Angami (Xaga, so- 
called, on the southern), 

Tayung and Mijhu Dialects (languages) of the Mishmi. 
(?) Deoria Chutia- 

Manipur, d:c. 
Easia. Mikir. 

Jili (running westward through the Garo) — Singpho — Kakhyen. 

Naga Dialects (so-called) minus the Angami (see above) and the Mithan 
(Singpho or transitional) — numerous. 

Eoreng — Songpu — Lohnppa — North Tankhnl — Ehoibn — ilaring — Eapwi 
— Maram — Man ipur. 

Kuki and Luncta — Mm — Eami and Kumi — Sak — Shenda — Bhyen. 

Rukheng (Arakan) — Burmese Proper. 

Sgau — Pwo — Thonng-lhvk. 



xxii TABULAR VIEW OP 

Siamese. 
Ahom — Khamti — Shan— Laos — Siamese Proper — Palaoung. 

M6n. 
Men of Pegu — Kha— Khong of Kambojia. 

Islands. 
(?) Andaman. 
(?) Camicobar. 

Chinese and Cochinchinese. 
Anam of CochincMna and Tonkin. 
Chinese. 



SECOND PEIMAKY GROUP (Turanian). 

Tungus — Mongol — Turk. 

(?) Yeniseian. 1. Northern Branch of the Sim and the Pit, &c. 2. South- 
em Branch — Assan — (extinct) Arini — {extinct) Kot. 

(?) Tshuvash. 

(?) Yukahiri. 

Ugrian. 

Samoyed. South-eastern ; Motorian {extinct) — Koibal {do.) — Kamass. 
South-western {OstiaJc, improperly so-called) — Northern; Yeniseian — Tawgi 
— Yurak. 

Ostiak — ^Vogul — Hungarian (Magyar). 

Mordvin — Tsherimis — Votiak . 

Permian and Zirianian — Karelian — Tavastrian and Quain — Fin — Vod — Es- 
tonian — Lief. 

Lap. 

Peninsula/r. 

Korean. 

Japanese — L&chH. 

Aino of Sagalin — of Kuriles — Kamtshatka. 

Gilyak (?) Koriak— Kamtshatkan {leading through the Aleutian to the 
Eskimo). 



THIRD PRIMARY GROUP. 

Indian. 

(1.) 
Languages teiih the Sanskrit element not sufficiently large to make their otigin 

disputed. 
Denwar and Darahi— Tharu— Kuswar— Pakhya — Kooch. 
IIo (Kol) of Singbhum — Suntal, &c. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. xxiii 

Ehond — (Jadaba — Yerukali — Savara (more Kol than the others though 
farther South) &c. — leading to Telugu. 

Ghond. 

Uraon — Bajmahal. 

Telinga or Telugu — Tamul — Malayalim — Canarese — Tuda — Bndugar — 
Irular — Kohatar — Kodagu or Corgi — Tulava. 

Brahui. 

Cant languages, and languages of migratory Indian Tribes. 

Thug — Bagwan — Taremuki — Korawi — Kamusi — Mang — Nut — Katodi — 
Bowri — Guhuri — Gypsy. Khurbat and Daman of Persia ; Ghager, Helebi, 
and Nawer of Egypt, &c. 

(2.) 
WUh a proportion of Sanskrit sufficiently large to maJce their origin dispuied. 

Cashmirian — Hindi — Punjabi, &c., and Bengali of Asam — as spoken in 

Arakan — Uriya (Udiya)—Gujerati— Catch {leading to Sind) — Sindhi = 
Siraiki — Lar — Marathi (Mahratta)— Konkani. 

Singalese — Bodiya — Maldire. 

Swauti — Shina — Dir — ^Tirhai. 

Kashkari (Dard)— Amiya— Kashkari— ChitralL 

Kaferistani — Siaposh. 

Cohistani — Lughman — Pushai . 

( ?) Kajunah. 

Persian. 
Pushtu Patan, or AfFghan ; eastern and western — Blluch — Persian {general 
Zan^iiajre)— dialects of Tajiks out of Persia, Baraki, &c.— Kurd. 
(?) Iron. 

Dioseurian. 

Armenian. 

Georgian. Kartulinian— Mingrelian and Imeretian — ^Suanetian— LazistanL 
Tushi— Ingiish — Tshetsh. 
Kabardinian — Tserkess Proper. 
Adige. Abchazi — Tepanta. 

Arar— Anzukh— Tsari—Andi, &c.— Dido and Unso— Akush— Kasikumuk 
— KuraJi. 



FOUKTH PRIMARY GROUP (Oceanic). 
Malay, <tc. 

Samang of Juru of Kedah. 
SQong — Nicobar. 

Malay (general language) — Tshamba — Jakun — Atshin — Singkal — ^Pakpafc 
Toba and Banjak Batta— Korinchi— Rejang— Lampong (with Javanese ele- 



xxiv TABULAR VIEW OP 

ments) — Ulu — Lubu (uuhttered) — Nias — Maruwi — Poggi, or Mantawa, 
Islands — Enganho (ott%Jw(/)— Sunda — Madura — Sumenap — Javanese — Bali 
— Sasak — Bima— Sumbawa — Timbora — Ende — Mangarei (one of the first 
langua{/es of the series in which Australian u-ords were observed) — Ombay 
(see Mangarei) — Solor — Savu — Roth — Timur — Manatoto — Timorlaut — Kissi 
— Baba (Bebber)— Key Doulan— Wokan, &c. 

Borneo^— Parts about Labuan — Banjermassin — Kayan of Centre — Northern 
districts. 

Celebes. Bugis — Mandhar — Macassar — Menadu (dialects numerous) — Gu- 
nong-Tellu — Buton— Amboyna — Saparua — Temati — Tidor — Ceram — Halma- 
hera or GUolo. 

Sulu — Bissayan — Iloco — Cayagan — Tagala — Umiray — Dumagat, &c. — 
Bashi. 

Formosan = Sideia and Favorlaug. 

Micronesia. 
Tobi — Pelews — Guaham — Chamor — Dlea — ^Yap — Satawal. 
Mille — Tarawan — Fakaafo and Vaitupu. 

Polynesia. 
Samoan (Navigators' Isle) — Marquesas — Kanaka (Sandwich Isles) — Tonga 
— Tahitian — Paumotu — Maori — Easter Island-^ Wahitao — Mayorga — Ticopia 
—Cocoa Island — Rotuma. 

Papuan. 
Guebe — Waigiu — Parts about Port Dorey — Lobo — Utanata — Mairassis — 
Triton Bay — Onin — Miriam — Redscar Bay and Dufaure Islands — New Ire- 
land and Port Praslin — Bauro and Guadalcanar — Vanikoro — Tanema and 
Taneama— MallicoUo — Tanna — Annatom — Erromango— Lifu and Mare — 
Baladea — Dauru. 
Fiji. 

Australian. 

Cape York — Massied — Kowrarega and Gudang — Moreton Bay— Sidney 
— Muruya — Peel — Bathurst — Mudji — Kamilaroi (Wellington) — Wiradurei — 
Lake Macquarie — Witouro — Woddowrong — Koligon — Jhong wborong— Gnu- 
rellean — Corio — Coliak — Lake Hindmarsh — Pinegori ne — Dautgart — Lak e 
Mundy — Molonglo — Boraiper — Yakkuinban — Aiawong — Parnkalla — Head of 
Bight — W. Australia — Port Philip — King George's Sound, &c. 

Tasmanian — Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern dialects. 



FIFTH PRIMARY GROUP (American). 

Aleutian. 

Eadiak— Kuskutshewak — Tstu-gatsi —Labrador, Greeulandic — Namollo. 

Athahaskan. 
Kenay— Kutshin (Loucheux) — Dog-rib, Slave, Beaver, Chepewyan Proper, 
Takulli— Tsikanni— SuBsi. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. XXV 

Atna — Koltshani — Cgalents. 

Tlatskanai — Umkwa — Kwaliokwa. 

Naraho — Hfipa — ^Apatsh — Pmalero — Jecorilla. 

Oregon. 

Kitanaha. 

Kolush — Sitkan — Skittegats — Chemmesyan — Faidali — Hailtaa and Hailt- 
zuk — Wakash — Chinuk — YTatlala. 

Shushwap. Selish — Okanagan — Spokan — Piskwaus — Billechola — Skitsaish 
— Skwali — Kowelitsk — Tsihaili — Nsietshawus. 

Jakon. 

Ealapuya — Willamet (akin to) Molele — Cayus and Wailatpa Qeading to 
Sahaptin and Wihinast). 

Latuami. 

Shasti — {atin to Copeh) Palaik {akin to Wihinart) — Bonak. 

California. 

Ehnek. 

Talewah. 

Weitspek — Wishosk and Weiyot. 

Copeh — ilag Readings — Upper Sacramento — Cashna — Pnjuni — Secumne — 
Tsamak — Talatoi — San Raphael — Tshokoyem (Jukionsme) — Sacramento — 
Choweshak — Batemdakai — Yukai — Kulanapo— Khwaklamayu. 

Coconoons — Tnlare. 

Costano —Santa Clara — Eslen — Roslen — Mntnm — Carmel — Soledad — San 
Antonio — San Miguel — San Luis Obispo — Santa Inez — Los Pueblos — Santa 
Barbara — San Fernando — Los Angeles. 

San Grabriel (Netela). San Juan Capistrano (Kij). 

San Luis Rey. 

San Di^o, or Di^uho — Cocomaricopas — Yuma — Mohave. 

Old California. 
Cochimi of San Xavier — San Boigla^ Loretto — Waikur — Ushita? — 
Pericu. 

SoHora, (L-c. 

Pima — Opata— Eudeve — Seres — Hiaqui— Cahita — Tubar— Tarahumara— 
Cora. 

Otomi — Mahazui. 

Mexican. 

Huasteca. J[aya — Katchiquel — Quiche or Utlateca — Zutugil or Zacapula— 
Atiteca — Chorti — Mam — ^Manche — Popoluca — Tzendal — Lacondona — Ache — 
Zapoteca ? 

Pirinda — Tarasca. 

Totonaca— ilisteca — Mise ? 

Lenca. Guajequiro — Opatoro— Intibuca. 

Nagranda. Chorotega — Wulwa— Waikna. 



xxvi TABULAR VIEW OF 

Bavaneric. Bayano. 

Cunacuna. 

Cholo. 

Paduca class. 
Wallawalla — Kliketat — Sahaptin — Wihinasht — Shoshoni — Uta — Pa-uta 
— Chemuliuevi — Cahuillo — Cumanch. 

Algonhin class. 

Blackfoot. Arapabo. 

Shyenne — Cree — Ojibwa — Nipissing — Old Algonkin — Messisaugi — Ot- 
tawa — Knistinaux — Potowattami — Sheshatapush — Skoffi — Montagnards. 

Bethuck. 

Menomeni — Sack and Fox -Kikkapu — Ilinois — Miami — Wea — Piankeshaw 
— Shawni — Micmac — St. John's — Etshemin — Abnaki — Passamaquoddy. 

Matik — Massachusetts — Narraganset. 

Minsi — Delaware — Lennilenape— Nanticokes — Susquehannok — Mohicans 
— Manahok — Powhattan — Pampticough. 

Sioux grov/p. 
Upsoroka or Crow — Mandan — Assineboin — Yankton — Winehago — Dakota 
— Osage — Quappa — Teton— loway — Omahaw — Minetari. 

Iroquois growp. 
Wyandot — Huron, 

Iroquois. Mohawk — Cayuga — Onondago — Seneca — Oneida — Tuscarora — 
Nottoway — Hochalaga. 

Woccon — Catawba— Cherokee — Chikkasah — Muskogulge — Choctah — Semi- 
nole — Uche — Natchez — Chetimacha — Adahi — Attacapa. 

Caddo — ^Witshita — Kichai — Hueco — Pawni — Riccaree. 

South American. 
Muysca or Chibcha — Correguage — Andaqui. 

Quichua = Quiteno — Chinchasuya — Cauki — Lamano — Cuzcucano — Calcha- 
qui. 

Puquina — Yunga — Mochika. 

Yamea — Mainas. 

Aymara = Lupaca — Pacase — Cancbi — Cana — Colla — CoUagua — Caranca — 
Gharca. 

Araucanian— Puelche— Fnegian. AlikhtSlip— Tekinica- 

On the Orinoco. 
Yarura— Betoi — Otomaka. 



LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS. xxvu 

Chi Rio Negro. 
B^Uliwa of Isanna — Barree — Baniwa of the Javita — Baniwa of the Tomo 
and Maroa — Uaenambeu or Mauhe — Jui-i— Coretu of Wallace — Coretu of 
Balbi. 

Maipur. 
Maipur — Achagua — Pareni. 

Carib. 

Wapisiana — Guinau — Maionkong — "Woyawai — 'Wayamera— Macusi — Are - 
cuna — Soerikong — Mawakwa — Accaway — Caribisi — Pianoghotto — Tiveri- 
ghotto — Atoria and Daurai — Tamanak — Carib — Jaoi — Arawak. 

(?) 
Salivi — Alacoa and Fiaroa. 
Warow. 
Tamma. 

Jxiripixnna — Iqnito — Xumano ? 
Mayoruna — Urarina. 
Peba — Yagua — Orej ones. 
Ticunas — Zapara — Yamea ? 

On the Ucayale. 
Fanos. 

Head-waters of Beni. 
Yttracares. 

Between Andes and the Moxos area. 
Sapihoconi. Antes. 

Moxos. 
Movima — Cayuvava — Itonama — Moxos — Canicliana — Chapacura — Paca- 
gnara — (North) Itenes {East). 

Chiquitos. 
Paioconeca {West) — Chiquitos (Central)— Otvike (East) — Zamucn (in direc- 
tion of the Chaco). 

Chaco. 
Mataguaya (in direction of Chiquitos) — Vilela and Lule (in direction of 
Aymara) — Mocobi and Toba — Mbaya or Guaycuru — Abiponian. 

Brazilian not Guarani. 

Bororo. Gnachi — Qoato — Guana (in Matagrosso) . ? — Payagua (in Para- 
guay). 

On Tocantins. 

Garaja — Apinages — Chuntaquiro, or Piro — Cherente and Ghavante — Ca- 
raho — Tocantins (in Goyaz) — Timbiras— Ge or Geiko — (in Para and Ma- 
ranham) . 

Kiriri — Sabuja, 

Botocudo — Jupuroca — Mucury — Naknanuk — Maconi — Mongoyoa — Malali — 
Maehakali — Patacho — Camacan — Purus — Coroados — Coropos. 



xxviii TABULAR VIEW OF LANGUAGES, ETC. 
SIXTH PRIMARY GROUP (Afktcan). 

Phenician of Phenicia, of Carthage — Samaritan — Hebrew — Aramaic, 
Syriac and Chaldee. Gheez — Tigr6 — Amharic — Gafat. Arabic — Hururgi, &c. 

Amazig or Berber — Siwah — Tunis — Tripoli — Algiers — Morocco — The Sa- 
hara — The Canary Isles (extinct). 

Agaw and Falasha. 

Gonga — Kaflfa — Woraita — Wolaitsa — Yangaro — Ukuafi. 

Memphitic, Sahitic and Bashmuric dialects of the Coptic. 

Bishari — Kenzy, N(ib and Dongolawy dialects of the Nubian — Koldagi of 
Kordovan. Shabun — Fertit — Shilluk — Denka — Fazoglo or Qamamyl — Tu- 
mali and Takeli — Dor — Nyamnam. 

Mobba — Darrunga. 

Danakil (Afer), Somauli and Galla. 

Dizzela — Dalla — Shankali, or Shangalla, of Agaumidr. 

Kaffir. 

Wanika — Pacomo — Wakambo — Msambara — Msequa — Sohili — Suwael, 
or Suwaheli — Makua — Meto — Maravi — Matalan — Kerimane, or Quilimane — 
Inhambane dialects — Zulu— Kaffir Proper — Bechuana, Bayeiye {of great Lake) 
— Heriro {on Atlantic about Wahoish Bay) — Benguela — Angola and Congo 
dialects — Gabdn dialects — Otam {of Old Calahar) and allied dialects. 

Bonny — Brass — Ibo — Benin and of Delta of Niger. 

Dahomey dialects — Anfue — Widah — Mahi — Acra, or Gha, and Adampi 
— Krepee or Kerrapay — Otshi dialects ; Akkim — Akwapim — Akwambu — 
Fanti (Fetu) Borom — Amina — Avekvom of Ivory Coast — Kru — Grebo — 
Bassa — Dewoi — Sokko — Kissi — Mendi — Vey — Mandingo — Bambarra — Jal- 
lunka. 

Ligurian, Venetian — Gamic. 



SEVENTH PRIMARY GROUP (European). 

I. (?)Bask. 

II. Indo-European (so-called). 
A. Keltic. 

B. — 1, Albanian or Skipitar. 
2. German. 

3. — A. Sarmatian — Sanskrit — Lithuanic— Slavonic. 
B.. Latin and Greek, &c. 



CHIEF AUTHORITIES 



WORKS ALLUDED TO. 



Adeluiig — Mitbridates. 

Alirens — De Graecse Lingnse Dialectis. 

Arago (Jacques Ktienne Victor) — Voyage antoor du Monde. 

Baer — Beitrage, &c. , Btissiaii America. 

Baibi — Introduction a I'Atlas Ethnologiqne. 

Balfour — Transactions of the Asiatic Society of BengaL Languages of 
"Wandering Tribes of India. 

Barth — Travels in Africa. 

Beitrage zur vei^leichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Grebrete der Arischen, 
Celtischen, iind Slawischen Sprachen heransg^eben von A. Kuhn und A. 
Schleicher, Berlin. 

Beke — Transactions of the Philological Society of London. Abyssinian 
languages. 

Belcher (Sir Edward) — Voyage of the Samarang. Appendix. 

Bille (Steen) — Reise urn Jorden i Korvetten Galathee. 

Biondelli — Saggio sui Dialetti Gallo-Italiani. 

Bleek — De Nominum Generibus Linguarum Africae Australia, Copticae, 
Semiticamm aliarumque sexualium. Bonnse, 1851. 

Papers in Transactions of the Philological Society of London. 

Bonaparte (Prince L. L). — Specimen Lexici Comparativi omnium Lin- 
guarum. Europsearum Parabola de Seminatore ex Evangelio Sancti Mathsei in 
Ixxii Europaeas Linguas versa. Ganticum Trium Puerorum in eleven Basque 
Dialects. Grallician, Sardinian, and other translations of the Gospel, &c. 

Brooke (Sir James) — Languages of Borneo. 

Brown — ^Transactions of Asiatic Society of Bengal. Languages of Assam, 
&c. 

Transactions of American Oriental Society. Naga Languages. 



XXX CHIEF AUTHORITIES AND 

Buchanan — Asiatic Transactions. Languages of Burmese Empire. 

Bulletin de la Classe Historico-Philologico de I'Academie Imperial des 
Sciences de St. Petersburg. 

Burchardt — Travels in Nubia. 

Buschman — In Berlin Transactions. Athabaskan, Mexican, Oalifomian, 
and Sonera languages. 

Caldwell — Grammar of the Dravirian Languages. 

Castelnau — Expedition dans les Parties Centrales de rAm^rique du Sud, 
&c. 

Castrdn — Buriat, Tongus, Samoyed, Yeniseian, Zirianian, Koibal and 
Karagas grammars. 

Clarke (John) — Specimens of Dialects, short vocabularies, &c., in Africa, 
1849. 

Crawfurd — Embassy to Ava ; to Siam ; Malay Dictionary ; Indian Archi- 
pelago. 

C rowther — Yoruba grammar and vocabulary. Edited by Bishop Vidal. 

Cunningham — Ladak. 

Denham — Narrative of Travels in North Africa. Begharmi and Mandara. 

D'Orbigny — L' Homme Americain. 

Eyre — Travels in Australia. 

Fitzroy (Admiral) — Voyage of the Beagle and Adventure. Appendix by 
Darwin. 

Forest — Voyage to New Guinea. 

Gkibelentz — Die Melanesischen Sprachen. TJeber de Formasanische Sprache, 
&c. 

Gallatin — In Archaeologia Americana, and Transactions of the American 
Ethnological Society. 

Gerard — see Lloyd. 

Gily — Saggio di Storia Americana, Otomaka, &c. 

Guimaraes (J. J. da Silva) — Diccionario da Lingua Geral dos Indies de 
Brasil, com di versos vocabularies, Bahia, 1854. 

Hahn — Albanesche Studien. 

Hale — Philology in the Exploring Expedition of the United States under 
Captain Wilkes. 

Hodgson (Brian)— Papers in Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Howse — Transactions of Philological Society of London, Kutani, and other 
vocabularies. 

Jukes — Voyage of the Fly. 

Jiilg — Litteratur de Granmatiken, Lexica und Wdrterversamlongen allers 
Spracken der Erde, 1847. 

King (Dr. Richard) — Bethuck Vocabulary — MS. 

Klaproth — Asia Polyglotta. 

Kolle — Bomu Grammar. 

Larramendi Diccionario Trilingue del Castellano, Vascuence, y Latina. 
1745. 

Leach — Vocabularies of the Deer, Tirhai, &c., in the Transactions of the 
Afliatic Society of Bengal. 



WORKS ALLUDED TO. xxxi 

Leake— Travels in the Morea. 

Leyden — Asiatic Researches, Indo-Chinese Languages. 

Lisiansky — Voyage round the World. 

Logan — Papers in Journal of the Indian Archipelago. 

Ludwig — The Literature of the American Aboriginal Langnages. 

MacgUlivray — Voyage of the Rattlesnake. 

lIsTsden — History of Sumatra — Miscellaneous Works. 

Michel Franscique — Le Pays Basque, Paris. 

Molina — Luis de Neve, Grammatica, Ragionata della Lingua Otomi con un 
Yocabulario Spagnuolo, Italiano, Otomi. 

Mosbleck — Vocabulaire Oceanien Fran^ais et Fran^ais Oceanien des dia- 
lectes x)artes aux Isles Marquises, Sandwich, Grambier, kc 

MiiUer, Max — Lectures on the Science of Language. Paper in Transactions 
of the British Association for the Advancement of SciencSe. 

Newbold — Settlements in the Malayan Peninsula. 

Osculati — Explorazione, kc, Zapara. 

Petherick — Egypt, Soudan, &c. Nyamnam and Dor. 

Pottinger — Travels in Beluchistan. 

Baffles (Sir Stamford) — History of Java, Appendix. 

Richardson (Dr.) — Expedition in Search of Sir J. Franklin. 

Ridley — Transactions of the Philological Society of London. Kamilaroi 
Language. 

Riis — Elemente des Akwapim Dialects der Odschi Sprache. 

Rosen — On the Iron, Lazic, Circassian, and Georgian. 

Riippell — Reisen in Kordovan. 

Salt — Travels in Abyssinia. 

Scherzer (Dr. Earl) — Sprachen der Indianer Central Americas, Wien, 
1855. 

Schleicher — Handbuch der Lithauischen Sprache. 

Schoolcraft — Indian Tribes. 

Scouler — Transactions of the Royal Ge<^raphica1 Society. Or^oa and 
Hudson's Bay Country Vocabularies, collected by Mr. Tolmie. 

Smith (Buckingham)— Grammar of the Heve (Eudeve) language translated 
from a Sjtanish MS. 

Spinel — Grammatik der Huzvareschen Sprache. Grammatik der Parsi 
Sprache. 

Squier — Transactions of American Ethnological Society. On Central 
America (Spanish Translation, in which alone the vocabularies for the Lenca 
dialects are to be found). Monograph of Authors who have written on the 
Languages of Central America, &c. 

Stewart — Transactions of Asiatic Society of BengaL Naga and other lan- 
guages. 

Tasmanian Journal of Natural History. 

Tattam .Egyptian Grammar — Lexicon .Sgyptiaco-Latinum. 

Tolmie — See Scouler. 

Turner (Professor) — Report, &c. 



xxxii CHIEF AUTHORITIES, ETC. 

Tutschek, Lawrence, M.D. — A Grammar of the Galla Language, Munich, 
1845. 

Wallace — Narrative of Travels on the Amazon. 

Williams (Monier) — Sanskrit Grammar. 

Wilson (H. H.) — Ariana Antiqua. Papers in Transactions of Asiatic 
Society. 

Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gehiete Deutschen, 
Griechischen und Lateinischen — Herausgegeben von D. A. Kuhn, Berlin. 



EEEATA. 

Page 154, line \—for mulwennet read muvreim^t ; for ^igdavas read tiSdavas. 

i—for giat read giat ; for Muvvenet read Muw^unet ; for kivi ra6pahiUa read 

kiri-ruSppahilla. 
&—for mn&dda read niu^da. 
ir-for mnassar^ai muossa; for Pairaz^n read Fairaz^ ; for aardana&t rtad 

uardonnot. 

6 — comma after mnalla. 

Page 643, line 22— ^br accuntessin read accuntessin. 

23— ^br Enn read K un. 

26— /or nascin read nasciu. 

28 — for uascin re<id nasciu. 

29 — insert comma after s'orienti, and/or ad'adorai read dd'adorai. 
Dele (3) The Northern Sardinian. 

In Matt. ii. 1, 2, deU (Logudore); substitute comma for fall-point at end of v. 1, 
and dele inverted commas in verse 2. 
Page 644, line 1— Insert (3) Xortiiem Sardinian. 

lu the Tempiese version of Ruth L 1, for Alu read A. In : for giudiei (in two places) 
read giadici ; and for cuman daaui read cninandaani. 
Matt, ii 1,—for regnana read regnava ; and substitute comma for full-stop at end. 
Verse 2 — comma between quellu and ch' ; for nalu read natu ; for Vistula read 
vistu la ; and for setter read Stella. 
Page 646, insert Galiciau at the head of the version of Matt. n. 1-6. 

Matt. ii. 1-6. verse \—for aque read aqui ; comma at end for foil-point 

'i—for Xiidios read .vndios ; for su read sua ; for habemos read habemos ; for 

cbegada read chegado; and /or adorarlo read adoralo. 
^—foT tndas read loUos ; for principes read principes. 
5 — -commence Ao cal eles responderon : En Helen, Jfcc. 
Page 656, Corsican Greek, verse 12— /br airo atrrous read oirb 8'avTovs. 
Page 667, verse \—for traouennou read traouieniiou. 
%—for a at end of first line read ar. 
Page 668, Terse 3— /or wezen read wezen ; for avalore rtad avalou; for ^vel-se read evel-se ; 
for genou read genou. 
i—for karantez read kara/itez. 
Vannetais verse l—for e-'ma read e-ma. 

Z—for que retid gue ; for 6 read e in two places in first line ; in the second, 
for Azeet read Azeet ; for quel read gnet ; for vourradiqaeah read vonr- 
radigueah ; in the third, /br i read e ; for freh read freh ; for ofc read oe. 
^—for o4 read oe ; for carante read curante. 
Page 683, Ordinary Biscayan, Na l—for izarrah read izarrak. 
14— /or ednrrah read edurrak. 
IS — for Gawak read Gauak. 
Ochandian, No. \—for obea read obra ; for eisukn read eisnbe. 
Marquenese, No. 1— /or aluban read alabaa ; for goztige read gnztjjen. 
Page 6&4, 3— /or Junnaren read Jaunaren . 

^—for gaiiian read gaflian ; for gustijak read gnztijak. 
9r—for guztgak r^aa guztijak. 
9- for gustijak read guztijik. 
13 and 14— /or lyotza read Izotza. 
Guipnacoan Central, No. i—for ganian read gaiiian. 

9— /or Jaungoiknaren read Jaungtuknaren. 
Guipuscoan (2), No. 5 — for goziok read guziak. 
Page 685, Upper Navarre, No. 1— /or guziat read guziak ; for ganetik read gafietik. 
^—for oirin read direu. 
14— /or etnrrah read ehirrak. 

15— /br Gavak read Gaoak ; for egnanak read egtmak. 
Labnrtanian, No. \—for gainetek read gHinetik. 

Z—for Aingeruiak read Aingeruak. 
Z—for Zeruah read Zeruak. 
8 — dele and. 

9— for iziritu read izpiritu. 
10—^ San read Sua. 
12— /or Nointzak read Intzak. 
14— /or elhurrah read elharrak. 
15— /or Ganak read Gauak. 
Lower Navarre (Baigorres), No. 1, line \—for zaii. Zari Yanna rtad ixa. Yaona. 
'i—for zazi read zazi. 
No. &—for Tuzkia read luzkia. 
Page 686, Lower Navarre (Baigorres), Na l—for izzarak read izarrak. 

13— /or notza read hotza. 
14— /or Khairoina read Kharoina. 
15 — for Ganak read Gauak. 
Lower Navarre (Mixe), No. i—for uu read ur. 

9— -for Yinkuain read Yinkuain. 
15— /or Ganak read Gauak. 
Sooie (French), No. i—for gafiendiren read gafien direu. 
6— for argizazia read argizagia. 
l—for izarrah read izarrak. 
12— /or Thitznk read Ihitzak ; for benedik read benedik*. 
13— /or benedik read benedik'. 

14 -for eUmrrah read elhiirrak ; for benedik read benedik'. 
la— for egumak read egiinak. 
Sonle (Spanish), No. 1— /or guziah read guziak. 
Page 687, » 4— /or danden nfaidauieo. 

12 —for armsoda read ariosada. 
Vi—for lyotza read Izotza. 
14— /or eiorrah read elorrak. 



COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY. 



CHAPTER I. 

Dialects and Languages. — Stages of Languages. — General Distribution.— 
Large, Small, and Medium Areas. — Insular and Continental Distri- 
bution. — Obliteration of Intermediate Forms. — Classification by Type 
and Definition. — General View of Seren Great DiTisions. — The Class 
Natural. 

There are slight differences of speech between members 
of the same family. Between different villages and 
towns they increase, and they become greater still, when 
there is a difference of tribe, clan, or nationality. What 
this difference consists in varies with the cu'cum- 
stance of the case. It may be a difference of words, or 
it may be a difference of pronunciation. Let a Scotch- 
man, an Irishman, and an Enghshman, utter a series of 
sentences, consisting of exactly the same words, and a 
difference of some kind or other will be the result — a 
difference which some may call a difference of tone, 
others, one of accent ; a difference for which the name 
may be doubtful ; but, at the same time, a difference 
which would make the speeches, if heard at a distance 
too great to allow the exact words to be heard, look 
like speeches in three different languages. 

When differences of this kind reach a certain point, 
they constitute dialects ; and when two forms of speech 
differ so much as to be mutually unintelligible the result 
is two different laTiguages. Such, at least, is the rule in a 

B 



2 DIALECTS AND LANGUAGES. 

rough form. I say in a rough form, because both dialect 
and language are vernacular, rather than technical, 
terms ; terms, which, in some cases, mean less than in 
others ; terms of which no exact definition has been given. 
Nor is it recommended. On the contrary, latitude must 
be allowed. So much depends upon the nature of the 
subject spoken about, and so much on the aptitude of 
the individuals speaking, that it is difficult to say when 
mutual unintelligibility begins. Two dull men from 
different parts of the same country may be puzzled over 
an out-of-the-way proposition, where a quick wit, with 
a simple question, would make easy work of things. 
When we talk of two dialects being either mutually 
unintelligible, or the contrary, we should think of this. 
The dialect itself is but one point. The speaker gives 
us another : the subject under speech the third. 

Sooner or later, however, the line of mutual intelligi- 
bility is passed, whether for quick ears or slow, whether 
for simple questions or complex ones ; and then we have, 
under all conditions, a change of language. Many a 
language, however, is little more than a dialect, with its 
dignity augmented through certain extreme circumstances. 
Its alphabet (for instance) may be peculiar. It may 
represent a different nationality. Its culture may be 
independent. A Dane and a Swede can understand each 
other ; but the Danish can no more be called a dialect 
of the Swedish, than the Swedish can be called a dialect 
of the Danish. 

It is safe, however, to consider such forms of speech 
as are, in all cases, mutually unintelligible as different 
languages ; and it would be scientific to treat each such 
language as a philological unit, of which the dialects 
and subdialects are the fractions. I say that this would 
be scientific ; but I do not say that it would be conve- 
nient, or, in all cases, practicable. We cannot, as has 
just been stated, call such forms of speech as the Danish 
and Swedish dialects : nor yet the Spanish and Portu- 



STAGES OF LANGUAGE. 3 

guese, nor yet many others. The philological relations 
allow, the political relations forbid, us to do so. 

The limitation at the other extremity is somewhat 
more practicable ; though it is, by no means, without its 
complications. That certain forms of speech, which, in 
common parlance, are called dialects rather than lan- 
guages, are mutually unintelligible, I believe ; though, at 
the same time, I am sure that they are rarer than is 
supposed. Are these to be called languages ? If so, it 
is very possible that there may be more than one lan- 
guage in both Italy and Germany ; in both Spain and 
France ; possibly in both England and Scotland. How 
far this is actually the case is another matter. The 
question now under notice is the application of certain 
terms to certain cases. It must not be too strict where 
the form of speech is new, and the class to "which it 
belongs has been but little studied. We may say that 
every mutually unintelligible form of speech supplies us 
with a fi*esh language ; and, in languages of this kind, 
Afiica and the New World abound. They are con- 
veniently called languages, because we have never been 
in the habit of talking about them as dialects ; in fact, 
we have hardly talked about them at all. 

If the phenomena of transition create difficulties in 
our classification when we look to the geography of our 
languages and dialects, still more do they do so when 
we take cognizance of them in time. Changes of some 
sort are always going on ; and, as long as any language 
lasts, such changes affect it — in the course of a single 
generation but little, in the course of many genera- 
tions, much. The result of this is, that extreme forms 
differ notably ; intermediate ones notably or slightly, as 
the case may be, i.e. as they approach each other. At 
the point of contact, the difference is imperceptible. 
The Latin of Ennius, and the Italian of Leopardi, are 
the extremes of a loncj chain. So is the English of 
the present writer and the Anglo-Saxon of ./Elfric. 

b2 



4 DISTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGES. 

That each gives us a different language is beyond doubt, 
but it is also beyond doubt that there lias been no 
period in the history of either the Italian or the English 
when the speech of the grandson was unintelligible to 
the grandfather, and vice versa. 

Next to the difference between dialects, languages, and 
groups, comes the notice of the general phenomena con- 
nected with their distribution over the earth's surface. 
They may be studied in any one of the great continents. 
They may be studied in the islands of the Indian Ocean 
and the Pacific. They repeat themselves. Sometimes 
there is a vast area with only a single language cover- 
ing it. Sometimes there is a multiplicity of mutually 
unintelligible forms of speech within the limits of a 
narrow area. We find the illustration of this in poli- 
tics. There are large homogeneous kingdoms, like 
France. There is a concatenation of petty principalities, 
like the German states. Hence, there are areas charac- 
terized by uniformity of language spread over a large 
surface ; and areas characterized by a multiplicity of 
mutually unintelligible forms of speech spread over a 
small one. Besides which, there are languages of a 
moderate, or medium, area. 

Some of these areas are continental, i. e. extend over 
vast tracts of continuous land. Sometimes they are 
oceanic, or spread over islands, archipelagoes, and chains 
of archipelagoes. Between these two there is one im- 
portant difference. Languages of a continent touch 
each other at their circumferences and may or may not 
graduate into each other. Languages of an archipelago 
are definitely bounded. We always know where their 
circumference is limited. The limit is the sea, and the 
sea is mute. 

The continental areas lead to another matter for con- 
sideration. Why are the small, small ? and the great, 
great ? 

Whatever may be the extent of the following fact, it 



GROUPS. 5 

is for certain great districts, an undeniable one. The 
present writer may extend it further than others. 
Every one, however, recognizes it as a fact of some ex- 
tent, greater or less. Particular languages spread and 
obliterate intermediate forms, and when these interme- 
diate forms are obliterated, languages, originally different, 
come in contact. The lines of demarcation then be- 
come clear and clean. 

At the present moment tliere are three languages 
connected with each other indirectly, and that not very 
remotely ; but, still, when compared with the inter- 
mediate forms, separate, substantive languages — lan- 
guages which no one can confound with each other. They 
are the French of Paris, the Italian of Florence, the 
Castilian of Madrid — three lettered and literary lan- 
guages. The provincial forms of all these are both 
numerous and well-marked, and at the circumferences of 
their several areas they stand in strong contrast to the 
central forms. In still stronger contrast do the northern 
and southern, the eastern and the w&stern patois stand to 
each other, e. g. the Bearnais to the Walloon, the Cala- 
brian to the Sardinian, the Murcian to the Gallician — 
the Gallician being, though a dialect of Spain, almost as 
much Portuguese as Spanish. With differences like 
these, it is probable that on the French and Spanish, 
and the French and Itahan fi-ontiers there may be 
dialects of which the philological position is ambigu- 
ous ; dialects which, whilst they gi'aduate towards the 
French of Paris in one direction, are intelligible to the 
speakers of dialects which graduate in the Castilian and 
the Florentine on the other. Such is actually the case. 
There is more than one patois of French Savoy which 
may pass for a form of the Northern Itahan ; but, on 
the other hand, there are many dialects of Northern 
Italy which may be called French. Again, there are 
forms of the Provengal which are quite as Spanish as 
French. 



6 CLASSIFICATION. 

The line, then, of demarcation is in some cases ob- 
scure or faint. Yet the forms of speech are grouped. 
This is done by arranging them round some centre, and 
calling them French, Italian, or Spanish, as the case 
may be. To do this, is to classify according to type. 
In this way the dialects of the French, and many other 
languages may be classified : indeed, it is to dialects, or 
languages that approach them, that the classification by 
type best applies. The main languages, however, are 
classified by definition, i. e. by such clear and un- 
doubted lines of demarcation as separate the English 
fi-om the German, the Swedish from the Dutch. Between 
these there is no doubtful frontier. 

Thougli it cannot be denied that a classification of 
languages, according to the extent to which they simply 
bear a likeness to each other, is practicable, it may 
safely be said that, for all the ordinary classifications, they 
go upon likeness, and something more. They go upon 
either a real or supposed a^nity. Nor is this difi'er- 
ence unimportant. There is, between most languages, a 
certain amount of likeness independent of any historical 
connection. This means that a certain number of words 
in different languages will be, more or less, like each 
other, not because two or more tongues have borrowed 
and lent, nor yet because one mother-tongue is at the 
bottom of the whole, but because the human organism 
(by which is meant the mind and the organs of speech 
taken together), under certain conditions, acts with a 
certain amount of regularity. 

Again — languages, between which the relationship or 
historical connection may be of the slightest, may re- 
semble each other in points of great importance, simply 
because they are both in the same stage of growth or 
development. 

Tiie historical philologue looks upon languages and 
dialects, as a genealogist looks upon sons and nephews, 
uncles and cousins. If the family likeness coincide 



CLASSIFICATION. 7 

with any nearness of kimnanship, well and good ; but 
it is not necessary that it do so. The grandson may 
resemble the grandfather, rather than the father, and first 
cousins may be hker each other than brothers and sisters. 
If so, he takes the hkeness as he finds it. He takes it 
as he finds it ; inasmuch as it is a family tree, rather 
than a family pictm-e, with which he deals. 

In one important point, however, this comparison 
foils. The philologue who looks upon languages from the 
historical point of view has, in most cases, to infer the 
relationship from the likeness : in this respect resem- 
bling the genealogist who is taken, into a picture-gallery 
and required to ascertain the degrees of relationship from 
the similarity of feature or expression ; assisted in some 
respect by the style of painting, the dress of the indivi- 
dual, and other adjuncts. 

For historical pui-poses the important parts of a lan- 
guage are the details ; the details in the way of its 
words, glosses, roots, or vocables ; its nouns and verbs ; 
its adverbs and pronoims. Where these are common to 
two languages, the chances are that the actual relationship 
is in proportion to the extent of the community. This 
means that 50 per cent, implies a closer afiinity than 40, 
40 than 30; and so on. I give these figures chiefly for 
the sake of illustration. Of the application of the nu- 
merical system in general, I have no great experience — 
except (of course) in a rough way. No percentage, how- 
ever, is conclusive. To say this, is merely to say that 
there are difiierent rates, at which languages alter. If 
so — the one which either drops or changes the meaning 
of three words per annum will lose its likeness to the 
common mother- tongue, sooner than its congener which 
drops or changes the same number in a decennium. Per- 
centages, then, give presumptions only. When the.se 
coincide with the geographical relations they improve. 

With these preliminaries, we may lay the map of the 
world before us, and mark out seven great areas ; — ^seven 



8 CLASSIFICATION. 

great areas coinciding with seven long and broad lines of 
definite and decided demarcation. Two of these, being 
effected by the ocean, rather than by displacement and 
obliteration, command less importance than the rest. 
They cut-off the New World in the west ; and the islands 
of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific in the south. For the 
present, then, little need be said about either A merica or 
Oeeanica. Neither does Africa require any immediate 
notice. Its Peninsular character simplifies its philology. 

The other four areas lie in the great central nucleus 
of Europe and Asia combined — Europe and Asia — Asia 
and Europe. For the purposes of ethnology they form 
but a single continent. 

The Western division is the one with which we are 
most familiar. It is bounded on the south and west by 
the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the German Ocean ; 
on the north, by the line which divides Norway and 
Sweden from Lapland and Finland. The Gulf of 
Bothnia then follows, dividing Sweden and Finland. 
Finland, though deeply indented by both Russia and 
Germany, is not left behind us before we reach the 
frontier of the Government of Vitepsk, whence our line 
is continued along those of Smolensk, Moscow, Vladimir, 
Riazan, Orlov, Voronezh, and Don Kosaks (in none 
of which any language other than Russian is spoken), 
until we reach the sea of Azov ; after which the Black 
Sea, tlie Sea of Marmora, and the Greek Archipelago, 
lead us to the Mediterranean, with which we started. 
This includes Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Ger- 
many, the valley of the Danube, and Greece — allowance 
being made for the Turk and Hungarian, which are 
intrusive. All this really means Europe minus Lap- 
land, Finland, and those Governments of Russia, in 
which Ugrian languages in fragments still continue to 
be spoken. The displacements that break up any pos- 
sible transitions, which may originally have existed, are 
nearly all effected by the encroachment of one language 



CLASSIFICATION. 9 

— the Russian ; the nearest approach to the original 
status being in Yilna ; where the Lithuania come almost 
in contact with the Fin. 

The great Northern area is, in Russia, conterminous 
with the western ; TJgrian being spoken (in fragments, 
and on spots hke islands in a Russian Sea) in Curland, 
Livonia, Estonia, St. Petei-sburg, Novogorod, Tver, Vo- 
logda, Viatka, Nizhni Novogorod, Kazan, Penza, Tam- 
bov, Saratov, and Astrakhan. Its southern boundary- 
is the northern ridge of Caucasus. Then comes the 
Caspian Sea ; then the frontier between the Turks and 
the Pei-sians ; then the western and northern boundary 
of Tibet ; then the western and northern ones of China. 
This gives us the eastern part of European Russia, the 
Governments of Caucasus and Orenburg ; Siberia, Mon- 
golia, and Mantshuria. The boundary then becomes the 
Sea of Okhotsk, and the northern parts of the Pacific up 
to Behring's Straits. This means — roughly speaking — 
northern Asia, with a large part of Europe. 

The chief displacements here have been effected by 
the spread of the Turk language ; which on the Ea^t has 
done, in the way of the obliteration of possible tran- 
sitions, all that has been done by the Russian — all ; 
if not more. 

The South-eastern area (we unconsciously, but not 
inconveniently, adopt the phraseology of the railway 
engineer) begins with the northern frontier of China ; 
and, as far as China and Tibet are concerned, is conter- 
minous with the Northern, until we reach the extremity 
of Tibet. It there, (or thereabouts,) crosses the Hima- 
layas, so as to include Nepaul, and the Sub-hiraalayan 
turais, and, at the head of the Bay of Bengal, takes the 
sea as its boundary. After this, the coast (with the ex- 
ception of the Malayan Peninsula) leads us round Ava, 
Siam, and Cochin-China, to the original stai-ting-point 
near Pekin. The displacements here have been effected 
by the Chinese and the Tibetan. The area included 



10 CLASSIFICATION. 

gives Tibet, Nepaul, the Trangangetic Peninsula, Asam, 
Siam, Pegu, Cambogia, Cochin-China, and China, 

The South-western area contains India, Persia, and 
Caucasus ; and the displacing languages here are the 
Indian, the Persian, and the Arabian ; the latter -being 
treated as African. Whether African or Asiatic, it 
covers an enormous area, and has effected corresponding 
displacements. The fact of its having done this is all 
that is now under notice. 

1. The languages of the Western group are all in an 
advanced stage of development. 

2. The languages of the Northern group are all in a 
Tnedium state of development. 

3. The languages of the South-eastern group are all 
in an early stage of development. 

With a view to their stage, the first are called Inflec- 
tional, the second Agglutinate, the third Monosyllabic. 

There are a few exceptions to this statement. As a 
rule, however, it holds good. 

To enlarge upon this would be to anticipate. A 
notice, however, is by no means superfluous. It helps 
to show that the groups are natural. So does the fact 
that most of the languages of the first class are what 
is called Indo-European ; most of the languages of the 
second what is called Turanian. 



TIBETAIT, BHOT, AND BURMESE LANGUAGES. 11 



CHAPTER II. 

Bhot and Burmese Group. — Bhot of Bultistan, Ladak, Tibet Proper, and 
Butan. — Written and Spoken. — Local Dialect?. — Changlo. — Serpa. — 
Tak. — Maniak . — Gyamng. — Tochu. — Ilor. 

Nowhere is it more necessary to remember the difference 
between classification by the way of type and glassifica- 
tion by the way of definition than it is in the field 
upon which we are now entering ; the field upon which 
we break ground in regard to the detiiils of our subject. 
Roughly speaking, this is that part of Asia which con- 
tains Tibet and the Burmese Empire — a large and 
irregular tract of country exhibiting great extremes 
both in its political and its physical character. What 
it is that connects them in the way of Philology we 
shall see as we proceed. 

If we look on to the predominant languages of this 
vast region, and compare only the literary language of 
Tibet with the literary language of Ava, nothing is 
much easier than to draw clear and definite lines of de- 
marcation between them. They are, at least, as diffe- 
rent from each other as the Italian of Florence and the 
French of Paris. But this is only because the forms 
which we compare are extreme ones. The details of 
the local dialects give us a very different result. They 
give us, instead of neat and clean masses of separable 
languages, transitions of various kinds and in numerous 
directions ; in other words, they preclude the classifica- 
tion by definition, and force us upon classification by 

The philological boundaries of Tibet are better 
known than the geographical ; in other words, we 
know, with the exception of the details of the extreme 



12 TIBETAN, BHOT, AND BURMESE LANGUAGES. 

east, all the languages with which the Bhot is conter- 
minous. At its western extremity it is bounded by the 
Cashmirian and the Dard, on the north-west by the 
Turk of Chinese Turkestan, on the north-east by the 
Mongolian, on the south by the Hindi, the Nepaul forms 
of speech, the Dhimal, the Bodo, and the Garo. The 
mountains that bound the valley of Asam to the north 
are, more or less," Bhot. But of these, more will be said 
in the sequel. 

The word Bhot, or Bhotiya, meaning a Tibetan, is 
the root of the words Butan and Bultistan ; Bultistan 
being the Persian for the land of the Bultis, i. e. Little 
Tibet. 

In Bultistan, the creed is Mahometan, the frontier 
Turk and Indian, the blood (apparently) more Paropar- 
misan than the language. Of the literature and the 
dialects I can say nothing, having seen no written com- 
positions from Little Tibet. Neither can I say whether 
the alphabet is exclusively Arabic. The dialect, how- 
ever, for which we have any specimens, is that of Ladak ; 
that of Ladak being that of Tibet in general. 

In Ladak, both the creed and literature are Buddhist, 
and the blood seems to be as purely Bhot as tlie lan- 
guage. The political relations, however, are with British 
India and Cashmir, rather than with China ; and it is 
only when we reach the Chinese parts of Tibet that 
we find the Bhot characteristics at the onaximum. 
Here are preserved, in innumerable monasteries, heaps 
upon heaps of Buddhist literature, in which translations 
from the Sanskrit take an inordinate degree of promi- 
nence. The alphabet in which they are written may 
date from the second century. It is of Indian origin; 
though, in its present state, a well-marked variety. 

Between the Tibetan as it is written, and the Tibetan 
as it is spoken, it is usual to draw a broad distinction, 
inasmuch as the former either actually preserves, or 
appears to preserve, a number of letters with which 





TIBETAN. 




the latter dispenses. 


These are 


! exhibitec 


type. 






English. 


■VTrilten Tibetan. 


Spoken Tibetan. 


Man 


mi 


mi 


Head 


mgo 


go 


Hair 


skra 


kra 


Eye 


mig 


mik 


Ear 


sa 


amch 


Tooth 


so 


so 


Blood 


khrag 


thak 


Bone 


ruspa 


ruko 


Hand 


kgpa 


lango 


Foot 


r kangpa 


kango 


Sun 


nyima 


nyima 


Moon 


2 lava 


dawa 


Star 


8 karma 


karma 


Fire 


me 


me 


Water 


cbha 


cLhu 


Stone 


rdo 


do 


Tree 


I jonshing 


shingdong 


One 


fifchig 


cbik 


Two 


gnjia 


nyi 


Three 


gsam 


sum 


Four 


5zlii 


zliyi 


Five 


hna 


gna 


Six 


druk 


thu 


Seven 


idim 


dan 


Eight 


6i:gyud 


gye 


Nine 


dga 


gak 


Ten 


6chu 


chn 


— 


thamba 


— 



13 



Butan differs from Tibet Proper, chiefly in being 
more open to influences from India. The Butanis call 
themselves Lhopa. 

Another, and a more extreme form of tlie Eastern 
Bhot, is the language of Takyul, or the land of the 
Tak, or Takpa, which is the country marked Towang 
and Towang Raj in the ordinary maps. 



English. 


Lhopa. 


Takpa. 


Man 


mi 


men 


Head 


gutoh 


gokti 


Hair 


kya 


pu 


Eye 


mido 


melong 


Ear 


navo 


neblap 



14 





TAKPA, ETC. 




English. 


Lhopa. 


Takpa. 


Tooth 


Boh 


wall 


Blood 


tliyak 


khra 


Bone 


rutok 


Tospa 


Hand 


lappa 


la 


Foot 


kanglep 


leme 


Sun 


nyim 


plang 


Moon 


dau 


leh 


Star 


kam 


karma 


Fire 


6ii 


meh 


Water 


chhu 


chhi 


Stone 


doh 


gorr 


Tree 


shing 


shendong 


One 


Che 


the 


Two 


nye 


UBi. 


Three 


sum 


warn 


Four 


zhi 


pli 


Five 


gna 


liagni 


Six 


dhu 


kro 


Seven 


dun 


nis 


Eight 


gye 


gyet 


Nine 


gu 


duga 


Ten 


Chatham 


paki 



Further to the South, in contact with the language of 
Nepaul, is spoken the Serpa which seems to be all but 
actual Bhot. 



English. 


Serpa. 


English. 


Serpa. 


Man 


mi 


Hand 


lango 


Head 


go 


Foot 


kango 


Hair 


ta 


Sky 


nam 


Eye 


mik 


Sun 


nimo 


Ear 


amchuk 


Moon 


oula 


Tooth 


so 


Star 


karma 


Blood 


thak 


Water 


chhd 


Bone 


ruba 


Stone 


doh. 



Beside the Bultistani, Ladaki, Thibetan, and Butani 
varieties, there are several local dialects, of which, as may 
be supposed, we know but little. In Lower Kunawer 
the language is Indian rather than Bhot ; but in Upper 
Kunawer there are the Kanet dialects and sub-dialects. 
In Rampur, Milchan* is the word for the language in 
general of the parts around, so that the Milchan is the 

* Probably the Hindu Mlech. 



MILCH AX. 



15 



language of the distiict ; of which the Lubrung (or 
Kanam) and the Lidung (or Lippa) are varieties. Mean- 
while Theburskud denotes a provincial dialect, such as 
that of Sugaum, and others. 



English. 


Milchan, 


Thebnisknd. 


Sdmchd. 


Man 


mi 


mi 


me 


Women 


chisml 


eshri 


esplung 


Head 


bul 


pisha 


pisha 


Tmigue 


le 


le 


le 


Bye 


mfk 


m6 


ml 


Ear 


kanung 


mpung 


repong 


Foot 


bung 


bunk 


bonkun 


Sun 


yune 


ne 


nimok 


Moon 


gulsung 


gulsung 


gulsung 


Star 


skara 


karma 


karma 


One 


it 


te 


it 


Two 


nish 


nlshj 


nish 


Three 


s(im 


B(un 


hum 


Four 


pu 


pi 


pu 


Five 


gna 


gnai 


gna 


Ten 


saf 


ch6i 


sa 


The Infinitives run as follows : — 






In Milchan . 


. . lonkmih or 


lonhmig 




— Lippa , . 


, . lodenK' or 


lodeiit 




— Kanam 


. . logma 






— S6gnum . 


. . lopang 






— Sumchu . 


. . lomma or 


loma. 



The following language, though Bhot, 
graphically and politically to Nepaul 



Engiish. 


Thaksya. 


Man 


makai 


Bead 


ta 


Hair 


chham 


Hand 


yayathiu 


Eye 


mi 


Foot 


malethin male 


Blood 


ka 


Bone 


nati 


Ear 


hna 


Tooth 


gyo 


Day 


sar 


Sum, 


ghai^gni 


Moon 


latigna 


Star 


Bar 



h Bhot, 
lul. 


belongs geo 


EngUih. 


Tbaksya. 


Fire 


hme 


Water 


kya 


Tree 


ghytmg 


One 


di 


Two 


gni 


Three 


8om 


Four 


bla 


Five 


gna 


Six 


tu 


Seven 


gnes 


Eight 


bhre 


Nine 


ka 


Ten 


chyu 



16 



GYARUNG, ETC. 



One of the Blitan dialects is known under the name 
Changlo. It is spoken in the North-east, apparently 
in contact with some of the languages of the Asam 
mountaineers. 

The Chinese call certain rude tribes in the south-east 
of Tibet, and (consequently) to the north-west of their 
own frontier, Si/an, a term said to mean Western Bar- 
barian. 

The area to which this name applies is anything 
but well marked. A line drawn from the Koko Nor to 
the frontier of Yunnan will pass through it. But the 
frontier of Yunnan is a long one. The Thochu, Man- 
yak, and Gyarung vocabularies belong to this district ; 
all being, inter alia, collected through the exertions of 
Mr. Hodgson, 

Of these, the Manyak lies to the south, the Gyarung 
in the centre, and the Thochu to the north. I have 
little hesitation in saying that, though Chinese in 
respect to their political relations, and Tibetan in re- 
spect to their geography, thes& three forms of speech 
are as much Burmese as Bhot. 



English. 


Changlo. 


Gyarung. 


Manyak. 


Thochu. 


Man 


songo 


tir-mi 


ohhoh 


nah 


Head 


sharang 


ta-ko 


wulli 


kapat 


Hair 


cham 


tarni 


mui 


hompa 


Eye 


ming 


tai-mek 


mne 


kan 


Ear 


na 


time 


napi 


nukh 


Tooth. 


shla 


ti-swe 


phwih 


sweh 


Blood 


yi 


ta-shi 


shah 


sah 


Bone 


khang 


syarhu 


rukhu 


ripat 


Hand 


gadang 


tayak 


lapcheh 


jipah 


Foot 


bi 


tami 


lipchheh 


jako 


Shy 


ngam 


tu-mon 


mah 


mahto 


Sun 


lani 


kini 


nyima 


mun 


Moon 


murgeng 


tsi-le 


leh 


chhap 


Star 


mi 


tsine 


krah 


ghada 


Fire 


ri 


ti-mi 


sameh 


meh 


Water 


lung 


ti-cM 


dyah 


chah 


Stone 


shing 


rugu 


wobi 


gholopi 


One 


thur 


kate 


tabi 


aii 


Two 


nyik-ching 


kanes 


nabi 


gnari 





THE HOR. 






English. 


Changlo. 


Gyanmg. 


Manjak. 


Thoclm. 


Three 


sam 


kasam 


sibi 


ksiri 


Four 


hhi 


kadi 


rebi 


gzari 


Fire 


nga 


kunggno 


gnabi 


wari 


Six 


khung 


kutok 


trubi 


khatari 


Seren 


zum 


koshnes 


skwibi 


staii 


Eight 


yen 


oryet 


zibi 


khiari 


Nine 


ga 


kanggu 


gubi 


rgani 


Ten 


shong, se 


sih 


chechibi 


paduri. 



17 



The Hor, or Horpa, occupy tbe western pai-t of 
Northern Tibet and pai-ts of Chinese Tartar}', or Little 
Bokhara, and Dzungaria. They decidedly touch both 
the Turk and Mongol areas ; and, as they are nomads 
rather than agriculturalists, they are more Tartar in 
habit than Tibetan, At the same time, their language 
is Bhot ; and so, to a great extent, is their creed. The 
major part is Buddhist : though there are some Maho- 
metans amongst them — a few within the frontier of 
Tibet ; more beyond it. To some of these the Tibetans 
apply the name Khachhe ; which is, word for word, the 
Chinese Kao-tse. They call themselves, however, /^m 7' ; 
and from this, along with a few other facts of less im- 
portance, I look upon them as Turks in blood, though 
Bhot in language. 



English. 


Hor. 


1%etaii. 


Uigur. 


Man 


Tzih 


mi 


er, kishi 


Head 


gho 


go 


bash 


Hair 


spu 


k» 


Eatsh 


Eye 


mo 


mik 


knsi 


Ear 


nyo 


amcho 


kniak 


Tooth 


syo 


80 


tish 


Blood 


sye 


Uak 


khan 


Bone 


rera 


nko 


snn^uki 


Hand 


Iha 


lango 


ilik 


Foot 


ko 


kango 


adakhi 


Sly 


koh 


namkh&li 


tengri 


Sun 


gna 


nyima 


kun 


Moon 


slikno 


dawa 


ai 


Star 


sgre 


karma 


yuldns 


Fire 


nmab 


me 


oot 


Water 


hrah 


chha 


saw 


Stone 


rgame 


do 


tash 



18 







THE HOR. 




EiigUsli. 


Hor. 


Tibetan. 


Uigur. 


Tree 


nah 


shindong 


yikhati 


One 


ra 


chik 


Mr 


Two 


gre 


nyi 


iH 


Three 


BU 


sum 


ntsh 


Four 


pla 


zhyi 


tort 


Five 


gwe 


gna 


bish 


Six 


chh.i 


thu 


alty 


Seven 


zne 


dun 


yidi 


Fight 


rliiee 


gye 


sekis 


Nine 


go 


guh 


toclius 


Ten 


sga 


chuh 


on. 



The details of tlie Tibetan, where it comes in contact 
with the languages of the Paropamisus, are obscure. 
They will be noticed in the sequel. 



NEPAUL AND SIKKIM. 3 9 



CHAPTER III. 

Nepalese and Sitkim Languages. — Gomng andMnrmi. — Magu' and Bramhu. 
— Chepang. — Hayu. — Kusunda. — Newar and Pahari. — Kiranti and 
Limbo. — Lepcha. — Dhimal. — Bodo. — Graro. — Borro.— Sunwar. 

It is convenient to speak of the languages of Nepaul and 
Sikkim as if they constituted a definite group. It is 
convenient to do this, because these countries, with their 
peculiar political relations, though Indian in their geo- 
graphy, and Tibetan in their ethnology, are neither 
exactly Tibetan, nor exactly Indian as a whole ; but 
rather a distidct i^er se. 

The dialects and sub-dialects of this class are refer- 
able to the following groups: — (1), the Gurung ; (2), 
Magar ; (3), Chepang ; (4), the Hayti ; (5), the Ku- 
sunda ; (6), the Newar ; (7), the Kiranti ; (8), the 
Lepcha. 

(1). Tlie Magar occupy the lower, the Gurung the 
higher levels of the Himalaya ; the Gurung being, hke 
the Magars, a military caste ; but (unlike the Magars), 
being Buddhist rather than Brahminic ; and, as such, 
more Bhot, in respect to their civilization, than Indian. 
Some of them are, perhaps, more pagan than Bhot. 
They are a rude set ; shepherds rather than agricultu- 
ralists ; but little being known of their language. The 
Murmi is one of its dialects. 



English. 


Gomng. 


Mnrrai. 




Man 


mhi 


mi 




Head 


kn 


thobo 




Bair 


moi 


kn 




Hand 


lapta 


ya 




Foot 


bbale 


bale 
n 


O 



20 



NEPAUL AND SIKKIM. 



English. 


Gun.ng. 


Muitiii. 


Eye 


mi 


mi 


Ear 


nabe 


nape 


Bone 


nugri 


nakhu 


Blood 


koh 


ka 


Tooth 


sak 


Bwa 


Day 


flini 


dini 


Sun 


dliini 


dini 


Moon 


— 


ladima 


Star 


pira 


karchin 


Fire 


mi 


me 


Water 


kj-ii 


kwi 


Tree 


sindu 


dhong 


Stone 


yuma 


yumba 


One 


kri 


grik 


Two 


ni 


gni 


Three 


song 


Bom 


Four 


pli 


bli 


Fke 


gna 


gna 


Six 


tu 


dhu 


Seven 


nis 


nis 


Eight 


pre 


pre 


Nine 


kuh 


kuh 


Ten 


cliuk 


chiwai. 



(2). Occupants of the lower levels, and the western 
districts, the Magars have been in more than ordinary 
contact with the Hindus of the Oude and Kumaon 
frontiers. No wonder, then, that the blood and lan- 
guage but imperfectly coincide. Many Hindiis are said 
to speak Magar, whilst numerous Magars have either 
unlearnt their own tongue or speak the Magar along 
with it. The creed is imperfectly Brahminic ; the 
alphabet Indian ; the tendencies and civilization Indian. 

The Bramhti dialect, spoken by a degraded population 
of the parts about, is more Magar than aught else. 



EnglisL. 


Magar. 


Braniliu. 


Man 


bharmi 


bal, bar 


Head 


mitalu 


kapa 


Hair 


chham 


syam 


Hand 


hutpiak 


bbit 


Foot 


mibil 


unzik 


Bye 


mik 


mik 


Ear 


nakyeh 


kana 



NEPAUL AND SIKKIM. 



21 



English. 


Magar. 


Bramhu. 


Bone 


miryaros 


wot 


BIcod 


hjm 


chiwi 


Tooth 


siak 


swa 


Day 


namsin 


dim 


Sun 


namkhan 


nni 


Star 


bhuga 


— 


Fire 


mhe 


mai 


Water 


di 


awa 


Tree 


sing 


«iinma 


Stone 


thung 


kongba 


One 


kat 


de 


Two 


nis 


ni 


Three 


SODg 


sworn 


Four 


baU 


bi 


Five 


banga 


banga. 



(3, 4). The Chepang and Vaju, or Hayu, is a broken 
and depressed tribe of this district. The Vayu con- 
sider themselves a distinct people, fidling into few or no 
subdivisions. Their language is said to be unintelligible 
to any one else ; and so it seems to be from the speci- 
men. They believe that at some remote period they 
were a powerful people, though now reduced. 

(5). The Kusunda are even more broken up than 
the Vayu, with whom they are conterminous. 



English. 


Chepang. 


Tiyd. 


Knstinda. 


Man 


pnrsi 


sing-tong 


mihyak 


— 


— 


lon-cho 


— 


Head 


tolong 


p(i-chhi 


cMpi 


Hair 


men 


song 


gjai-i 


Hand 


kntt 


got 


gipan 


Foot 


la 


le 


cban 


Eye 


mik 


mek 


chining 


Ear 


ne 


nak-cha 


chyau 


Bone 


rhus 


ru 


goa 


Blood 


wi 


vi 


nyu 


Tooth 


srek 


lu 


toho 


Day 


nyi 


nnma 


dina 


Sun 


nyam 


nomo 


ing 


Moon 


lahe 


cho-lo 


jnn 


Fire 


me 


me 


ja 


Water 


ti 


ti 


tang 


Tree 


sing, singtak 


sing-phung 


i 



22 





THE 


NEWAR. 




Englisli. 


Cliepang. 


Vayii. 


Kiisuiida. 


One 


yazho 


kolu 


goisang 


Two 


nhizho 


nayung 


ghigna 


Three 


sumzho 


chuyuDg 


daha 


Four 


ploizho 


bining 


pinjang 


Fire 


pumazho 


— 


pagnangjan; 



(6). The Newar belongs to the central valley, or 
Nepaul Proper, the most favoured tract of the king- 
dom, and the tract where the rudeness of tlie original 
paganism is at its Tnimmum ; the creed being partly 
Brahminic partly Buddhist. The Pahri, or Pahi, one of 
the broken tribes, is Newar ; in other words, the Pahri 
is to the Newar as the Bramhti was to the Magar. 



Englisli. 


Newar. 


Palii-;. 


Man 


mijang 


manche 


Head 


chhong 


chhe 


Hair 


song 


son 


Hand 


pal aha 


la 


Foot 


pali 


li 


Eye 


mikha 


migbi 


Ear 


nhaipong 


nhuapuru 


Bone 


kwe 


kusa 


Blood 


hi 


hi 


Tooth 


wa 


wa 


Day 


nhi 


nhinako 


Sun 


suja 


suje 


Star 


nagu 


nung-gni 


Fire 


mi 


mi 


Water 


laa 


lukhu 


Tree 


sinia 


sima 


Stone 


lohong 


longgho 


One 


chili 


chi 


Two 


ni 


ni 


Three 


son 


sung 


Fowr 


pi 


pi 


Five 


gna 


gno 


Six 


khu 


ku 


Seven 


nhe 


nhe 


Eight 


chya 


chya 


Nine 


gunh 


gun 


Ten 


sanho 


gi. 



(7). Occupants of the valley of the Arun, and the 
district which takes its name from them, the Kirant, 



THE KIRATA. 



23 



Kiranti, or Kiratas, are the most eastern of the tribes 
of Nepaul, being conterminous with the Lepchas of 
Sikkim. Tlie name is Indian ; so that little is to be 
inferred from either its antiquity or the extent of its 
application. Whenever there was a population in a 
certain relation to the Hindu, the term would apply. 

The Kirata under notice, fall into two primary divi- 
sions, the Limbu and the Kwombu. The Limbu have 
an alphabet : the Kwombu dialects are unwritten. 



English. 


Kirata. 


Limbu. 


Man 


mana 


yapme 


— 


— 


yembocha 


Bead 


tang 


tbagek 


Hair 


moa 


thagi 


Hand 


chuknphema 


huktaphe 


Foot 


nkhuro 


langdapphe 


Eye 


mak 


mik 


Ear 


naba 


nekho 


Bone 


saiba 


sayet 


Blood 


ha a 


makbi 


Tooth 


kang 


hebo 


I>ay 


len 


lendik 


Sun 


nam 


nam 


Moon 


lara 


laTO 


Star 


sangyen 


kesra 


Fire 


mi 


me 


Water 


chawa 


chua 


Tree 


Bangtang 


sing 


Stone 


lungta 


long 


One 


ektai 


thit 


Two 


hasat 


nyetsb 


Three 


somya 


syumsh 


Four 


laya 


lish 


Five 


gnaya 


gnash 


Svt 


tukya 


tnksh 


Seven 


bhagya 


nuksh 


Eight 


reya 


yetsh 


Nine 


phangyii 


phangsh 


Ten 


kip 


thibong. 



Until a few months back, the Kiranti language was 
in the same predicament with those that have just been 
noticed. Perhaps, it was less known. At any rate, it 
took no remarkable prominence in the philology of 



24 



THE KIRATA DIALECTS — LEPCHA 



Nepaul. It miglifc consist of a single dialect, or of 
many. It was akin to the Limbu and the Limbu 
akin to it. Of its other varieties we knew nothing. 
A recent paper of Mr. Hodgson now supplies vo- 
cabularies for its dialects and sub-dialects ; for 
which the following is the suggested classification : — 
1. Waling; 2. Yakha ; 3. Chourasya ; 4. Kulung ; 
5. Thulung ; 6. Bahing; 7. Lohorong ; 8. Larabich- 
hong. These constitute the Waling branch of the 
Bontawa group, of which 9. Rtingchhenbiing ; 10. 
Chhingtang, are also members. Then come, 1 1 . Cham- 
ling, or Kodong ; 12. Nachhereng ; 13. Balati ; 14. 
Sangpang ; 15. Dumi; 16. Khahng; 17. Dungmalu. 

(8). The Lepcha spoken in Sikkim, is, like the Limbu 
dialect of the Kiranti, a written language ; though its 
literature is of the scantiest. 



English. 


Lepclia. 


English. 


Lepcba. 


Man 


maro 


Fire 


mi 


— 


tagri 


Water 


ong 


Head 


athiak 


Tree 


kung 


Hair 


achom 


Stone 


long 


Hand 


kaliok 


One 


kat 


Foot 


dianghok 


Two 


ryet 


Eye 


amik 


Three 


sam 


Ear 


anyor 


Four 


phali 


Bone 


arhet 


Five 


ph&gnoi 


Blood 


vi 


Six 


tarok 


Tooth 


apho 


Seven 


kakyok 


Day 


sakne 


Eight 


kaken 


Sun 


sakhak 


Nine 


kakyot 


Moon 


dau 


Tm 


kati. 


Star 


sahor 







Now, all these languages are not only members of 
the same great class with the Bhot, but the fact of their 
being so is clear and patent upon the most cursory 
inspection. No language, however, of a Brahminic or a 
Buddhist population, especially if it be on the frontier of 
Hindostan, can escape the certain results of contact with 
India ; and this shows itself in the vocabulary. The 
proportion which these Indian elements bear to the rest, 



DHIMAL AND BODO. 25 

varies with the hinguage. It may be but small. It 
may be moderate. It may be so great as to destroy 
the original character of the tongue altogether. In 
the follo^v-ing languages, the numerals are Hindu ; and, 
thoucrh this is an artificial characteristic, it is a convenient 
one. It gives a Hindu aspect to the vocabulary ; and, 
as a general rule, where the numerals are Hindu, a very 
great proportion of the other words is Hindu also — so 
much so, indeed, as to make the position of the lan- 
guage, on the first view, equivocal. In some cases it 
may really be so. The firet language of our list is, in 
the eyes of many, a dialect of the Hindu, containing a 
few Bhot fragments, i-ather than a Bhot dialect in what 
may be called a metamorphic form. 

1. The Kooch of Kooch Behar, as spoken by the 
Mahometan and Brahminic sections of the name. The 
Pani Kooch, or unconverted Kooch, are beheved to use 
a more decidedly Bhot form of speech. 

2. The Darahe (or Dahi) and Den war. 

3. The Kuswar. 

4. The Tharu. 

5. The Pakhya. 

The populations which speak them are called, by Mr. 
Hodorson, to whom all the details are due, the Broken 
Tribes. His list contains, besides the preceding, the Che- 
pang, the Bhramo, and the Pahri. These, however, are not 
only clearly Nepalese, but have been referred to a given 
Nepalese language, and subordinated to it as a dialect. 
It is the equivocal character of the foregoing languages 
that places them in a group by themselves ; a group 
which is merely provisional, as further researches will 
show. 

The Dhimal, avoiding both the open plains and the 
mountain heights, occupy the turai between the Konka 
and Dhorla, where they are conterminous with the Bodo. 
Nor is this all. The two populations are not only 
conterminous but intermixed, each inhabiting separate 



26 



DUIMAL AND BODO. 



villages. For all this, there is a notable — I might say 
a wide — difference between their languages. It is with 
the Hayu, and Kusunda group, or, at least with the 
languages to the west, that the Dhimal appears to have 
its closest affinities. The Bodo, on the contrary, is all 
but one with the Borro of Cachar, besides being closely 
allied to the Garo of the Garo Hills, in the north-east of 
Bengal. 



English. 


Phimal. 


Bodo. 


Garo. 


Borro. 


Man 


waval 


hiwa 


mande 


manse 


— 


cliang 


manshi 


— 


— 


Head 


purung 


khoro 


skho 


khoro 


Ear 


nhatong 


khoma 


nachil 


khama 


Eye 


mi 


mogon 


mikian 


nigan 


Blood 


hiki 


thoi 


anchi 


thoi 


Bone 


hara 


begeng 


greng 


begeng 


Tooth 


si ton g 


hathai 


jak 


nakhai 


Hand 


khur 


akhai 


jatheng 


atheng 


Foot 


khokoi 


yapha 


sal 


san 


Sun 


bela 


shan 


jasliki 


Latolthi 


Star 


phuro 


hathotklii 


wal 


wat 


Fire 


men 


wat 


cM 


doi 


Water 


chi 


doi 


— 






The Bodo are called by the Hindus, Mekh, or Mlech ; 
and they are so called because they pass for impure in- 
fidels. 

The Borro of Cachar take us into Asam ; and (of 
Asam) towards the southern, rather than the northern, 
boundary. But the northern boundary is the one that 
we must first examine ; remembering that the moun- 
tain-range which forms it runs due east fi'om that part 
of Btitan which gave us the Changlo and the Takpa 
vocabularies. 

Of the Sunwar vocabularj'- of Hodgson I am unable 
to give the exact locality. 



Englisli. 


Puuwar. 


Englisli. 


Suuwar. 


Man 


mum 


Foot 


kweli 


Head 


piya 


Eye 


michi 


Hair 


chang 


Ear 


noplia 


Hand 


table 


Bone 


nishe 





THE SUNWAR. 


27 


Englisli. 


Son war. 


English. 


Sunwar. 


Blood 


nsi 


Tliint 


ike 


Tooth 


kryn 


His 


hareake, mereke 


Day 


nathi 


Out's 


go-ainke 


Sun 


na 


Tour's 


gai-ainke, inke 


Star 


sora 


Theirs 


hari-ainke 


Fire 


mi 


One 


ka 


Water 


pankha 


Two 


nishi 


Tree 


rawa 


Three 


sang 


Stone 


phunglu 


Pour 


le 


I 


go 


Five 


gno 


Thou 


gai 


Six 


ruk 


He, she, it 


hari 


Seven 


chani 


We 


govki 


Eight 


yoh 


Ye 


gaivki 


Nine 


guh 


They 


harevki 


Ten 


sashi. 


Mine 


ake 







Of the preceding forms of speech, the Gurung, Magar, 
and Kii-anti, seem to be the most Bhot ; whilst the 
Newar and Kusmida point the most decidedly towards 
India ; the Garo to the Singpho ; and the Lepcha to 
the North Asam, class. 



28 LANGUAGES 



CHAPTER IV. 

Languages of Assam. — Northern Frontier. — Aka, Dofla, and Abor. — Miri. — 
Mishmi. — Southern Frontier. — Kasia. — Mikir. — Angami. — Nagas. — 
Singpho. 

Collectively, the Aka, Dofla, Abor, Miri, and Mishmi, 
may be called the hill-tribes of the northern boundary 
of Asam. They all, with the exception of a few of the 
Miris, lie to the north of the Burhamputer, along the banks 
of which the displacement and obliteration of transitional 
forms of speech have been great. The chief language 
of Lower Asam — the valley — is Indian ; the Asamese, 
properly so-called, being even more Indian than the 
dialects of the broken tribes. It is limited, however, 
to the level country ; the mountains of the southern 
and the northern boundary being held by aborigines. 
But these are separated from each other ; or if con- 
tinuous, are only traced in their continuity round the 
valley, not across it. 

Tlie hills that form the northern boundary of Asam 
are occupied by numerous rude tribes known as Aka, 
Dofla, and Abor ; all three using dialects of the same 
language. That of the Miri is closely allied. Those of 
the Taying and Mijhu dialects of the Mishmi are further 
removed. 

Beginning with the eastern boundary of Tibet, the 
order of the numerous hill-tribes of the northern boun- 
dary of Asam, of which the languages are known to us 
through vocabularies, is as has been given — Aka, Dofla, 
Abor, Miri, and Mishmi. The Miri stretch farthest 
across the valley, or southwards, while the Mishmi 
occupy its eastern extremity ; where there has been a 



OF ASAM. 29 

paiiiiil displacement — a displacement effected hj the 
Ahora and Khamti of tlie Tliay stock, of -whom more 
will be said as we proceed. 



Eng'ish. 


Dofla. 


AbOT. 


Miri. 


Afaa 


bangni 


amie 


ami 


Hair 


dumuk 


dumid 


dumid 


Head 


dompo 


duiniKJDg 


tupko 


Ear 


niorung 


narung 


ierung 


Eye 


nyuk 


aming 


amida 


Blood 


ui 


yJ- 


yie 


Bone 


Bolo 


along 


along 


Foot 


laga 


ale 


leppa 


Hand 


lak 


elag 


elag 


Sun 


dani 


amng 


dainya 


Moon 


polo 


polo 


polo 


Star 


takar 


tekar 


takar 


Fire 


ami 


emme 


nmma 


Water 


esi 


asi 


acliye 


One 


aken 


ako 


ako 


Two 


ani 


ani 


aniko 


Three 


aam 


angom 


aamko 


Four 


apli 


api 


apiko 


Five 


ango 


pilango 


angoko 


Six 


akple 


akye 


akengko 


Seven 


kanag 


konange 


kinitko 


Eight 


plagnag 


pini 


piniko 


Nine 


kayo 


kinide 


konangk 


Ten 


rang 


iinge 


nyingko. 



The Mijhu and Tayung forms of speech are called 
dialects of the Mishmi. Perhaps they are so. At the 
same time they differ from one another more than the 
Aka and Abor, which have been quoted as separate sub- 
stantive lanoaiases : — 



Fnglisli. 


Taytmg. 


Mghn. 


ilan 


nme 


ktchong 


Head 


nikau 


kaa 


Eye 


mollom 


mik 


Ear 


nkruna 


ing 


Blood 


rliwei 


vi 


Bone 


labunglubra 


zak 


Hand 


ptoya 


yop 


Foot 


mgrang 


mpla 


Sun 


ling-ngiag 


lemik 



30 



MISHMI— KASIA— MIKIR. 



English. 


Taynng. 


Mijliu. 


Moon 


hho 


lai 


Fire 


naming 


mai 


Water 


machi 


ti 


One 


eking 


kmo 


Two 


kaying 


kaning 


Three 


kachong 


kacham 


Four 


kaprei 


kambum 


Five 


mangu 


kalei 


Six 


tharo 


katham 


Seven 


uwg 


nun 


Eight 


elyeni 


ngun 


Nine 


konyong 


nyet 


Ten 


halong 


kyep. 



The southern range now claims notice. We touched 
it when the Garo and Bodo were under notice. 

Due east of the Garo country come the Kasia dis- 
tricts ; the language of which is less like its iuunediate 
neighbour, than its locality suggests. 

The MiJdr believe that their ancestors came from 
the Jaintia Hills ; but no specimen of the Jaintia 
dialects, eo nomine, being known, the value of the belief 
is uncertain. Their present occupancies are in North 
Cachar, Lower and Central Asam. The "sounds of 
their language,'' writes Robinson, " are pure and liquid," 
and the gutturals and strong aspirates are but few. 
There is a "slight nasal inflection and an abrupt 
cadence." Some of the Mikir are imperfect converts to 
Brahminism. 



English. 


Kasia. 


Mikir. 


Man 


uman 


arleng 


— 


— 


penso 


Woman 


ka kantei 


arioso 


Head 


kakli 


iphu 


Eye 


ka kamat 


mek 


Ear 


ka skor 


ino 


Nose 


ka kamut 


inokan 


Mouth 


ka shintur 


ingho 


Tooth 


ka baniat 


isso 


Tongue 




ade 


Hand 


ka thallid 


ripa 


Foot 


ka kajat 


kengpak 





THE ANGAMI. 




i;ngl»ith 


Kasia. 


Uildr. 


Sun 


ka sngi 


ami 


Moon 


ubanai 


cheklo 


Star 


uklnr 


cheklo longsho' 


Fire 


kading 


me 


Water 


kanm 


lang 


Stone 


man 


arlong 


Wood 


kading 


theng 


One 




nisi 


Two 




hini 


Three 




kithom 


Four 




pliili 


Fke 




plumga 


Six 




therok 


Sexen 




theroski 


Eight 




neikep 


Nine 




serkep 


Ten 




kep. 



31 



The Angami succeed the Mikir ; rude hill-men, pagan, 
and unlettered. Their language seems to fall into 
dialects and sub-dialects ; its affinities being such as its 
locality suggests. They are more especially, Mikir, 
Aka, Dofla, and Abor. 



English. 


AngamL 


Englisb. 


Angami. 


Man 


ma 


Fire 


mi 


Woman 


thennma 


Water 


zn 


Head 


nchn 


Stone 


keche 


Eye 


rnnhi 


Wood 


si 


Ear 


uneu 


One 


PO 


Note 


unheu 


Two 


kana 


Mouth 


ome 


Three 


se 


Tooth 


vhn 


Four 


da 


Hand 


abijn 


Fire 


pengn 


Foot 


nphi-jn 


Sijc 


shnm 


Sly 


keruke 


Seven 


thena 


Hay 


ja 


Eight 


thata 


Sun 


naki 


Nine 


thekn 


Moon 


thirr 


Ten 


kerr. 


Star 


themn 







And now begins a district where classification by 
means of definition is impracticable. The Angami, and 



Little moons. 



32 



ITAGA DIALECTS. 



the tribes to the east of them, are called Naga ; Naga 
being a generic name for the wild tribes of mountains 
that bound Asam to the south. It is not, however, 
a name founded on their languages, and I doubt if it be 
natural. I think that all the Naga dialects might be 
grouped as SingpJio without unduly raising the value of 
the class so-called. 

The earliest notice of the forms of the Naga (from 
which I have separated the Angami) is by Brown, the 
fullest is to be found in the second volume of Trans- 
actions of the American Oriental Society, wliere there 
are specimens of no less than ten of their dialects, or 
sub-dialects. 



English. 


Isowgong. 


Teiigsa. 


Kliari. 


Ilatigor. 


Man 


nyesung 


mesung 


ami 


nyesung 


Woman 


— 


anakti 


anudi 


tatsii 


Head 


takolak 


tako 


te-lim 


takolak 


Hair 


ko 


ko 


kwa 


ko 


Eye 


tenok 


te nyik 


te-nik 


te-nok 


Ear 


tenaung 


te-lanno 


te-nhaun 


te-naung 


Tooth 


tabu 


ta-pbu 


ta-pba 


ta-bu 


Hand 


tekha 


ta-khat 


ta-kbet 


ta-kha 


Foot 


tatsung 


ta-cbing 


ta-cbang 


ta-tsung 


Shy 


mabat 


anung 


aning 


anyang 


Sun 


annu 


tinglu 


subih 


annu 


Moon 


yita 


luta 


leta 


jdta 


Star 


pitinu 


lutingting 


peti 


pitinu 


Fire 


mi 


masi 


matsii 


mi 


Water 


tsu 


tij 


atsii 


tsu 


Stone 


lungziik 


lungmango 


along 


lungziik 


Tree 


santung 


sangtung 


sundong 


santung 


One 


katang 


kbatu 


akhet 


— 


Two 


anna 


annat 


anne 


— 


Three 


asam 


asam 


asam 


— 


Four 


pazr 


pbale 


phali 


— 


Five 


pungu 


pbungu 


phanga 


— 


Six 


tank 


theloic 


tarok 


— 


Seven 


tanet 


thanyet 


tani 


— 


Eight 


te 


thesep 


sachet 


— 


Nine 


taku 


tbaku 


taken 


— 


Ten 


tarr 


thelu 


tarah 


— 



THE SINGPHO. 



33 



TnglUti , 




Kamsang, &c. 




Jobdra, Sec. 


Man 




minyan 




mi 


Woman 




dehiek 




tananna 


Head 




kho 




khangra 


Hair 




kacho 




kho 


Eye 




mit 




mik 


Ear 




na 




na 


Tooth 




pa 




va 


Hand 




dak 




chak 


Foot 




da 




tsha 


Sky 




rangtung 




rangpham 


Sun 




san 




ranghan 


Moon 




da 




letlu 


Star 




merik 




letsi 


Fire 




van 




van 


Water 




30 




ti 


SUme 




long 




long 


One 




vanthe 




tnta 


Two 




vanyi 




anyi 


Three 




yanram. 




azam 


Four 








ali 


Five 




banga 




aga 


Six 




irok 




azok 


Seven 




ingit 




annat 


Eight 




isat 




achat 


Nine 




ikhu 




akn 


Ten 




ichi 




banban. 


English. Mithan. 


Tablnng. 


English. 


Mithan. Tabloog. 


Man mi 


sauniak 


Wafer 


ti 


riang 


Woman — 


chikkho 


Stone 


ling 


yong 


Head khang 


sang 




Tree 


pan 


peh 


Hair kho 


min 




One 


atta 


cha 


Eye mik 


mik 




Two 


nnyi 


ih 


Ear na 


na 




Three 


azum lem 


Tooth va 


pha 




Four 


ali 


peli 


Hand chak 


yak 




Five 


aga 


nga 


Foot tchya 


yahlan 


Six 


arok 


vok 


Sun ranghon 


wanghi 


Seven 


anath niath, neth 


Moon letna 


le 




Eight 


ainel 


thuth 


Star lethi 


cLaha 




Nine 


aku 


ther, thu 


Fire ran 


ah 




Ten 


ban 


pan. 



The Jactung, Malung, and Sima dialects are closely 
akin to this. 

In a limited sense, Singpho is a convenient name for 
a group of dialects, of which (1) the Singpho Proper, (2) 

D 



34 



THE SINGPnO. 



the Jili, and (3) the Kakhyen, are known by specimens. 
On the north-east it touches the Mishmi, and the intru- 
sive Khamti. On the south-east it comes in contact with 
certain dialects of the Siamese group ; being itself the 
nearest congener not belonging to their class. 

The Singpho Proper are Buddhists, with a Shan 
alphabet. The Muttuk, Moran, or Moameria, are 
Hindu in creed, though of suspicious orthodoxy. Of 
their language, eo nomine (unless the Mitlian of the 
foregoing table be one), I have seen no specimen. I 
find, however, statements to the following effect, viz. 
that that of the Khaphok tribe is just intelligible to a 
Singpho Proper ; that in the Khanung there is still a 
resemblance to the Singpho, but that the language is 
no longer mutually intelligible ; and thirdly, that the 
Khalang and Nogmun forms of speech are truly 
Singpho. 

Of the Jili vocabulary (the only one we have) seventy 
per cent, is Singpho, twenty-two per cent. Garo, This 
gives an indirect connection with the Bhot ; a connection, 
however, which is no closer than that with the Burmese. 
In short, the Singpho group is eminently transitional, 
its value being, in the present state of our knowledge, 
uncertain. 



English. 


Singpho. 


JUi. 


Kakhyeu. 


Man 


singpho 


nsang 


masha 


If air 


kara 


kara 


kala 


Head 


bong 


nggum 


paong 


Ear 


na 


kana 


na 


Eye 


mi 


nju 


mi 


Blood 


sai 


tashai 


tsan 


Bone 


nrang 


khamrang 


— 


Foot 


lagong 


takkhyai 


nego 


Hand 


letta 


taphan 


letla 


Sun 


jan 


katsan 


tsan 


Moon 


sita 


sata 


tsata 


Star 


sigan 


sakan 


shigan 


Fire 


wan 


tayan 


wan 


Water 


ncin 


mchin 


entsin 


Stone 


nlung 


talong 


long 


Tree 


phun 


ph^Q 


phoun 



THE SINGPHO. — THE DEORIA CUUTIA. 



35 



English. 


Singpho. 


Out 


dima 


Two 


nkhong 


TTiree 


masum 


Four 


meli 


Five 


manga 


Six 


kru 


Seven 


sinit 


Eight 


macat 


Nine 


tseka 


Ten 


si 



Jili. 



Kakhyen. 

nge 

onkong 

mesong 

meU 

menga 

kaoa 

senit 

matsat 

tiekbo 

shi. 



Of the Deoria Chutia, I only know that the following 
is a specimen. 



English. 


Chutia. 


English. 


Chutia. 


Man 


moai 


Water 


ji 


Hair 


kin 


Stone 


yatiri 


Head 


gubong 


Tree 


popong 


Ear 


yaku 


One 


dugsha 


Eye 


mnkuti 


Two 


dukani 


Blood 


chui 


Three 


dugda 


Bone 


pichon 


Fvur 


dnguchi 


Foot 


yapasu 


Five 


dugumua 


Hand 


otun 


Six 


duguchu 


Sun 


sanli 


Seven 


dugnchi ] 


Moon 


yah 


Eight 


duguche 


Star 


jili 


Nine 


dugachuba 


Fire 


nye 


Ten, 


duguchuba and 
dugshe. 



It is, probably, Singpho. 



1)2 



36 THE BURMESE GROUP. 



CHAPTER V. 

Continuation of the Garo line. — The Khumia, Old and New Kuki. — The 
Continuation of the Naga line. — Munipur Group.- — Koreng, Luhuppa, 
Tankhu, Khoibu, &c. — The Karens. — The Burmese Proper. 

Caucasus itself, with all its accumulation of mutually 
unintelligible forms of speech, within a comparatively 
small area, is less remarkable for the density of its lan- 
guages than the parts now under notice. Whether we 
look to the Garo, Kasia, and Mikir areas themselves, or 
the parts which immediately underlie them, viz : 
Cachar, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Chittagong ; whether 
we look to the Naga districts of Asam and the parts 
that lie due south of them, or the valley of the Upper 
Irawadi and its feeders, we find an accumulation of 
actual languages, or possible dialects, such as we rarely 
find in the Old World elsewhere. 

We may take up our line from either the Garo, Bodo, 
Kasia, and Mikir, or from the Nagas. I begin with 
the former. 

The Khumia occupy the skirts, the Kuld the tops of 
the hills. Except so far as the difierence of level may 
develope differences in their mode of life, a Kuki is a 
Khumia, a Khumia a Kuki. The Kuki, however, are, 
as may be expected, the ruder and more truly pagan 
tribe ; the creed being, nevertheless, tinctured with 
Indian elements. 

The Kuki, who about sixty years ago came from the 
jungles of Tipperah to settle in Cachar, were, at first, 
in the same category with the Nagas, i. e. naked. In 
the course of time they ceased to deserve the name. 
They not only wear clothes now, but are skilful in the 



I 



THE BURMESE GROUP. 37 

cultivation and weaving of cotton. They are well 
clothed and well fed ; on a level with the Angami 
Nagas for physical strength and also with the Kasia. 

In Cachar they are called the Old Kuki. They fall 
into three divisions — the Rhangkul, the Khelma, and 
the Betch, the first being the largest. The whole, how- 
ever, are under 4000. 

The Old Kuki of Cachar have a New Kuki to match. 
Both came from the south — both from the ruder parts 
of Tipperah and Chittagong. They came, however, as 
the name implies, at different times, and, as their lan- 
guage suggests, from different districts. The New 
Kuki form of speech is not always intelligible to an 
Old Kuki. Mr. Stewart saw one of the Khelma tribe 
as much puzzled with what a New Kuki was saying to 
him as he would have been with a perfect stranger. 
On the other hand, the Manipur dialects and the New 
Kuki are mutually intelligible. I do not think that 
the vocabularies verify this doctrine, either in the way 
of likeness or of difference. It may, nevertheless, be 
accurate. 

3fug is the name by which the native population 
of the towns and villages of Arakan is designated . 
The Mugs amount to about six-tenths of the whole 
population ; one tenth being Burmese, and the remainder 
Hindu. The only town of importance is the capital. 
Some of the Mug villages lie but just above the level 
of the sea ; others are on the sides, others on the tops, 
of hills. The early history of Arakan, so far as it may 
be dignified by that name, makes it an independent 
State, sometimes with Chittagong and Tipperah in sub- 
jection to it, sometimes with Chittagong and Tipperah 
separate. The island of Ramrl, Cheduba and Sando- 
way are parts of Arakan ; Mug in language, British in 
politics. 

In the hill-country the type is changed, and instead 
of the comparatively civilized Mug we get tribes like 



38 THE BURMESE GROUP. 

the Kuki and Naga. The best known of these 
are — 

The Tribes of the Koladyn River, -which form a 
convenient if not a strictly-natural group. The Ko- 
ladyn being the chief river of Arakan, and Arakan 
being a British possession, the opportunities for collecting 
information have been favourable ; nor have they been 
neglected. Of the names of tribes, and of specimens 
of language, we have no want ; rather an emharras 
de richesse. Buddhism, as a general rule, is partial 
and imperfect ; partial as being found in some tribes 
only, imperfect as being strongly tinctured with the 
original Paganism. And of unmodified Paganism there 
is, probably, not a little. The forms of speech fall into 
strongly-marked dialects, in some, into separate lan- 
guages ; by which I mean that, in some cases, they may 
be mutually unintelligible. The government seems to 
be patriarchal during a time of peace, ducal during a 
time of war ; ducal meaning that a tribe, or a con- 
federacy of tribes, may find themselves, for the time,, 
under the command of some general chief. The story 
of almost every tribe is the same. It came upon its 
present locality a few generations back, having originally 
dwelt elsewhere ; somewhere northwards, somewhere to 
the south, somewhere to the east. It dispossessed cer- 
tain earlier occupants. But these earlier occupants may, 
in their turn, be found in fragments, consisting of a 
single village, or of a few families. The form that the 
history, if so it may be called, of these marchings and 
countermarchings, of these fusions and amalgamations, 
of these encroachments and displacements, assumes, is 
deserving of notice. 

One of the forms of tribute to a certain con- 
queror of one of the branches of the Khyens was 
the payment of a certain number of beautiful women ? 
To avoid this the beautiful women tattooed themselves, 
so as to become ugly. This is why they are tattooed 



THE BURMESE GROUP. 39 

at the present time. So runs the tale. In reality, 
they are tattooed because they are savages. The nar- 
rative about the conqueror is their way of explaining 
it. In Turner's account of Tibet, the same story 
repeats itself, mutatis mutandis. The women of a 
certain town were too handsome to be looked at with 
impunity ; for, as their virtue was proportionately easy, 
the morals of the people suffered. So a sort of sump- 
tuary law against an excess of good looks was enacted ; 
fi'om the date o^ which to the present time the women, 
whenever they go abroad, smear their faces with a 
dingy dirty-coloured oil, and so conceal such natural 
charms as they might otherwise exhibit. 

There is another class of inferences ; for which, how- 
ever, learned men in Calcutta and London are chiefly 
answerable. Some of the tribes are darker-skinned 
than others. The inference is that they have Indian 
blood in their veins. They may have this. The fact, 
however, should rest upon its proper evidence. I ven- 
ture to guess that, in most cases where this darkness of 
complexion occurs, the soil will have more to do with it 
than any intercourse with the Hindus. There will be 
the least of it on the hill-tops, less of it on the hill-sides, 
most of it in the swampy bottoms and hot jungles. 
At the same time, some Indian influences are actually 
at work. 

The tribe which, most probably, is in the closest geo- 
graphical contact with the Kuki of Chittagong is the 

Mru, or Tung Mru, the name being native. It is 
also Rukheng. It means in Rukheng, or the language 
of Arakan, over and above the particular tribes under 
notice, all the hill-men of the surrounding district ; this 
being the high country between Arakan and Chittagong. 
That the Mru are the same as the Mrung, who deduce 
their origin from Tipperah, I have no doubt ; though I 
doubt the origin. They were all parts of one and the 
same division. At the present moment, the Mi-ii are in 



40 THE KAMI, ETC. 

low condition ; fallen from their ancient high estate ; 
for at one time, a Mrti chief was chosen king of 
Arakan ; and when the Rukheng conqueror invaded the 
country, the country was Mrti. However, at present, 
the Mru are despised. Their number in Arakan 
amounts to about 2800. Their present occupancy is 
somewhat west of their older one. This was on the 
Upper Koladyn ; whence they were expelled by — 

The Kami or Kumi. — The Kami or Kumi are them- 
selves suffering from encroachments ; gradually being 
driven westwards and southwards. They state that 
they once dwelt on the hills now held by the Khyens. 
What this means, however, is uncertain. The Khyens of a 
forthcoming section lie south of the Koladyn on the Yuma 
Mountains. If these, then, were the men who displaced 
the Kami and Kumi, the Kami and the Kumi them- 
selves, when they moved upon the Mru, moved north- 
wards. But this need not have been the case. Khyen 
is a name given to more populations than one ; and the 
very Mrti of the last noticed are sometimes called 
Khyen. If so, it may have been from one part of the 
Mrti country that the Kami and Kumi moved against 
another part. I do not give this as history ; scarcely 
as speculation. I only give it as a sample of the com- 
plications of the subject. Word for word, I consider 
the Kami and Kumi to be neither more nor less than 
the name of the Khumia of Chittagong. I also think 
that Mrti is Miri. The Kami (Kumi) of British Arakan 
amount to 4129 souls. 

The Sak or Thak. — The Sak, or Thak, are a small 
tribe on the river Nauf. 



English. 


Mrt. 


Komi. 


Kanii. 


Sak. 


Mem 


raid 


ku-mi 


ka-mx 


la 


Head 


16 


a-l(i 


a-ld 


a-khfi 


Hair 


s'h&m 


s'ham 


a-s'hdm 


kd-mi 


Eye 


min 


me 


a-mi 


a-mi 


Ear 


pa-rdm 


ka-no 


a-ga-n& 


a-ka-n& 


Tooth 


yun 


he. 


a-fha 


a-<Aa-w4 



THE KAMI, ETC. 



41 



English. 


Mru. 


Kumi. 


Kami 


Sak. 


Mouth 


naur 


li-boung 


a-ma-ka 


ang-si 


Hand 


rut 


ka 


akd 


ta-kfi 


Foot 


kLouk 


khou 


a-kho 


a-tar 


SHn 


Pi 


p€ 


a-phfi 


mi-lak 


Blood 


wi 


a-thl 


a-thi 


th^ 


Bone 


a-hot 


a-hu 


a-hd 


a-mra 


Sun 


ta-nin 


ka-ni 


ka-ni 


sa-mi 


Moon 


p<i-l& 


Mo 


M 


thsit-U 


Star 


ki-rek 


ka-si 


a-shi 


thu-gemg-thi 


Fire 


ma-i 


mha-i 


ma-i 


ba-in 


Water 


tu-i 


tu-i 


tu-i 


mi(?) 


Bird 


ta wa 


ta-wu 


ka-va 


wa-si 


Fish 


dam 


ngho 


moi 


pan-na 


Snake 


ta-ro-a 


p<i-wi 


ma-khu-I 


ka-p6 


Stone 


ta-wh3, 


Itin-s'houng 


ka-lun 


ta-lon 


Tree 


tsing-dung 


din-koung 


a-kun 


pung-pang 


Mountain 


shung 


mo-i 


ta-kun 


ta-ko 


River 


an 


ka-wu 


ka-va 


pi -si 


Village 


kwa 


a-yang 


Tang 


thing 


House 


kin 


6m 


in 


kyin 


^99 


diA 


diu 


du 


wa-ti 


Horn 


aning 


ta-ki 


at-ta-ki 


a-rung 


One 


loung 


ha 


ha 


s6-war 


Two 


pre 


nhu 


ni 


nein 


Three 


shun 


turn 


ka-tfin 


thin 


Four 


ta-ll 


pa-lu 


ma-li 


pri 


Five 


ta-ng4 


pan 


pang-nga 


nga 


Six 


ta-ru 


ta-ru 


ta-d 


khyouk 


Seven 


ra-nhit 


sa-rd 


sa-ri 


tha-ni 


Eight 


ri-ydt 


ta-ya 


ka-y4 


a-tseit 


Nine 


ta-kd 


ta-kau 


ta-ko 


ta-fa 


Ten 


h& 


hau 


ha-suh 


si-su. 



The Heuma or Shenclu. — In 21° 15' N. L. the 
Meeykyoung falls into the Koladyu from the east. It, 
of course, arises on some higher level, and this higher 
level is the watershed between it and the drainage of 
the Manipur system. The Shendu is known through a 
short vocabulary of Captain Ticket's. 

Sylhet and Tipperah are like Asam ; i. e. more or less 
Indian. The aboriginal dialects, however, are allied to 
each other and to the Burmese. 

It may safely be said that all the preceding speci- 
mens represent dialects or sub-dialects of a single group ; 



42 



THE KORENa. 



all spoken by rude tribes, and all indigenous to the nortli- 
western parts of the Peninsula. 

And now we go on from the Nagas. Of the frontier 
between the southern members of the group represented 
by them and the northern tribes of Munipur I can give 
no account. It seems, however, that over and above 
the civilized and Buddhist occupants of the capital and 
the parts around, the phenomena which we have seen in 
the Naga districts repeat themselves. From the southern 
slope of the Patkoe range the feeders of the western 
branch of the Irawadi cut channels and fertilize valleys, 
the occupancies of rude tribes. 

That some of the forthcoming samples may represent 
dialects rather than separate substantive languages is 
probable. If so, as our knowledge increases, the de- 
tails will be fewer. This, however, is no more than has 
taken place with the philology of Caucasus itself. 

The language of this class which more especially leads 
to those of the last, is (I think) the Koreng ; so that if 
we make the Munipur the centre of our group, the 
Koreng is its osculant or transitional member, leading 
toward the Naga division. 

The following specimens are all taken from a paper 
by the Rev. N. Brown in the seventh volume of the 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and they 
are accompanied by a table giving the percentage of 
words common to any of two of them : — 



(1-) 



English. 


Koreng. 


Songpu. 


Man 


cha mai 


mai 


Head 


cha-pi 


pi 


Hair 


ta-tham 


Bam 


Mouth 


cha-mun 


mhoang 


Tooth 


ahu 


hu, nai 


Eye 


mik 


mliik 


Ear 


kon 


anhukon 



THE KORENG. 



43 



English. 


Koreng. 


SoDgpn. 


Blood 


ta-zyai 


zyai 


Bone 


para 


kaiau 


Hand 


cha-ben 


ban 


Foot 


cha-pi 


phai 


Shy 


tin^em 


tingpuk 


Sun 


ting-naimik 


naimhik 


Moon 


charha 


m 


Star 


chagan 


ganchongna 


Day 


nin 


kalban 


Fire 


cha-mi 


mai 


Water 


ta-dm 


dui 


Bird 


nthikna 


nroi 


Egg 


pabum 


nroidoi 


Earth 


kadi 


kandi 


Fish 


cha-kha 


kha 


Tree 


sing-bang 


thing bang 


Stone 


talo 


ntau. 



(2.) 



English. 


Lahappa. 


North TankhnL 


Man 


mi 


mil 


Head 


kni 


ak4o 


Hair 


kosen 


8am 


Mouth 


kbamor 


ania 


Tooth 


ha 


aha 


Bye 


Tnik 


amicha 


Ear 


khana 


akhana 


Blood 


ashi 


asii 


Bone 


arii 


ariikan 


Hand 


pang 


akhoi 


Foot 


phai 


akho 


Sky 


kazing 


kazirang 


Sun 


tsingmik 


yimit 


Moon 


kachang 


kacheang 


Star 


Berva 


sapachengia 


Hay 


ngasnn 


masiitom 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


tara 


aicha 


Bird 


va 


ata 


Egg- 


harii 


hachu 


Fish 


khai 


khi 


Stone 


ngalung 


lunggau 


Tree 


thingrong 


thingbang. 



M 



THE KORENG. 





(3.) 




English, 


Khoibu. 


Maring. 


Man 


thami 


hmi 


Head 


lu 


lu 


Hair 


sara 


sam 


Mouth 


mur 


mur 


Tooth 


ha 


ha 


Eye 


mit 


mit 


Ear 


khana 


nhamil 


Blood 


hi 


hi 


Bone 


thuru 


kru 


Hand 


khut 


hut 


Foot 


wang 


ho 


Sky 


thangwan 


nungthau 


Swn 


nongmit 


nungmit 


Moon 


tangla 


tangla 


Star 


tikron 


sorwa 


Bay 


nongyang 


nunghan 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


yui 


yui 


Bird 


watsa 


wacha 


Egg 


wayui 


wayui 


Fish 


thanga 


hnga 


Stone 


thullung 


khlung 


Tree 


hingtong 


hinghal. 



(4.) 



English. 


Kapwi. 


Maram. 


Man 


mi 


m 


Head 


lu 


a-pi 


Hair 


sara 


tham 


Mouth 


mamun 


ta mathu 


Tooth 


nga 


agha 


Eye 


mik 


mik 


Ear 


kana 


inkon 


Blood 


thi 


a-zyi 


Bone 


maru 


mahu 


Hand 


kut 


van 


Foot 


ki 


phai 


Sky 


tangban 


tinggam 


Sun 


rimik 


tamik 


Moon 


tha 


Iha 


Star 


insi 


chaghantai 


Day 


tamlai 


lanla 


Fire 


mai 


mai 


Water 


tui 


a-thui 





THE KOREKG. 




English. 


KapwL 


Maram. 


Bird 




aroi 


Egg 


makaioi 


aroigham 


Fish 


nga 


khai 


St(me 


lung 


akoi 


Tree 


tMngkung 


ntau. 



45 



As the table itself, containing as it does some lan- 
guages foreign to the present district, "w^ll be required 
elsewhere, I satisfy myself by giving the following 
extracts from it. The percentage of Munipur words in 
the preceding vocabularies is as follows : — 

In the Maring 50 

Kapwi 41 

Khoibu ' . 40 

Middle Tankhul . , . . 35 

South Tankhul . . . . 33 

Luhuppa 31 

North Tankhul .... 28 

Champhung 28 

In the Koreng itself it is T 8. 

All dialects giving, in Brown's Tables, more than 25 
per cent.y I have classed as Munipur, the classification 
being provisional, and, by no means implying that 25 
per cent., constitutes a dialect. The great point to 
work-out here is the direction of the affinities. 

Word for word Koreng seems Karen ; Maring 
Maram ; and Mru, Mrung, and Aliri. 

But it is not only from the Naga that the Koreng leads. 
The Munipur, which has only a percentage of 1 6 with 
the Proper Burmese, has one of 15 with the Karen, 15 
with the Abor, 16 with the Jill (decidedly Singpho) 21 
with the Songphu, 25 with the Maram, and 25 with 
the Singpho. 

Between the Burmese Proper and the Siamese area 
there intervene — 

The Karen Dialects. — The Karen tribes are believed 
to have great extension in a vertical direction, i. e. from 



46 



THE KAREK 



North to South, being said to extend from 28° to 10** 
N. L. If so, some contain Siamese, some Burmese, and 
some Chinese subjects. It is the southern section, how- 
ever, which is best known ; the languages here having 
commanded great and especial attention on the part of 
the American missionaries, whose exertions seem to have 
been rewarded with unusual success. The Proper Karen 
dialects are the Sgau and the Pwo : to which a third 
form of speech the Thoung-lhu is closely allied. Limited, 
as it is, by the literary Burmese, the Siamese, and the 
Mon of Pegu, the Karen division is a natural one, so 
far as the dialects that belong to it are known to us at 
the present time. 



English. 


Sgau. 


Pwo. 


Thoung-lh<L 


Man 


p6-khwS 


psh&' 


Ian 


Head 


' kho' 


kbo' 


katu 


Hair 


kho-thu 


kho-thu 


tu-lu 


Eye 


me 


me 


may 


Ear 


n4 


na 


nau 


Tooth 


me 


thwa 


ta-gna 


Mouth 


thd-kli6 


no 


proung 


Hand 


tshii 


tshu< 


su 


Foot 


kho 


khan' 


khan 


Skin 


phi 


phi 


phro 


Blood 


thwi 


tshii thwi 


thway 


Bone 


ghi 


ghwi 


htsot 


Sun 


mu 


mil 


mu 


Moon 


\& 


la 


lu 


Star 


tsh4' 


shd' 


hsa 


Fire 


m6'u 


• m6' 


may 


Water 


thi 


thi 


htl 


Bird 


th6« 


th6' 


&-wa 


Fish 


ny&* 


y&' 


Uta 


Snake 


gtt 


wgu 


h'm 


Stone 


la 


Ion 


lung 


Tree 


th6' 


then 


thing-mu 


Mountain 


ka-tsil 


kho '-Ion 


koung 


River 


thi-klo' 


thi-klo 


nhrong 


Village 


tha-wo 


ta--wiiQ 


dung 


House 


hi 


yen 


sam 


Egg 


di' 


di« 


de 


Horn 


kn-nu 


n6n- 


nung 


One 


ta 


ka du 


ta 



THE BURMESE PROPER. 



47 



English. 


Sgan. 


Pvo. 


Thoung-lliu. 


Tico 


khi 


ni 


ne 


Three 


thu 


thun 


thung 


Four 


Iwi 


U 


leet 


Five 


ye 


yei 


ngat 


Sijc 


ghu 


ghu 


ther 


Seven 


nwi 


nwi 


nwot 


Eight 


gh6 • 


gho 


that 


Nijie 


khwi 


khwi 


koot 


Ten 


ta-tshi 


ka-tshi 


tah-si. 



The Burmese Proper now finds its place. It is a lite- 
raiy language ; and, not only is it this, but it is the 
only important one of the group. It has been culti- 
vated as such some centuries — it is not safe to say how 
many. Perhaps it is six or seven hundred years since 
the first composition in Burmese was written. The 
alphabet is of Indian origin, and it came in with Budd- 
hism and the Pali literature. To this, the ordinary 
Burmese has always been subservient ; so that it has 
been limited to secular literature. What this is will 
appear when we speak of the Siamese ; for the difference 
between the literary Siamese and the literary Burmese 
is but small. It is a mere difference of degree. The 
philological view of the Burmese is, that it was originally 
a dialect of the parts about Ummerapura, to which, 
after an alphabet had been supplied, it becjime current 
over a large district, and was embodied and kept, more 
or less, stationary in books. At the same time it was 
a dialect of a valley belonging to the broader part of a 
river, and, as such, was a dialect of considerable geo- 
graphical magnitude in the first instance. 

Its literature is purely Buddhist ; and, in this, it differs 
fi'om the Munipur form of speech, which, to say nothing 
about its being a dialect of a smaller area, was, to a 
great extent, Brahminic as well. But its true Buddhist 
literature is Pali. 

The older notices, and they are scarcely older than the 
early volumes of the Asiatic Kesearches, wherein we find 



48 



THE BURMESE PROPER. 



valuable Papers by Buchanan and Ley den, divide it into 
four dialects ; the Burmese Proper, the Arakan, the 
Tenasserim, and the Yo. This means merely the diffe- 
rent ways in which Burmese, as Burmese, was spoken. 
It never anticipated such divisions as the present work 
has indicated, viz. Khen forms of speech from the Yoma, 
or Yo country ; and dialect after dialect from one river, 
the Koladyn, along with the several southern forms found 
in Tenasserim ; though these are less marked than the 
others. T think that it merely meant the variations 
which the Burmese, or Avan, eo nomine, as a separate 
substantive language, underwent. According to the 
view implied in this division, there would have been 
one great, and several smaller, languages. 

However, the Burmese and Ruklieng (of Arakan), 
under this view, are as follows : — 



Englisb. 


Burmese. 


Kukheng. 


Man 


lu 


youkkya 


Woman 


mairima 


mingma 


Head 


k'haung 


gaung 


Eye 


myitsi 


myitsi 


Mouth 


n'hok 


k and wen 


Sun 


na 


ni 


Moon 


la 


la 


Star 


ke'nekkat 


kre 


Sky 


moh 


kaungkan 


Fire 


mih 


mi 


Water 


re 


ri 


River 


myit 


mrik 


Sea 


I)engle 


panle 


Stone 


kyauk 


kyauk 


Mountain 


toung 


toung 


One 


tit 


taik 


Two 


n'hit 


n'haik 


Three 


thon 


thong 


Four 


le 


le 


Five 


nga 


na 


Six 


k'hyauk 


khrauk 


Seven 


k'how-n'hit 


k'hu-naik 


Eight 


s'hit 


s'hit 


Nine 


ko 


ko 


Ten 


tase 


tase. 



TREATISE OF SCHLEIERMACHER. 49 

Before the Rukheng became Burmese it, doubtless, gave 
us the analogues of the Kami, Mru, and Sak, multiplied by 
the number of the hills and valleys. With the Yoma this 
was stUl more the case ; less so with Tenasserim, where 
the Burmese is recent and intrusive and (as such) not to 
be found in the aboriginal dialects ; or (if found) found 
in a less degree. 

One of the opera majm-a in Comparative Philology is 
connected with the Burmese — a prize essay of Schleier- 
macher's. The question to be investigated was the 
effect of writing upon language. Schleiermacher argued 
that it was slight ; and, to justify his doctrine, compared 
the Burmese which had, according to all opinions, been 
written but a few centuries, with the Chinese that had, 
according to many opinions, been written for almost as 
many millennia. He showed that both were, essentially, 
the same ; and he infeired from this that lanomaores 
could be kept stationary without writing. The merit of 
Schleiermacher's treatise lay in. its inductive character. 
It took two facts and compared them. Had the 
work been worse than it is (and it is not unworthy of 
the great powers of the writer) it would have deserved 
the prize simply from this fact. I imagine that the 
majority of the candidates worked the question a priori; 
but — 

" illacrymabiles 

Urgentur ignotique, long4 .... 
Nocte, carent qnia Tate sacro." 

The first I knew of the Burmese was from this 
dissertation. I have not seen it quoted, either in 
Germany or in England. Nevertheless, from the simple 
fact of its inductive character, I look upon it as a 
landmark j and that, not only in the philology of these 
parts, but in comparative philology altogether. 



50 THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Thay, or Siamese, Group. — Its Extent and Direction. — The Siamese 
Proper.— The Laos.— The Khamti.— The Ahom.— The Shans.— The 
Palaong. —Cultivation of the Siamese Proper. 

The general name for the group now coming under 
notice is either Thay, or Siamese. It is represented by 
the literary language of Siani ; so that, being a small 
class, it is not very important whether we call it by the 
one name or the other. By a small class, I mean one 
which falls into few minor groups ; also one in which 
the differences of its two extremes are inconsiderable. 
In other respects the group is a large one. 

The Thay area is remarkable for its inordinate exten- 
sion in a vertical direction, i. e. from north to south. A 
Thay form of speech is spoken at the north-eastern end 
of Upper Asam, in contact with the Mishmi and the 
Singpho. This is in N. L. 28°. And a Thay form of 
speech is again spoken at the neck of the Malayan 
Peninsula, or as far south as N.L. *{°. Meanwhile, the 
breadth of this preposterously long strip of language is 
inconsiderable. Neither is its continuity demonstrated. 
How the Khamti districts meet the Laos, or whether 
they meet it at all, no one knows ; the details of the 
Singpho dialects and the Chinese of Yunnan being 
obscure. 

The Thay of the Lower Menam is the ordinary 
Siamese ; and it is in Siam where the Thay civiliza- 
tion is at its maximum. This is essentially Buddhist. 
I know of no Thay tribes that retain their original 
paganism. I know of none where Brahminism has 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



51 



made progress, and the language been preserved. The 
sacred literature of Siam is in the Pali tongue ; the 
secular in the native language. It is pre-eminently 
metrical ; little beyond the correspondence of ordinary 
life being in prose. The songs are in verse, the dramas 
in verse, the histories in verse. 

The Lau occupy the Upper and Middle Menam, their 
political relations being with Siam rather than Burma. 
A Lau is a Siamese Shan ; a Shan a Burmese Lau. 
Ruder than the Siamese of Bankok, the Lau are not 
only lettered Buddhists, but the possessors of a some- 
what peculiar alphabet. 



English. 


Laos. 


Siamese 


Man 


khon 


khon 


Hair 


phom 


phom 


Head 


ho 


hoa 


Ear 


pu 


pu 


Eye 


ta 


ta 


Blood 


lent 


lent 


Bone 


dnk 


kadok 


Foot 


ian 


tin 


Hand 


mil 


mtt 


Tooth 


khiaa 


khian 


Smu 


kangwaa 


tawan 


Moon 


dean 


tawan 


Star 


laa 


dau 


Fire 


fid 


fai 


Water 


iMun 


nam 


Stone 


pin 


jan 


Tree 


ton 


ton 


One 


nung 


nung 


Two 


song 


song 


Three 


taan 


sam 


Four 


A 


si 


Five 


hA 


ha 


Six 


hok 


hok 


Seven 


tset 


chet 


Eight 


pet 


pet 


Nine 


Iran 


kau 


Ten 


dp 


sip. 



The Khamti of the north-eastern parts of Asam are 
rude tribesmen, though not unlettered pagans. Tlieir 

E 2 



52 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



creed and alphabet are those of the Siamese, They are 
intruders, the original population having been akin to 
the Singpho. Such, at least, is the inference drawn from 
the condition of the Khaphok ; the Khaphok being said 
to be not only serfs to the Kharati but serfs who speak 
a language which certain Singpho understand. A por- 
tion, however, of the Khamti area may also have been 
Mishmi. 

The Khamti, however, are not the first members of 
the Thay family whose language found its way into 
Asam. The details of the Ahom conquest are obscure ; 
as is the date of it. When it took place, however, 
the Ahom, like the present Siamese, were a lettered 
nation, with a Buddhist creed and an alphabet like the 
Lau. Although, at the present time, there may be 
found much Ahom blood among the men who speak 
the Indian of Asam, the Ahom dialect itself is nearly 
extinct. 

The Thay of the Burmese Empire are called Shans ; 
the Shans being the occupants of a number of small 
States between the Burmese, the Siamese, and the 
Chinese frontiers. They are neither pagan nor unlet- 
tered ; their creed being Buddhist, their alphabet Lau 
or Thay. Of the Shan dialects, eo nomine, I know 
but little. I imagine, however; that the following voca- 
bularies must represent something like two extreme 
forms ; the former being from the Tenasserim frontier, 
the latter from the east of Bhamo. 



English. 


Ahom. 


Western Shan. 


Eastern Shan. 


Khamti. 


Man 


kun 


ktinputrihn 


koun 


kun 


Hair 


phrum 


khonho 


khounho 


phom 


Head 


kha 


ho 


ko 


ho 


Ear 


pik 


M 


mahou 


pu 


Eye 


ta 


matta 


weta 


ta 


Blood 


let 


lit 


let 


lut 


Bone 


tau 


sot 


loak 


nuk 


Foot 


tin 


ten 


tin 


tin 


Hand 


kha 


mi 


mhi 


mu 


Tooth 


khui 


khyo 


khio 


khui 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



53 



L'nglisli. 


Ahom. 


Western Shan. 


Eastern Shan. 


EhamI 


Sun 


ban 


kawon 


kanwan 


wan 


Moon 


den 


len 


lean 


liin 


Star 


dau 


loung 


lao 


nau 


Fire 


fai 


hpihn(?) 


fai 


fai 


Water 


nam 


nan 


nam 


nam 


Stone 


fra 


mahein 


mahin 


pin 


Tree 


tun 


ton 


toon 


tnn 


One 


ling 


nein 


neon 


niing 


Two 


sang 


htsonng 


tsong 


song 


Three 


Ram 


htsan 


tsam 


sam 


Four 


si 


htsi 


td 


81 


Five 


ha 


ha 


ha 


ha 


Six 


mk 


hoht 


houk 


hok 


Seven 


chit 


tsit 


tsat 


tset 


Eight 


pet 


tet 


piet 


pet 


Nine 


kau 


kown 


kao 


kau 


Ten 


sip 


tseit 


sib 


sip. 



The Palaong inhabit the valleys that lie beyond the 
first range of mountains to the south-east of Bhamo ; 
the mountains themselves being the occupancy of the 
Kakhyen — the Kakhyen being decidedly Singpho. To 
the south and west lie the Shan : to the east the 
obscure frontiers of the northern and north-western por- 
tions of the Kambojian and Anamitic areas. The fullest 
specimen of the Palaong language, eo nomine, is one 
collected by Bishop Bigaudet of the Ava and Pegu 
Mission ; upon which there is a short commentary, by 
Mr. Logan, with whom I, unwillingly, differ as to its 
affinities. I cannot connect it with the language of Co- 
chin-China and Kambojia rather than with those of 
Siam and Burma ; though it has (as is to be expected 
from its locality) decided south-eastern affinities. Mr. 
Logan attributes its Shan elements to contact and inter- 
mixture ; in my mind, gratuitously. 

English. Palaong. 

Head kon kho, Shan, d:c. 

Ear biok pik, Ahom 

Eye metsi — 

Foot djeuri tin, Thay 

Sun sengee — 

Star lao lao, Shan, dke. 



54 



THE THAY LANGUAGES. 



English. 

Water 

Stone 

Tree 

One 

Two 

Th/ree 

Fowr 

Five 

Six 

Seven 



Nine 
Ten 



Palaong. 
em 
mao 
tangae 
U 



phoun 

phan 

to 

phou 

ta 

tim 

kea 



nam, Shan 
mahin, SJuin 
tun, Ahom 

hai, Anamitic 
ba, Anamitic 
bon, Anamitic 
nam, Anamitic 
sau, Anamitic 
bay, Anamitic 
tarn', Anamitic 
chin', Anamitic 
mu'oi, Anamitic. 



The extent to whicli the Burmese and the Siamese 
lanofuagfes have been cultivated is much the same in 
each. Each is the language of a Buddhist population ; 
each is embodied in an alphabet of Indian origin ; and 
each, as a vehicle of literature, is placed in a disadvan- 
tageous position — each being, for every thing except the 
most ordinary secular purposes, replaced by the Pali. 
From this each has taken a great number of words. 

Still there is a native literature in both the Burmese 
and the Siamese. 

The earliest inscription in the latter language is 
referred to the beginning of the thirteenth century ; 
the grounds, however, that justify the assumption of 
antiquity are not very clear. 

The popular poetry is sometimes sung, sometimes recited : 
the music of the Siamese being spoken of with higher 
praise than that of the Burmese. The chief minstrels 
are from Laos, When an entertainment is given, a 
priest is invited to the house who recites a short story 
or an ode. Hence, a small vernacular literature of a 
lyric and romantic character — a very small one. Besides 
this, there is an approach to the drama. Except that 
the ode appears somewhat worse, and the drama some- 



The numerals are apparently borrowed. 



THE THAT LANGUAGES. 55 

^vbat better, than in Siara, this is the character of the 
Burmese literature as well. 

Siam itself is, as may be expected, the chief seat of 
the Thay stock ; probably the area which contains the 
greatest number of Thay individuals ; at any rate that 
where the Thay civilization is at its maximum. 
Whether the blood be the purest is another question. 
It is probable that this is far from being the case. If 
the dominant population be of northern origin, there is 
every chance that the conquest of the country was made 
by a male rather than a mixed population. And even 
if it were not so, there is an enormous amount of 
Chinese elements superadded to the original basis. 
Pallegoix's calculations make the sum-total of the popu- 
lation of Siam 6,000,000. Dr. Bowring put-s it at 
something between 4,500,000 and 5,000,000. Palle- 
goix's elements are as follows : — 

Thay 1,900,000 

Laos 100,000 

Karen, l „_ _^_ 

^, y . . . o0,000 

EJiongs j 

Mon 50,000 

Kambojians . . . 500,000 

Chinese .... 1,500,000 

Malays 1,000,000 

Like the Burmese, the Siamese have encroached on 
their neighbours. There has been, as has been stated, a 
Thay conquest of Asam. Kambojia pays tribute to 
both Siam and Cochin-China. In the Malay Peninsula, 
Ligore, Kedah, Patani, Perak, Kalantan, and Tringanu 
are, more or less, directly or indirectly, under Siamese 
control. 



56 THE MON AND KHO. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The M6n Language of Pegu. — ^The Kho of Kambojia, — Their Original 
Continuity. 

Pegu gives us a new language — the Mod ; the name 
being native. It is what the inhabitants of the Delta 
of the Irawadi call themselves. Their neighbours the 
Burmese call them Talieng. The Mon alphabet is of 
Pali origin : the Mon literature Buddhist. The Mon 
themselves are now British subjects. Before the cession 
of Pegu, they belonged to Ava — a fact which has a 
bearing on the history of their language. The Burmese 
has encroached upon it, and is encroaching ; indeed, I 
am told that there are few Mon who do not speak Bur- 
laese, some having unlearned their native language. 

In the 16 th century the king of Pegu seems to have 
been a powerful monarch ; inasmuch as the Thay 
histories speak of a Pegu invasion of Siam, and a Pegu 
conquest. Whether, however, the leading men in this 
event were actual Mon is uncertain. A conquest from 
the kingdom of Pegu may have been effected by Bur- 
mese. 

But little, too, is known of its nearest congener, the 
Kho, Kamer, or Chong of Kambojia. Its alphabet is 
Pali origin ; its literature Buddhist. It appears (though 
the evidence is not conclusive) to fall into more dialects 
and sub-dialects than one. 

Lying between Siam and Cochin-China, the kingdom 
of Kambojia has had the ordinary history of areas simi- 
larly situated. When it has been strong it has struck 
its own blows — to the right and to the left. When it 



THE MON AND KHO. 



57 



has been weak, it has been stricken on both sides. When 
the Portuguese first discovered the country, its power was 
at or near its zenith ; and Siam and Cochin-China were, 
at best, but its equals. At present they encroach upon 
it ; yet, jealous of each other, leave it a modicum of 
independence. So that, with the parts to the east of 
the Mekhong under Cochin-China, and with the western 
side under Siam, there is still a central portion under 
the king of Kambojia. The population is about 
500,000, of which about 400,000 are of the Kho 
family, the rest being Chinese, Cochin-Chinese, Siamese, 
Malays, Portuguese, and half-bloods. 



English. 


Mdn. 


Kambojia. 


Ka. 


Khong. 


Man 


bani 


manus 


— 


ram 


Head 


kadap 


kabal 


tnwi 


tos 


Eye 


mot 


panek 


mat 


mat 


Mouth 


pan 


mat 


boar 


raneng 


Sun 


man-tangwe 


tangai 


tangi 


tangi 


Moon 


man-katok 


ke 


kot 


kang 


Star 


nong 


pakai 


patua 


sum 


Sky 


taka 


kor 


krem 


pleng 


Fire 


kamet 


plung 


xm 


pleu 


Water 


dat 


tak 


dak 


tak 


River 


bukbi 


tanle 


dak -tan i 


talle 


Sea 


taUe 


earmot 


— 


— 


Stone 


kamok 


tamo 


t^moe 


tamot 


Mountain 


ta 


pnom 


manam 


nong 


One 


mne 


moe 


moe 


moe 


Two 


ba 


pir 


bur 


bar 


Three 


pai 


bai 


peh 


peh 


Four 


pol 


bnan 


puan 


pon 


Fire 


pason 


pram 


chang 


pram 


Six 


ka-rao 


pram-moe 


trao 


ka-dom 


Seven 


ka-bok 


pram-pil 


puh 


ka-nul 


Fight 


ka-cham 


pram-bai 


tam 


ka-ti 


Nine 


ka-chit 


pram-bxian 


chin 


ka-sar 


Ten 


cboh 


dap 


chit 


raL 



The Carnicobar language is Mon with Malay ele- 
ments. 



'58 THE ANDAMAN ISLANDERS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Andaman Islanders. 

So mucb has been said about the black skins and 
the savage habits of the Mincopie or Andaman is- 
landers, that the opinion of many ethnologists has 
been in favour of separating them from the populations 
of their neighbourhood, and either mixing them up 
with the so-called . Negritos, or making a separate class 
of them. They are noticed as early as the twelfth 
century, i. e. by the two Mahometan travellers of Re- 
naudot. These write, that beyond the Nicobar Islands 
" lies the sea of Andaman. The people on this coast 
eat human flesh quite raw ; their complexion is black, 
their hair frizzled, their countenance and eyes fi'ightful ; 
their feet are very large, and almost a cubit in length, 
and they go quite naked. They have no embarkations ; 
if they had, they would devour all the passengers they 
could lay hands on.'' Marco Polo writes equally unfavour- 
ably — " Andaman is a very large island, not governed 
by a king. The inhabitants are idolators, and are a 
most brutish and savage race, having heads, eyes, and 
teeth resembling those of the canine species. Their 
dispositions are cruel, and every person, not being of 
their own nation, whom they can lay hands on, they 
kill and eat." 

A Paper, by Lieutenant ' Colebrooke, is the chief 
source of our knowledge concerning the Mincopie, the 
author being indebted to his predecessors Major Kyd 
and Captain Blair, for some of his facts. He describes 
them as plunged in the grossest ignorance and barbarity ; 



THE ANDAMAN ISLANDERS. 



59 



bai'ely acquits them of the charge of cannibalism ; and 
unhesitatingly affirms that they are guilty of the 
murder of the crews of such vessels as may be wrecked 
upon their coast. Does he do this on the strength of 
his observation or his reading ? 

The late Sir Charles Malcolm, who had had one of 
the natives aboard-ship with him, took considerable 
pains to dilute the charges that lay against this ill-famed 
population, and spoke in strong terms as to the gentle- 
ness and docility of the individual with whom he thus 
came in contact. 

With the last year or two our knowledge of them 
has increased, and the extent to which they are Burmese 
is likely to be recognized. 



English. 


Andaman. 




Man 


kamolan 


chamai, Koreng, tkc. 


Hair 


otti 


khota, Sgau. 


Bead 


tabay 


tnwi, Ka. 


Eye 


jabay 




Ear 


kwaka 




Mouth 


moma 


boar, Xa. 


Arm 


pilie 




Nose 


melli 




Finger 


momay 




Hand 


gonie 






onie 


pang, Lakuppa. 


Blood 


kotshengolii 




Belly 


napoi 




Teeth 


mahoi 




Breast 


kah 




Tongue 


talie 




Bone 


gitongay 


ghi, Sgau. 


Chin 


pitang 




Foot 


guki 




Knee 


ingolay 




Leg 


tshigie 




Fire 


mona 


m^n, Sgau. 


Water 


migway 


may, ThounglAu. 


Shy 


madamo 




Sun 


ahay 




Moon 


tabic 




Star 


tshelobay 





60 



THE ANDAMAN ISLANDERS. 



English. 


Andaman. 




Wind 


tomjamy 




Wood 


tanghi 


ton = tree, Siamese; thinkung, 


House 


beaday 


Kapwi. 


Bird 


lohay 


tho, Sgau; tawu, iHfjit. 


Fish 


nabohi 


nya, Sgau. 


Black 


tshigiuga 




Cold 


tshoma. 





COCHIN-CHINA. 61 



k 



CHAPTER IX. 

CocMn-Cliiiia, or Annam, and Tonkin. 

The ethnology of Cochin-China is also that of Tonkin ; 
the language, manners, and physical conformation of the 
occupants of the two countries being the same. The 
collective name for them is Anam, or Annam ; whence 
•we get the adjectives Anamese or Anamitic, as the name 
of the group ; which is a section of the division to which 
the Chinese belong. The Tonkinese call the Cochin-Chi- 
nese Kuang and Kekuang ; names which are, probably, 
the same as Khyen and Kakhyen. The Cochin-Chinese, 
on the other hand, call the Tonkinese Kebak. 

Tabard, in the preface to the Anamitic Dictionary, 
expressly states that the language is spoken bej'ond the 
boundaries of both Tonkin, and Cochin-China, and that it 
extends into Siam, Kambojia, and Tsampa. If it ex- 
tend far into Kambojia, the Kho area must be of the 
smallest. 

In Kambojia, where we find Buddhism, we find it con- 
nected with a knowledge of the Pali language and the 
use of an Indian alphabet. The alphabet, however, 
in Anam is Chinese ; and it is Chinese which is the 
learned language. 

English. 

Man 

mad 

Eye 

Mouth 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 



Qese ; and 


it is Chinese 


which 


Cochin-China. 


Cochin-China. 


Tonkm. 


nga'oi 


danon 


nguoi 


dau 


tu 


di&a 


male 


mok 


mok 


mieng 


kaa 


kaa 


mat-troi 


nhet 


nit 


mat-tran 


blang 


blang 


sac 


sao 


sao 



62 





COCHIN-CHINA. 




English. 


Cocliin-China. Cochin-China. 


Tonkin, 


Sky 


troi bloei 


bloei 


Fire 


lu'a hoa 


hoa 


Water 


nu'oe nak 


nak 


River 


song sou 


sou 


Sea 


Men be 


be 


Stone 


da ta 


dia 


Mowntain 


nui nui 


nui 


One 


mot mot 


mot 


Two 


bai bai 


hai 


Three 


ba teng 


t<am 


Four 


bon bon 


bon 


Five 


nam lang 


lam 


Six 


sau lak 


Ink 


Seven 


bay bai 


bai 


Eight 


tarn' tang 


tarn 


Niiie 


cbin' chin 


chim 


Ten 


mu'oi taap 


tap. 



The Anam analogues of the Ka and Chong, the rude 
tribes of the more impracticable parts, are the tribes of 
the Nguon, Moi, Komoi, Kemoi and, Diditsh (all un- 
known in detail), who occupy the mountain ranges 
between Tonkin and Cochin-China, and Cochin-China and 
Kambojia. 



CHINA. 63 



CHAPTER X 

China. — Canton, Fokien, and Mandarin Dialects. — Stagfts. — Are there anyl 
— Gyami. — Tanguti. 

Of the dialects of the Chinese Proper, as opposed to the 
Anamitic of Tonkin, we know but little ; little, at least, 
for such a country as China, with its vast area and its 
numerous inhabitants. Indeed, if we consider this, it is 
a country for which our knowledge of its local dialects 
is at a minimum,. Elsewhere we generally know some- 
thing of the details of what may be called the fringe ; 
i. e. the tract where two countries come in contact with 
each other. But China has so thoroughly overlapped all 
its neighbouring populations, that knowledge of this 
kind is out of the question. Add to this, the fact of its 
being, as China, a terru ina)gnita for anything but a 
few points on the coast. 

Still there are a few weak lights. They chiefly shine 
on the south and the west. 

The most southern dialect for which we have speci- 
mens, is that of the province of Quantong, or Canton — 
and next to this, that of Hokien, or Fokien, for which 
■we have the elaborate dictionary of Medhurst. Med- 
hurst himself was not in China ; but he knew the 
Chinese as a resident in Liverpool, who had made it his 
business to attend exclusively to the Irish, might know 
the Irish Gaehc. He was connected with the Chinese of 
the great immigration to the Malayan Peninsula and the 
Indian Islands. Of these the majority were fiom the 
south. 

Medhurst commits himself most explicitly to the 



64 CHINESE DIALECTS. 

statement that there are forms of even the Canton and 
the Fokien dialects which are mutually unintelligible ; 
and adds that, in his intercourse with the Chinese emi- 
grants of the Indian Archipelago, he has more than 
once had occasion to interpret between them. He also 
adds that, in the same province, the dilFerence of dialects 
is sometimes so great, that people divided by a moun- 
tain, a' river, or twenty miles of country, are mutually 
unintelligible. That statements of this kind must be 
received with caution has already been suggested. 
Meanwhile, in the ten divisions of the province of 
Fokien, there are as many dialects ; Fokien being one 
of the smallest provinces of the empire. 

The Fokien is not so provincial a dialect as to re- 
main unwritten. On the contrary, the work from 
which the preceding observations are drawn, is founded 
upon a native publication, the Sip gnoe yimffzz fifteen 
sounds, published in 1818, in which not only the pecu- 
liarities of the Fokien dialect are given, but the 
difference between the reading idiom and the colloquial. 
Another work of the same kind is quoted by Adelung 
from Bayer, aod, doubtless, there are more of the same 
kind. This means that the Fokien, though not the 
classical, is one of the written languages of China. 

The classical language of China is the Mandarin, it 
being in the Mandarin dialect that the business of 
the empire is carried on. It is also the language of the 
Chinese literature. Whatever may be the antiquity of 
this, the antiquity of the oldest specimen of the language 
is but moderate. It is, of course, as old as the oldest 
copy of the book that contains it, and it is very probable 
that it is not much older. At any rate, any antiquity 
beyond this that may be claimed for it, should be proved 
rather than assumed. Those who believe in the great 
age of the earliest Chinese literature, e. g. those who not 
only believe that the works of Confucius (for instance) 
have come down to us, but that Confucius lived some- 



STAGES OF CHINESE. 65 

where between the times of Archilochus and u^Ischj'Ius, 
reasonably expect that, as the Greek of the days of 
Solon differs from the Greek of the reign of King Otho, 
the Chinese shall do the same ; not, perhaps, to the 
same extent, but still to some extent — to an extent 
sufficient to enable us to talk about the stages of the lan- 
guage, and to compare the old Chinese with the middle, 
and the middle with the modern. Something, too, they 
may reasonably expect illustrative of the history and 
development of the language ; though, from the fact of 
the present Chinese being in an early stage of develop- 
ment, not very much. Little, however, of all this will 
they actually find. The difference between the Manda- 
rin of to-day, and the oldest classical Chinese is (roughly 
speaking) the difference of two centuries, rather than 
two millenniums — assuming, of course, anything like an 
ordinary rate of change. 

But is there not in China an amount of unchanging 
immobility, in language as in other matters, which we 
fail to find elsewhere ? To this I answer that such may 
be, or may not be, the case. Let it be proven, and it 
is an important fact in the history of mankind. At 
present it is enough to state that nothing in the 
way of the language of China is older than the oldest 
copy which exhibits it, except so far as its antiquity 
is supported by better reasons than the supposed an- 
tiquity of the author. 

Concernincf the dialect out of which the Mandarin 
was more especially developed, we may safely say 
that it must be sought to the north of the province 
of Fokien, and the south of the province of Pecheli. 
This means that the group to which it belongs has its 
area in the middle of the empire. The extent to which 
it is other than southern has already been indicated. 
The extent to which it is other than northern, is in- 
ferred from the direction in which it has extended 
itself. On some points (at least) it is less archaic than 
the Canton. 

F 



66 



GYAMI VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Mandarin. 


Cantun 


Head 


te*u 


te'u 


Eye 


ma 


mok 


Ear 


61 


y 


Nose 


pi 


pi 


Mouth 


ke'u 


hou 


Tongue 


shi 


shit 


Hand 


shea 


sheu 


Foot 


kio 


koh 


Blood 


khiue 


hiut 


Sun 


zhi 


yat 


Moon 


yue 


yuet 


Star 


zing 


zing 


Fire 


kho 


ho 


Water 


shui 


shoi 


Tree 


mu 


mok 


Stone 


eki 


shap 


One 


i 


yik 


Two 


ny 


y 


Three 


zan 


zam 


Four 


EZU 


si 


Five 


ngu 


ong 


Six 


Iti 


lok 


Seven 


tsi 


tsat 


Eight 


pa 


pat 


Nine 


kiea 


kou 


Ten 


ski 


shap. 



Of the Chinese of the extreme west I only know 
the Gyami vocabulary of Hodgson. A vocabulary 
of Stralenberg's, headed "Tanguliti who belong to the 
Dalai Lama, and have one religion with the Kalmues 
and Mungals/' is Bhot. 

1. 



English. 


Gyami. 


English. 


Gyami. 


Man 


rin 


Two 


liangka 


Head 


thau 


Three 


sangku 


Hand 


syu 


Four 


siku 


Foot 


chyaa 


Five 


wuku 


Sun 


rethau 


Six 


leuku 


Moon 


yoliang 


Seven 


chhiku 


Star 


singsha 


Eight 


paku 


Fire 


akkha 


Nine 


chyaku 


Water 


shiu 


Ten 


iseba. 


One 


iku 







TANGUHTI VOCABULARY. 



G7 



Znglish. 


Tanguliti. 


Engrsh. 


Tangnbti 


Father 


pha, abba 


Foot 


kangwa 


Mother 


mha, amma 


One 


dschyk 


Brother 


pungu 


Two 


ny.na 


Sister 


poima 


Three 


Esaam 


Wife 


dsgvmse 


Four 


dscysx 


Fire 


may 


Fire 


duga 


Water 


tzu, loo 


Six 


umch 


Earth 


tza 


Seven 


dhnn 


Mountain 


la, rhe 


Eight 


dsqnat 


Sun 


nara, nima 


Nine 


dsgu-tomba 


Moon 


dawa 


Ten 


dsgyn 


Horse 


tha 


Eleven 


dsgu -dschyk 


Bog 


ky 


Twelve 


dsgu-ny 


Bead 


mgho 


Twenty 


nyr-dschyk 


Stream 


tza 


Thirty 


nyr-dsgu-tomba 


Wind 


long 


Forty 


dschyack-dsgu 


Man (homo) 


my 


Fifty 


duga -dsgu 


Eye 


myhi 


Sixty 


dhuin-d^n 


Tongue 


thgi 


Seventy 


dsgliat-dsgu 


Mouth 


cha 


Eighty 


dsgu-tomba -dsgu 


House 


tangwa 


Ninety 


dsgu-dsgli 


Iron 


tscha, tawar 


One Hundred 


yreen 


Gold 


siiT, kinsa 


One Thousand 


namm. 


Silver 


mai, insa 







F 2. 



68 



BROWN'S TABLES. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Observations on the Preceding Groups. — Brown's Tables. — Affinity between 
the Burmese and Tibetan. — Direction of the Chinese. — Nearest Con- 
geners to the Malay. —Indian Affinities of the Mon. 



The first reduction of the languages of the preceding 
chapter to anything like system is to be found in the 
papers of Buchanan and Leyden in the early numbers 
of the Asiatic Transactions. The next landmark is 
Brown's vocabularies and table. Of the former we 
have already spoken. The latter is as follows : — 















<i3 










^ 










3 


03 


5. 




.si 






a5 




'-3 


q3 

92 


1 


. s 

1 5 


8 


8 


o 

a 

3 


10 


2 
3 


1 
"3 


6C 

a. 

CO 

1 


% 



a 


1 


a 




"a 

a 







H 




C 




60 

H 




.'2 
"0 
-a 
« 







a) 

a 

5 


Khamti . . . . 


Siamese . . . 


92 







3 


6 


8 


3 


10 


1 


3 


1 





1 


























5 


A'ka 


1 







47 20 


17 


12 


15 


15 


5 


11 


3 


10 


3 


8 


8 


8 


5 


6 


10 


8 


10 





A'bor 


1 





47 


!20 


11 


10 


18 


11 


6 


15 


6 


11 


5 


8 


6 


8 


8 


8 


10 


10 


18 





MishimI . . . 


5 


3 


20 


20 


10 


10 


10 


13 


10 


11 





11 





3 


5 


6 


8 


6 


13 


10 


8 


1 


Burmese . . . 


8 


6 


17 


1110 




23 


23 


26 


12 


16 


8 


20 


6 


11 


11 


11 


10 


13 


13 


16 


16 


1 


Karen 


8 


8 


12 


10 10 


23 




17 


21 


8 


15 


10 


15 


8 


12 


4 


12 


8 


12 


12 


10 


15 


2 


Singpho .... 


o 


3 


15 


18 10 


23 


17 




70 


16 


25 


10 


18 


11 


11 


13 


15 


13 


25 


13 


20 


18 


5 


Jill 


10 


10 


15 


1113 


26 


21 


70 




22 


16 


10 


21 


13 


11 


11 


18 


20 


20 


13 


20 


20 


3 


Garo ..... 


3 


1 


5 


6 10 


12 


8 


16 


22 




10 


5 


6 


5 


8 


5 


8 


13 


11 


5 


6 


6 


3 


Manipurl . . . 


3 


3 


11 


15 11 


16 


15 


25 


16 


10 




21 


41 


18 


25 


28 


31 


28 


36 


33 


40 


50 


6 


Songpu . . . . 


1 


1 


3 


6 


8 


10 


10 


10 


5 


21 




35 


50 


53 


20 


23 


15 


15 


13 


8 


16 


6 


Kapwl . . . . 








10 


1111 


20 


15 


18 


21 


6 


41 


35 




30 


33 


20 


35 


30 


40 


45 


38 


40 


5 


Koreng . . . . 


1 


1 


3 


5 


6 


8 


11 


13 


5 


18 


50 


30 




41 


18 


21 


20 


20 


— 


10 


16 


3 


Maram . . . . 








8 


8, 3 


11 


12 


11 


11 


8 


25 


53 


33 


41 




2128 


25 


20 


16 


23 


26 


3 


Camphung . . 








8 


6l 5 


11 


4 


13 


11 


5 


28 


20 


20 


18 


21 




40 


20 


20 


16 


15 


25 


3 


Luhuppa . . . 








8 


8 6 11 


12 


15 


18 


8 


31 


23 


35 


21 


28 


40 




63 


56 


36 


33 


40 


6 


N. Tangkhnl . 








5 


8 8 


10 


8 


13 


20 


13 


28 


15 


30 


20 


25 


20 


63 




85 


30 


31 


31 


3 


C. T&ngkhul . 








6 


8' 6 


13 


12 


25 


20 


11 


35 


15 


40 


20 


20 


20 


55 


85 




41 


46 


41 


1 


S. T&ngkhul . 








10 


10 13 


13 


12 


13 


13 


5, 


33 


13 


45 


11 


16 


16 


36 


30 


41 




43 


43 


6 


Khoiba .... 








8 


10 10 


16 


10 


20 


20 


s! 


40 


8 


38 


10 


23 


15 


33 


31 


46 


43 




78 


3 


Maring .... 








10 


18' 8 


16 


15 


18 


20 


5:50 


15 


40 


15 


26 


26 


40 


31 


4] 


43 


78 




3 


Anamese . . . 


5 


5 





O' 1 


1 


2 


5 


3 


3' 6 


6 


5 


3 3| 


3 


5 


3 


1 


6 


3 


3 





DIRECTION OF THE CHINESE. 69 

Whoever studies it must see that, between the per- 
centages of the Anamitic and Siamese on one side, and 
those of the remaining forms of speech on the other, 
there are the elements of a great chiss. This comprises 
the Singpho and the Jill — specially allied to each other. 
But it also gives a decided affinity between the Jili and 
the Garo, which brings the languages of India and the 
extremity of Asam in connection. 

The affinities of the Garo with the Tibetan were 
indicated by Robinson, and the indication was legiti- 
mate ; though it would have been better, perhaps, to 
have made them Burmese. At any rate it was good 
against Mr. Hodgson's view, which made them Indian 
rather than Monosyllabic at all — a view which, with 
laudable candour, he after wai-ds rehnquished. 

Soon afterwards additional vocabularies, accompanied 
with a few short but sound remarks, added the whole 
Naga group to this class. 

The relations of the Bm-mese, Mon, Siamese, Anamitic, 
and Chinese to each other form the basis of more than one 
speculation. They bear upon the history of the exten- 
sion and development of the Chinese itself They bear 
upon the origin and direction of the Thay and Burmese 
movements. They bear upon the relations of the Malay 
languages to those of the continent. Finally, the 
Indian elements of the Mon have commanded atten- 
tion. 

1. If the nearest congeners of the Chinese be in the 
south and east, the lines of conquest and encroachment 
on the part of that inordinately-extensive population 
must have run north and west. At present the lan- 
guages with which the Chinese lies in contact give con- 
trasts rather than affinities. With the Mantshu and 
Mongol, and even with the Corean, this is notoriously 
the case ; and, to a great extent, it is the case with 
the Tibetan. On the north and west the Chinese keeps 
encroaching at the present moment — at the expense of 



70 



PEROENTAaES OF BEOWFS TABLES. 



the Mantslm and the Mongolian. For the provinces of 
Chansi, Pe-tche-li, Chantung, Honan, &;c., — indeed, for 
four-fifths of the whole empire, the uniformity of speech 
indicates a recent diffusion. In Setshuen and Yunnan the 
type changes, probably from that of the true Chinese to 
the Tibetan, Thay, and Burmese. In Tonkin and Cochin - 
China the language is like but different — like enough to 
be the only monosyllabic language which is placed by any 
one in the same section with the Chinese, but different 
enough to make this position of it a matter of doubt 
with many. Putting all this together, the south and 
south-eastern provinces of China appear to be the oddest 
portions of the present area. 

2. Separated as they are, the Mon and Kho are liker 
to each other than either is to the interjacent Siamese; 
the inference from this being that at one time they were 
connected by transitional and intermediate dialects, ab- 
original to the lower Menam, but now displaced by the 
Siamese of Bankok introduced from the parts to the 
northwards. 

3. If so, the nearest congener to the Malay of the 
Malayan Peninsula is not the present Siamese, but the 
language which the present Siamese displaced. 

The southern Thay dialects are not only less like the 
Mon and Kho than is expected from their locality, but 
the northern ones are less like those of the Indo-Bur- 
mese frontier and Asam than the geographical contiguity 
prepares us to surmise ; since the percentage of words 
common to the Khamti and the other dialects of Muni- 
pur and Asam is only as follows. 



Siamese. 


Kliam' L 









per cen*^. 


■ttitli th 


3 Mar&m. 





„ 




Camphung. 





,. 




Luliuppa. 





„ 




North Tankhul. 





„ 




Central Tfi,ukbul 










Khoibti. 










Mariiig. 



INDIAN ELEMENTS IN THE MON. 



71 



Siamese. 


Khaciti. 











per cent. 


with the Kapwi. 


1 


1 






Koreng. 


1 


1 






Songpu. 





1 






Aka. 





1 






Abor. 





3 






Sonth Tankhul 


1 


3 






Garo. 


3 


3 






Munipuri. 


3 


5 






Mishimi. 


6 


8 






Burmese. 


8 


8 






Karen. 


3 


3 






Singpho. 


10 


10 






Jill. 



I 



The further the Thay runs south, the more it stands 
in contrast to the languages by which it is bounded. 
Those with which it has the most affinities are the 
Singpho dialects, and after these the Western Shot. It 
seems as if the Menam directed its course. It follows 
its stream, displaces the forms of speech by which the 
Mon and Kho may reasonably be held to have gradu- 
ated into each other, and, having done this, comes in 
immediate contact with the Malay, with which it has 
fewer affinities than its juxtaposition suggests.' For — 

The true Malay affinities are with the Kho and Mon, or 
rather with that intermediate variety which the spread of 
the Thay abolished. No wonder, then, that its connec- 
tion with the languages of the continent .is obscure. 

4. A paper of Mr. Mason's, in the Transactions of 
the American Oriental Society, exhibits some remarkable 
points of likeness between the Mon and certain lan- 
guages of India. The fii'st numerals are especially 
prominent in this comparison. 

Does this justify us in connecting the two forms of 
speech ? I doubt it. The question, however, will be 
considered when India comes under notice. 



72 THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER XII. 

The Tungds Class. — Mantslifi and Orotshong. — Orthogi-apliy of CastrSn's 
Tungus Grammar. 

The Tungus area is large in extent, irregular in outline, 
and obscure in its relations. On the south it conies in 
contact with China and Corea ; on the south-west with 
Mongolia. Between Corea and the Amur, it reaches the 
sea ; the peninsula, however, of Sagalin and the mouth 
of the Amur itself are Kurilian. It crops out again to 
the north ; and the shores of the Sea of Okotsk are 
the occupancy of the Lamut Tungus to the south and 
the Koriaks to the north. There are sporadic Tungus 
further on — on the coast of the gulf of Penjinsk, and 
even in the peninsula of Kamtchatka. The AJdan, a 
feeder of the Lena, is pre-eminently a Tungus river : so 
is the Tunguska (as its name indicates), a feeder of the 
Yenisey. And this gives us a notion of the magni- 
tude of the area in its western and northern prolonga- 
tions. Between the Yenisey and the Kolyma it is con- 
tinually presenting itself; so that there are Tungtis 
in contact with the Koriaks, the Jukahiri, the Jakuts, 
and the Samoyeds. There are Tungus on the Wall of 
China, and there are Tungus on the shores of the Arctic 
Ocean. 

The class falls into two divisions — the Mantshii and 
the Orotong or Orotshong ; the former giving the Tung4s 
of the Amur, the latter the Tungus of the Lena and 
Yenisey. The former gives the Tungus of the Chinese 
Empire, the Tungus of the Imperial Dynasty, the Tungtis 
of a Buddhist literature and Mongol alpliabet, the Tun- 



THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 73 

giis of the civilized section of the name. The latter 
belongs to Kussia and Siberia, and, except so far as it 
has been cultivated by Europeans, is an unwritten lan- 
guage. 

The term Orotong is Alantshti ; being applied by the 
Mantshurians to such other members of the stock as are 
other than Mantshu. The tribes, however, of the Lower 
Tunguska apply it to themselves. In its more limited 
sense, Tungus itself coincides with Orotong. No one 
ever calls a Mantshu a Tungus. A Tungus Gnxinimary 
however, is the title of Castren's work on the Orotong 
of Irkutsk, and its allied dialects. 

In respect to the direction in which the Tungus lan- 
guage has spread itself it is safe to say thus much, viz. 
that it runs from east to west, and from south to north, 
rather than vice versa. There are good grounds for 
holding that both the Corean and the Kurilian extended 
beyond their present limits ; so that it is likely that the 
Mantshus were originally strangers to the Sea of Japan. 
The evidence that the Tungus of the Arctic and Sub- 
arctic regions is intrusive, is more satisfactory still. Th'" 
head-waters of the Amtir, and the parts about Nerts- 
hinsk, give a good provisional origin to the Tungus. 

The Mantshu alphabet — the alphabet of a language 
with a very scanty literature — is a modification of the 
Mongol. The Orotshong dialects, however, are given 
either in Russian or Italian letters : the Tungus Gram- 
mar of Castren being in the latter. 

The following are the more important terms connected 
with the ethnolog}' and philology of the Tungus : — 

Lamut. — This means sea, and it applies to the Tun- 
gus of the Sea of Okotsk. The affinities of the Lamut 
dialects run in the direction of — 

Dauria. — The Daurian Tungus are those of the 
Baikal Lake, the Sayanian Mountains, and the circles of 
Verkneudinsk and Nertskintsk. It is the dialects and 



74 THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 

sub-dialects of these tribes that are more especially illus- 
trated in Castreu's Grammar, which most particularly 
gives the dialects of the Urulga and Maniko tribes. Of 
the language of 

Tshapodzhir Tungtis, we have vocabularies only. 
They occupy the banks of the Yenisey, and constitute 
the most western division of the stock. 

The differences of the Tungtis forms of speech lie 
within a narrow compass, and (I believe) coincide with 
the geography of the area. Between the Lamut and 
the Tshapodzhir there is, apparently, a greater difference 
than can be found between any interjacent varieties. 
The same applies to the Nertshinsk dialects of the south, 
and more northern dialects of the Yakut and Samoyed 
districts. In short, the different forms of speech gra- 
duate into each other. They also take slight modifica- 
tions from the languages of their several frontiers. On 
the south, the Mantshu is encroached upon by the 
Chinese. In Siberia, it takes in Russian, Mongol, and 
Turk words. About the Mantshti of the Kurilian fron- 
tier more will be said in the sequel. 

The Mongols call the MRntshn either JJzun Dzhurtsh it 
or Angga Dzhurtshit ; and this is a word which appears 
and reappears under a multiplicity of forms. It is 
Tshurtshit, Zhudzhi, Nyudzhi, and Geougen ; the 
latter being a name of some, real or apparent, historical 
importance. Castren has allowed himself to believe 
tliat a population bearing this name in certain of the 
Chinese compositions, was as old as the eleventh cen- 
tury before our sera. They were barbarians who paid 
an insignificant tribute to China. The truly historical 
Nyudzhi, however, are the founders of the present 
Chinese dynasty, their conquests having been effected 
about A.D. 1644 ; and it may be added that a Nyudzhi 
vocabulary, taken by Klapoth from a Chinese narrative, 
is Mantshij. 



\ 



THE TUNGL'S LANGUAGES. 



75 



Gastrin found outlying Tsliapodzhirs as far west as 
the Obi. In Bronson, a vocabulary of the Giliak lan- 
guage, often — I believe, generally — considered to be 
Kurilian, is Mantshu. 

The Mantshu call — 



China 


Nikan. 


The Mongolians . 


Monga. 


The Russians 


Oros. 


Nertshinsk 


Ntjttshi, 


The Giliak. 


Fiaka. 


Korea 


SoJgo. 



Tlie last name is remarkable because the Mantshu 
tribes of the Upper Sagalin are called Solon ; and 
because there is evidence of other kinds that a portion, 
at least, of what is now Mantshuria, was once Korea. 



Englisk 


Maul&ha. 


Tnngds of the Am6r. 


Man {homo) 


beye 






Head 


ndzhn 


topti 


Hair 


faniekhe 


nnrikta 


Eye 


yasa 


yesa 


Ear 


shan 


syen 


Nose 


okhoFO 


ongokto 


Mouth 


anga 


ommila 


Tongue 


ilengu 


ini 


Tooth 


Teikhe 


ikta 


Hand 


gala 


nyala 


Foot 


betkhe 


adbigi 


SutL 


shUn 


delesa 


Moo* 


bia 


bega 


Star 


nzhikha 


ohikta 


Fire 


toa 


toho 


Water 


muke 


mu 


Stone 


vekbe 


dsholo 


One 


emu 


ma 


Two 


dzheio 


dyul 


Three 


elan 


ehi 


Pour 


diun 


duye 


Five 


snndzha 


tonsa 


Six 


ningfjim 


nyuyu 


Seren 


nadan 


nada 


Eight 


dzakun 


tshapku 


Nine 


uyun 


khuju 


Ten 


dzfanan 


dzh--. 



76 



THP] TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



The following short tables give a notion of the sub- 
dialects of this division : — 



English. 


Middle Amur. 


Moutliof Sangara. 


Mantsbu. 


Kisi. 


Om 


amuu 


omu 


amoa 


omu 


Two 


dyno 


dzur 


dzhoua 


dyul 


Three 


elan 


ela 


gilang 


ela 


Four 


diyia 


duye 


tuye 


duye 


Five 


tonsya 


tonga 


sundzha 


tonsa 


Six 


nunyun 


nyungu 


nyunguen 


nyungu 


Seven 


nadan 


nada 


nadang 


nada 


Eight 


dzabkun 


dzhakfo 


tsakoi 


tshapku 


Nine 


yogin 


huyu 


uyen 


khuyii 


Tea 


dzhan 


dzhoa 


dzhuyen 


dzha. 



Dialects other than Mantshu. 



1. 



English. 


Nertshinsk. 


Yakutsk. 


Lamut. 


Man (homo) 


boie 


boye 


bye 


Bead 


deli 


dyll 


del 


Hair 


nyurikta 


nyuritta 


nyurit 


Eye 


isal 


eha 


esel 


Ear 


zin 


zen 


korot 


Nose 


ongokta 


ongokto 


ongata 


Mouth 


amga 


hamun 


amga 


Tongue 


ingni 


ingni 


ilga 


Band 


dzlialan 


nggala 


ngal 


Foot 


bokdil 


halgan 


bodan 


Sun 


shivun 


ziguni 


nyultan 


Moon 


biga 


bega 


bekh 


Star 


oshikta 


haulen 


otshikat 


Fire 


togo 


togo 


toh 


Water 


mu 


mu 


ma 


Tree 


mo 


mo 


mo 


Stone 


dzhalo 


dzholo 


dzhola 


One 


omon 


fimukon 


omin 


Two 


dzhur 


dzhur 


dzhur 


Three 


ilan 


elan 


elan 


Four 


dygin 


dygin 


dugUn 


Five 


tongna 


tonga 


tongau 


Six 


nyungua 


nyungun 


nyungun 


Seven 


nadan 


nadan 


nadan 


Eight 


dzhapkun 


dzapkan 


dzbapkan 


Nine 


yagyn 


jagin 


uyun 


Ten 


dzhan 


dzhan 


men. 



THE TUNGUS LANGUAGES. 



77 



English. 


Yeneseu 


2. 

Tshapodzhir. 


L. Tnngnska. 


Mangasela. 


Man (homo) boya 


doyo 


boya 


boyo 


ffead 


dil 


dyl 


dil 


dil 


Hair 


nyivrikta 


nyurikta 


nuriktah 


nyurikta 


Eye 


osha 


esha 


ohsah 


esha 


Ear 


shin 


shern 


syen 


shen 


Nose 


nigsha 


oiokota 


onoktah 


ongokto 


Mouth 


amga 


ainga 


amga 


ammungah 


Hand 


hanga 


nali 


ngala 


ngala 


Foot 


halgar 


bodol 


khalgan 


halgan 


Sun 


shiggun 


dylega 


delatsha 


delyadzya 


Moon 


byega 




baga 


beya 




Star 


oshikta 


oshikta 


oshikta 


oshikta 


Fire 


toggo 


togo 


toggo 


togo 


Water 


ma 


mu 


mui 


mu 


Tree 


mo 


mo 


mo 


mo 


Stone 


dishollo 


zhyulo 


hysha 


dzyollo 


One 


ummukon 


omukon 


mnkon 


ommukon 


Two 


dzyur 


dzhur 


dyur 


dyur 


Three 


illun 


ilan 


ilan 


illen 


Four 


diggin 


dygyn 


degenn 


diggin 


Five 


tungya 


tunga 


tonga 


tongna 


Six 


nyungun 


nugun 


nungnn 


nynngun 


Seven 


nadan 


nadan 


naddan 


naddan 


Eight 


dzyapkun 


dzhamkun 


dzhapkul 


dzapkun 


Nine 


yegin 


yegin 


iyogyin 


yogyin 


Ten 


dzyan 


dzhan 


dyann 


dzhan. 



Castren's Tungus Grammar is drawn up in the ordi- 
nary Roman alphabet, the author having preferred this 
to the Russian. The latter would, indeed, have fitted 
the language well, being both more copious than the 
Roman, and being already applied to more than one 
language of Northern Asia. More than this : one of 
Castren's own grammars — that of the Ostiak language 
— is Russian in respect to its letters. Nevertheless, the 
Tungus orthography is Roman, the grammar itself being 
in German. 

The introduction of the European alphabets into Rus- 
sian Asia is a point which we may advantageously con- 
template, inasmuch as the principles by which it has 
been regulated are, if not unexceptionable, at least laud- 
able. 



78 TUKGUS ORTHOGRAPHY. 

These alphabets are two : the Russian and the 
Roman or Italian. The former is the easier to handle 
— the easier by far. By this I mean that, when an 
unwritten language has to be written, and the elemen- 
tary sounds of that unwritten language are new and 
strange, the Russian orthography can be applied with 
greater ease than any other in Europe. Of the pre- 
viously unwritten languages, the following have, within 
the last few years, been embodied by means of the 
Russian alphabet : — 

1. The Aleutian of the Islands between Kamtskatka 
and America. 

2. The Iron, or Osset, of Caucasus ; the application 
being made by Sjogren. 

3. The Ostiak ; the application being made by Cas- 
tren. This was in 1849. 

4. The Yakut ; the application being made by Mid- 
dendorf and Botlinck. 

What have been the applications of the Roman alpha- 
bet ? — what the principles on which those applications 
were made ? To the Fin of Finland it had been applied 
from the beginning; Finland having, until 1812, been 
Swedish. On the other hand, the Zirianian and the 
Permian languages are written in Russian. The Esto- 
nian, however, and the Magyar are Roman ; so that, on 
the whole, it is not too much to say that the Roman is 
the alphabet for the Fin family. 

In 1830, the great Danish philologue, Rask, found 
his attention dii-ected to the Georgian and Armenian 
languages ; each with an alphabet one-third longer than 
our own, and each with strange sounds for those alpha- 
bets to express. However, they did express them : 
having signs or letters to match. These signs Rask 
transliterated into Roman ; and that upon a principle 
which, though negative rather than positive, is worthy 
of imitation as far as it goes. He avoided the expres- 
sion of simple sounds by complex combinations. If a 



TUNGUS ORTHOGRAPUY. 79 

new sound appeared, a new sign was excogitated. It 
might be wholly new, it might be an old letter modified. 
The former gives us the better and bolder, the latter the 
more usual and easier, plan. How^ever, in the proposed 
alphabet the Greorgian runs thus : — 



a, 


e, 


h 


o, 


u, 


p> 


f, 


V, 


F. 


t, 


d, 


\>, 


k, 


§> 


fe, 


T' 


q> 


X, 


s, 


z, 


s. 


z, 


c, 


3, 


3. 


c, 


i, 


3. 


h 


\ 


ii, 


1, 


m. 


n, 


r, 


1.1. 



f, ]>, and k, were sounded as the ph, th, and kh in 
ha-pAazard, nu-/Aook, and iu-A7iorn ; the original alpha- 
bets having thus compendiously expressed three pairs of 
compound sounds. If it were not for this, the combina- 
tions of p, t, k, and h would have suflBced. The y was, 
nearly or exactly, the Arabic A, a variety of g. The 
corresponding variety of k is expressed by q, compared 
to the Arabic ;;. Another guttural was expressed by x 
(Aiabic •). For two varieties of h, were proposed h 
and i) ; for the sibilants s' (sh) ; z' (zh) ; c (is) ; c' (tsh) ; 
5 (dz) ; 3 {dzh or the English j). Then, for a pair of 
sounds described as approaching dhz, and dhzh, 3 and 3. 
The Ai-menian transliteration had the additional si^ns 6, 
e, t, and r. 



a, 


e, 


e, 


e, 


h 


0, 


u, 


P» 


b, u or w 


V, 


F> 


t, 


d, 


h 


k, 


g. 


k, 


f or i 


X, 


s, 


z, 


1 


i, 


c, 


3, 


3. 


c, 


i 


3> 


1, 


m, 


n, 


r, 


r, 


h 


h. 



Previous to the work in which these two alphabets 
were proposed, the author had been engaged on the Lap 
of Norwegian Lapland, and had published a grammar 
on it, in which the signs 5 and 3 were introduced ; as 
well as n for the ng in king, sing, kc. 

Though Castren's Ostiak Grammar, published in 
1849, is in Russian, his Zirianian Grammar, published 



80 NYUTSHI RECORDS. 

in 1844, is in Eoman letters; these being those of 
Eask, except that for 5 and 3, lie used dz and dz. 
The Samoyed was the next sound-system he found 
it necessary to investigate. Here there were two 
modifications of I, viz., t, \, and {; the sound of the gn 
in French words like Boulogne, alonoj with similar modi- 
fications of d, t, s, z, and c ; which were written dy, ty, 
sy, zy, tshy — there or thereabouts. 

Lastly, the Tushi alphabet of Schiefner contains x, h, 
^, g, c, c, c, i, s, z, t, p, 1. ^ 

All this, though exceptionable in many respects, is 
better than the system too much in vogue amongst our- 
selves of making; combinations. 

It has already been stated that there is such a thing 
as a Mantshu alphabet, and that it is a modification of 
the Mongol. This implies a Mantshii literature. It is 
a scanty one ; as may be seen from Klaproth's Mantshu 
Chrestomathy. Neither is it ancient. It is possible, 
however, that it may be both older and more important 
than it seems. A paper,* by Mr. Wylie, of Shanghae, 
gives us the following list of Neu-chih translations from 
the Chinese, during, or earlier than, the Ming dynasty ; 
(1,) History of Pwan-kti ; (2,) History of Confucius; 
(3,) Travels of Confucius ; (4,) Domestic Discourses ; 
(5,) Discourses of the Wise and Able from the Domestic 
Discourses ; (6,) History of Keang Tafe-kung ; (7,) His- 
tory of Woo Tzye-seu ; (8,) Narrative of the Display of 
Rarities by Eighteen Kingdoms ; (9,) History of Sun 
Pin ; (1 0,) Treatise on Carriage Driving ; (11,) History 
of Hae Tseen Kung ; (12,) History of Madame Hwang; 
(J 3,) National Surnames ; (14,) Ha ta yang {irh kan, — 
whatever that may mean. 

More interesting, still, is the notice of two Neu-chlh 
inscriptions. The first, which from its locality, may be 
called the Kln-chow monument, has been seen in situ 
by no European. Neither is it copied verbatim et 

* Journal of the Royal Society. Vol. xvii. Part 2. 1860. 



I 



NEUCHIH RECORDS. 81 

literatim in China. Still, there is a Chinese work in 
which there is a notice of it, and in wliich there is a 
translation ; viz. The Choice Selections from Lapidary 
Literature. This is the translation of the author whom I 
follow of Shlh iniih tseuen hwa, by Chaou Han, and is 
dated 1618. It contains the Chinese equivalent of the 
Neuchih ; of which the following is the translation iii 
English, by Mr. Wylie : — . , 

The local military director and prince of the blood, brother to the emperor 
of the Great-Kin dynasty, having enjoyed a season of tranquillity ■within the 
boundary of his jurisdiction, was hunting on the south side of Leang HiU. 
On coming to Keen-ling (the imperial sepulchre) of the Tang dynasty, finding 
the pavilion and side buildings in a state of decay, every yestige of magnifi- 
cence having disappeared, he gave orders to the local authorities to assemble 
artisans to reixiir and beautify the place. Now having again visited, the 
sepulchres, finding the paintings all renewed, and the side galleries completely 
restored, he was inexpressibly delighted, and returned after partaking of an 
entertainment by the Prefect of Le-yang. 

T'een-hwuy, 12th year (a. d. 1134), being the 51st year of the sexagenary 
cycle, 11th month, 14th day, Hwang Yung-ke, Territorial Secretary to the 
Supreme Council, and Wang Kwei, Secondary Prefect of Yew-chow, members 
of the suite, have written this in compliance with the command. 

Translation of the preceding inscription. 

The heading of the tablet reads ' ' Record of the journey of the military 
director and prince of the blood, the emperor's brother." 

The author of the Shth mlh tseuen hwa adds the following note ; — name or 
surname is mentioned. As the date is 1134, it should be the brother of 
Tae-tsung, according to the history of the Kin dynasty. She-tsoo had eleven 
sons ; there being eight besides Kang-tsung, Tae-tsoo and Ta^-tsung, it is 
uncertain which is the one referred to. We cannot decipher a single word of 
this inscription, which is written in the Neu-chih character. This table cor- 
roborates what Wang Yuen-mei says : — " When enlightened princes are watch- 
ful over their virtue, foreigners are attracted from every region. There is a 
translation at the end, in the Chinese character, consisting of one hundred 
and five characters, inscribed on the left side, but it is entirely diflFerent. 
The engraved inscription is at Keen-ling, on the characterless tablet." 

This is not the only notice. How far, however, the 
testimonies of the two authors quoted may be inde- 
pendent is more than I can say ; but in the Record of 
the Metal and Stone Inscnptions of Shense {Kwan- 
chung kin sMh fee), dated 1781, the following statement 

G 



82 NEUCHIH RECORDS. 

concerning the inscription in question occurs: — "the first 
part is written in the Neu-chih character, the latter part 
is a translation written in the ordinary character ; the 
heading is in the seal character. At Keen-ling, in ^Kln- 
chow." 

Of the other inscription, we still want even the pre- 
liminary details. There is only a general notice of its 
existence. 



THE MONGOL LANGUAGES. ^3 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Mongol Class. — Mongolian Proper. — Boriat. — Olot. — Armaulc. — 
Pelu.— Sok. 

The Mongol area is large, but not very irregular ; 
neither are its frontiers veiy varied. On the south, it 
i inarches with China and Tibet ; on the wast, with the 
Turk area ; on the east, with the Mantshu. On the 
north, there are the Tungus and the Russian of Siberia 
j along with the languages of a few fragmentary abori- 
gines. There are two isolated offsets, one in Cabul, and 
one on the Yolga. The differences of dialect lie within 
a narrow compass. The divisions are (1) the East Mon- 
golian, or Mongol Proper ; (2) the Kalka ; (3) the Buriat ; 
(4) the Ulut, Olot, or Eleut, or Kalmuk ; (5) the Aimauk. 

1. The Mongol was reduced to writing in (about) the 
time of Kublai Khan : the alphabet being taken from 
the Uighur Turks. The classical composition in this dia- 
lect is a Mongol history by Sanang Seetsen. The literary 
influences are, at the present time, Chinese and Tibetan. 
Buddhism, however, was preceded by Fire-worship and 
(apparently) by an imperfect Christianity. 

2. The Kalka, in which the chief compositions are 
songs, leads from the Mongol Proper to 

3. The Buriat ; the Buriats being (like the Orotong 
as compared with the Mantshu) Siberian rather than 
Chinese. Amongst the Buriats, Buddhism prevails ; the 
Buriat Christianity being inchoate, the Buriat Maho- 
metanism inconsiderable in amount. As contrasted with 
the Mongols Proper, the Buriats are, to a great extent, 

G 2 



84 THE MONGOL LANGUAGES. 

Pagans and in contact with Pagans — except (of course) 
so far as they are under the influences of Russia. 

In 1831, they numbered 72,000 males and 80,000 
females : the present census amounting to about 
190,000. They fall into the Buriats beyond, and the 
Buriats on this side of, the Baikal. The former are the 
Khorin, the Selenga, the Barguzin, the Kudarin, and the 
Kudin (in part) tribes ; each with some peculiarities of 
dialect. The latter — named after the rivers along which 
they lie — are the remainder of the Kudin, the Upper 
Lena, the Olkhon, the Ida, the Balagan, the Alari, and 
the Tunka divisions ; the latter being, to some extent, 
Turk and Samoyed in blood. The Selenga form of speech 
is spoken in the greatest purity by the Atagan, Tsongol, 
Sartal, and Tabang-gut. 

The Buriat of the parts about Nizhni Udinsk, the 
Buriat of the extreme west, call — 

Themselves Buriat, 

The Russians Mangut, 

— Tungus Kaldzhak-shin, 

— Katshintsi Turks Kat-kum, 

— Kot Kotob-kvm, 

— River Birus Byr-hu. 

The chief difference between the Buriat and the 
Kalka seems to be political. Neither is it quite certain 
that Castren's divisions between the Buriat of this side 
of the Baikal, and the Buriat beyond the Baikal, is 
natural. 

Tlie Selenga forms of speech approach most closely 
to the written or literary language. 



English. 


Selenga. 


Khorin. 


Nizhni Uda, 


Tunkin. 


Man (vir) 


ere 


ere 


ere 


ire 


Man (homo) 


khimg 


khung 


kung 


kung 


Head 


tologoi 


tarkhi 


tologoi 


tologi 


Hair 


usu 


uhun 


uhung 


uhung 



Eye nyude nyudeng nyideng nyudeng 



MONGOL DIALECTS. 



85 



English. 


Selenga. 


Khorin. 


Nizlmi Uda. 


TankiB. 


Ear 


shikhe 


shikheng 


shikeng 


shikeng 


Nose 


khamar 


khamar 


kamar 


khamar 


Mouth 


ama 


amang 


amang 


amang 


Tonrjue 


kiele 


kelen 


keleng 


kLelengn 


Hand 


gar 


gar 


gar 


gar 


Foot 


khul 


khol 


kiil 


kol 


Sun 


nara 


narang 


naraDg 


narangn 


Moon 


sara 


hara 


hara 


hara 


Star 


odo 


odon 


odoDg 


odong 


Fire 


gal 


gal 


gal 


gal 


Water 


oso 


uhan 


uhung 


nhungn. 



4. The TJlut are the Mongols of Dzungaria ; the 
Kaknuks of the Volga being Dzungarian in origin. 

5. On each side of a line drawn from Herat to 
Cabul, Kes, to the north of the proper Afghan, and to 
the south of the Uzbek and Turcoman, frontier, a grreat 
range of undulating country, often mountainous, almost 
always hilly, well- watered in some parts, bleak and 
rough in others. This falls into a western and an 
eastern division, with an important watershed between 
them. From the west flow the Murghab, the Tejend, 
and the Furrarud ; from the east, the Helmuud, tlie 
south-eastern feeders of the Oxus, and the north-western 
feeders of the Cabul river. The former of these dis- 
tricts, lower and less mountainous, is the occupancy 
of the Tshehar Airaauk ; the latter that of the Hazara. 
Both are noticed in Elphinstone's Caubul : both are 
placed in the same category. The only doubt in the 
mind of the author is as to the natm-e of the class that 
contained them. He hesitates to make them Moncrols. 
They generally spoke Persian. A sample of the lan- 
guage, since published by Lieut. Leach, settles the doubt 
— for the speakers of it, at least ; — 



EngUsh. 


Aimank. 


Kalka. 


Head 


ekin 


tologoi 


Ear 


tshakin 


tsike 


Nose 


kabr 


khamar 


Eye 


nuddun 


nida 



86 



THE SOK VOCABULARY. 



Englisli. 


Aimauk. 


Kalka. 


Tongue 


kelan 


kold 


Hand 


ghar 


gar 


Fire 


ghar 


gal 


Water 


ussun 


usa 


Tree 


darakt* 


modo 


Stone 


kuri 


tsholo 


One 


nikka 


nege 


Two 


koyar 


khoyin 


Three 


ghorban 


gurba 


Four 


dorbaa 


diirba 


Five 


tabun 


tabu. 



There are a few Mongols in Bokhara ; traces, real or 
supposed, of some in India ; the same in Persia and 
Syria ; the same in parts of Russia and Tartary. 

The Soh, or Sokpa, of the northern frontier of Tibet, 
and, apparently, the most southern member of the group 
is Mongolian. 



English. 


Sok. 


English. 


Sok. 


Man 


khdn 


Fire 


kwal 


Head 


tholagwe 


Water 


usu 


Hair 


kechige 


Stone 


chhilo 


Hand 


kar 


Tree 


moto 


Movih 


ama 


One 


nege 


Ear 


khikh6 


Two 


hoyur 


Eye 


nutu 


Three 


korba 


Tooth 


syuchi 


Four 


tirba 


Foot 


khoil 


Five 


thaba 


Blood 


khoro-gwe 


Six 


chorka 


Bone 


yaso 


Seven 


tolo 


Day 


wundur 


Eight 


nema 


Sun 


nara 


Nine 


yeso 


Moon 


Bara 


Ten 


arba. 



The Pelu. — From the Japanese encyclopaedia, known 
in China as Kho-khan Zan-zai-tu-khuy, completed a.d. 
1713, Klaproth gives a specimen of a Mongol dialect 
entitled Pelu ; adding that Pe means north, and lu 
means western barbarians. If so, the Pelu are the 
north-western barbarians. 



• Persian. 



THE PELU VOCABULARY. 



87 



English. 


Pehi. 


MongoL 


Man 


kore 


ere 


Woman 


khoton 


khatun 


Father 


kozike 


etshige 


Mother 


koke 


eki 


Brother 


teuge 


daga 


Girl 


oka 


okin 


Sky 


tengri 


tangri 


Sun 


nara 


nara 


Moon 


zara 


zara 


Star 


khuton 


odon 


Sea 


talai 


dalai 


Juvtr 


murun 


muran 


Water 


uzo 


uzu. 



Word for word, I hold that Pelu is the same as 
Paloung, the name of a T'hay population already 
noticed, and of one which lay luest of Cochin-China, 
and, to some extent, Tiorth as welL 



88 THE YENISEIANS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

The Yeniseians. — Objections to the name Ostiak. — Castren's Researches. — 
Northern Branch. — Inbazk, Denka, and Pumpokolsk vocabularies of the 
Asia Polyglotta. — Southern Branch. — The Assan. — Kot. — Castren's Dis- 
covery of a Kot Village. — The Ara Legend. — Kanskoi and Kamassintzi 
vocabularies. — The Glosses Kot and Kem. — Speculations as to the origi- 
nal extent of the Yeniseian area. 

This is, perhaps, the most broken-up population in the 
world ; so that I shall say nearly all that I know about 
it. It is possible that a large proportion of this is 
ethnographical, rather than philological ; still, it is so 
fragmentary a population that I shall write a few pages, 
even though they may be out of place. I shall also add 
my speculations as to the original importance of the 
class, 

Yeniseian was the name proposed by Klaf)roth, 
though it is not the term used by Adelung before, nor 
that used by Castren after him. It may, possibly, 
be exceptionable ; inasmuch as the Yeniseians are, by 
no means, the only populations of the Yenisey. On the 
other hand, however, the}^ are nearly limited to the 
drainage of that river, and they also seem to be the 
aboriginal occupants of a great portion of its valley. 
They extended as far south as 53° N. L., and as far 
north as 67° N. L., at least. Adelung and Castren call 
them the Yeniseian Ostiaks. They are, however, widely 
different from the true Ostiaks — those of the Obi. 

It is to be regretted that Castren has gone back to 
the old term, and that when he speaks of the populations 
under notice, he calls them Ostiaks of the Yenisey, just 
as he calls the Samoyeds of the Ket and Tshulim, Os- 



THE YENISEIANS. 89 

tiak Samoyeds. In each case, the word is used impro- 
perly. Indeed, it is doubtful whether it is the best 
term for the Ostiaks Proper, though it is a convenient 
one. It is a convenient one, because they have no other 
general name at all. 

The Turk is the language to which (in the first in- 
stance, at least) it belongs ; for it is the Turks who 
apply the name. And they apply it to more populations 
than one. They apply it to the Ostiaks Proper and 
they apply it to the Bashkii's. Whether they have not 
applied it elsewhere, and that in unexpected quarters, is 
a question from which, for the present, we refrain. 

When Castren undertook his second journey, he was 
specially instructed to ascertain the ethnological and 
philological relations of those "triljes which, dwelling 
between the Yenisey on the east, and the Obi on the 
west, bore the indefinite name of Ostiak." It is un- 
necessary to say that these instructions were can-ied out 
with zeal and skUl. The investigation, however, was, at 
first, left in the hands of his fellow-ti-aveller Bergstadi, 
who passed a part of the year 1846 in the village of 
Anzeferova, on the Pit. After a while, however, Gastrin 
descended the Yenisey, and, after coming in per- 
sonal contact ^vith the tribes of the Sym and parts about 
Turukhansk and Inbazk, made himself master of the 
language sufiiciently to become' the author of a grammar 
and a vocabulary. 

Their most northern limit is the country about Man- 
gaseia or Turukhansk, in G6° N. L., where their neigh- 
bours to the north are the Avamski and Karasin 
Samoyeds, to the west the Samoyeds of the Tas, and to 
the east the Tungus of the northern Tuncmska river. 
Of the exact dialect here spoken there are no specimens. 
It seems to be taken for granted that it is the same as 
that of the next group. 

This appears about 63" N. L., where, in the parts 
about Inbazk, the Yelogui falls into the Yenisey from 



90 THE YENISEIANS. 

the west, and the Bakta from the east. Here the fron- 
tagers are again Samoyeds (of the Karakon section) 
and Tungiis. An Inbazk vocabulary, eo nomine, is to 
be found in the Asia Polyglotta : akin to which is a 
shorter one of the Odh (or sable) Ostiaks, who, in 1723, 
called themselves Denka. According to Messerschmidt, 
they could count no further than five. The Denka were 
especially found on a stream called 6dh-Shosh (8able 
river), a feeder of the Podkamennaya Tunguska — the 
name being apparently of Tungus origin ; for several of 
the Tungus tribes call themselves Denka, which means, 
in Tungiis, men. Though it is expressly stated that 
this name was native, and as there is no sign of the 
word under notice having any meaning in any Yeniseian 
dialect, it is possible that the blood of the Denka was 
Tungus. Be this as it may, the dialect belongs to the 
Inbazk division. 

In 60° N. L., the Sym and Pit fall into the Yenisey, 
much after the manner of the Yelogui and the Bakta ; 
the former from the west, the latter from the east. The 
banks of each are Yeniseian localities. A little to the 
south of the latter lies the village of Anzeferova, the 
spot where Bergstadi and Castren made their chief 
researches in the Yeniseian. Hence, it must be sup- 
posed that it is the Pit and Sym forms of speech that are 
most particularly represented in the grammar. The 
frontier on the east is Tshapodzhir.; on the west, 
Samoyed and Ostiak. 

To the south and west, the Ket is a Yeniseian locality, 
the dialect of which is represented by the Pumpokolsk 
vocabulary of Klaproth, a dialect which, like the last, 
is in contact with the Samoyed and Ostiak. The 
river Kem, which falls into the Yenisey, a little below 
Yeniseisk, bears a Yeniseian name. Of the Yeniseian of 
the Ket, as represented by the Pumpokolsk vocabulary, 
I think that thus much may be said, viz. that, notwith- 
standing certain special aflB.nities with the dialects of the 



THE YENISEIANS. 91 

next group, it is a northern rather than a southern form 
of speech, i. e. that it belongs to the Sym group of 
dialects. 

About 57° N. L. is the boundary of philological 
area ; and we no longer meet what may be called the 
proper Siberian populations, like the Saraoyeds, Ostiaks, 
and Tungus, but populations whose language is Turk. 
In other words, the philological frontier changes ; and, 
with it, change the Yeniseian forms of speech. All the 
preceding dialects appear in Castren's Grammar, under 
the name of Ostiak of the Yenisey. The name that 
now presents itself is Kot, 

A few Russianized Kot were seen by Castren as far 
west as Ansir, Barnaul, and Yelansk. They stated that 
they were a remnant of the Baginov Uluss, which mi- 
grated from the River Poima. These, he thinks, are the 
Yeniseiaus, whom Klaproth calls the Kongroitshe, a name 
■which, he also thinks, has originated out of the Tartar 
name for Krasnoyarsk, the town where the tribute was 
paid. It means, a place with a bell. The Poima is a 
feeder of the Ana. 

Now, it is on the Ana, along with the Ussolka, that 
Klaproth fixes another division of the southern Yeni- 
seians, of whose language he gives a specimen, which 
differs from the Kot only as one dialect or sub-dialect 
differs from another. He calls them the Assan. Cas- 
tren sought for them with care and pain. He found 
none on the Ussolka ; though he especially visited the 
chief or only volost on its drainage. All he found was 
Russians, who knew of nothing older than themselves. 
Two families were, apparently, of Tungus blood ; but 
nothing did either they or any one else know about the 
Assan. 

Neither was he successful on the Lower Ana. Towards 
its head-waters, however, he found an account of some 
Kot who had. lived there lately, but who had been 
ordered to move to the XJda, where they then lived with 



92 THE YENISEIANS. 

the Buriat, in a village named Badaranovka, thirty 
versts below Nizhni Udinsk. Before they left the Ana, 
they spoke Buriat. They amount, now, to eleven tri- 
bute-payers, half of whom (the division is difficult) 
speak Buriat, half Russian. They call themselves Ko- 
tovzy, the name being native, the form Russian. The 
Karagas Turks call them Kodeglar. I imagine that 
these are the Assau, or nearly so. 

At length, he found the Kot, eo nomine and ed lin- 
gua. But they were but a fragment. Their original 
area was the drainage of the river Kan. There were 
Kot settlements near the present villages of Agulskaya 
and Korastelia. There were Kot settlements about Ansir, 
Yelansk, and the now important town of Barnaul. A 
few years ago, seven Kots paid tribute from the neigh- 
bourhood of Kansk. The Agul, the Kungus, and the 
Ulka were once Kot rivers. There were Kots on the 
Mongol frontier, whose language is now that of the 
Buriats. 

Nevertheless, a few speakers of the Kot language still 
exist ; a single village on the Agul being their locality — 
their neighbours being Kamass Samoyeds, themselves 
more than half Turk. 

The Kot of the Agul, being lighter taxed than if 
they were passed for Russians, make much of their little 
nationality, and keep up their language accordingly. 
Five individuals from the settlement were seen by Gas- 
trin ; and his Kot Grammar was the result. 

The Arini were all but extinct in the middle of last 
century. A specimen, however, of their language has 
survived. So has the following legend : — 

Before they left the main stream of the Yenisey for 
their present occupancy in the district of Sayania, and 
whilst they called themselves Ara (being called by the 
Russians Arinzi), they lived part of the year in one 
place, part in another. Their summer residence was an 
island in the Yenisey, named, in Russian, the Tates- 



THE TENISEIANS. 93 

hewki Ostrog. In winter, they joined the Katsha Turks, 
and fed their flocks on Mount Kumtige, near the Katsha. 
Their tribe was, at fii^st, a large one ; but they fought 
against each other, and became weak. While these wars 
were going on, a young Ara walked out, and found a 
snake. He cut it in two. The head, which still kept 
in a little life, went back to the king of the snakes, and 
told his tale. So the king of the snakes held a council, 
and asked the wise men of Snakeland what was to be 
done. It was summer-time, and all the Ara were in 
the island. The snakes agreed to do this — they were to 
swim across to the opposite bank, and then cry out, 
" Boat ! boat ! " So they swam across, and the Ara 
heard a cry of " Boat ! " They went with all the boats 
they could muster : but, wonderful to relate ! they found 
no men on the shore (for they thought that it was one 
of their countrymen who had called), but only snakes — 
especially young one^. There were more young than 
old. They were almost all young ones, and they all 
wanted to speak — all at once. But the old king of the 
snakes told them to be quiet, and then put as many of 
them in the boat as it would hold. Then he made the 
old man row them over to the island, one boatful after 
another, until they were taken across. Then the king 
of the snakes himself got in, and was rowed over by 
the old man in like manner with the rest. 

As they were rowing, the king of the snakes said to 
the old man, " When you get back again to your own 
home, remember to strew ashes all round your tent, and 
then to drag over them a sail-cloth of two different 
colours, and made of two kinds of horse -hair — one 
white, the other black." So the old man did as the 
king of the snakes had bid him ; and went home, and 
took the ashes, and dragged over them a saU-cloth made 
of two kinds of horsehair, and went to rest. And he 
awoke in the morning, and, behold ! the whole Uluss 
was gone, and all the men of the tribe dead. Only the 



94 



THE YENISEIANS. 



old man and his family were spared ; and from him 
come all the Ara. 

When an Ara dies, his bow and arrows are placed in 
his grave, over which his best horse is slaughtered, and 
flayed. Tiie skin is then stretched over a pole, set up 
on the grave, and the flesh is feasted on. The women, 
after their confinements, wash themselves three times 
within the first seven days, and then fumigate them- 
selves with a herb named irben. The first Mend that 
visits them names the child. Their oaths are taken 
over a bear's head, of wliich the swearer fixes his teeth 
in the nose. When a sentence equivalent to banishment 
is pronounced against a culprit, he is placed between a 
dog and a reindeer. These are then set free. Whichever 
way they run must be taken by the man also, who is no 
longer allowed to remain where he was. Even a draught 
of water from his old locality is forbidden. So is all 
further intercourse with any of his original neighbours. 
These remarks apply to the Dzizerti or Yesirti, as well 
as the Ara ; the Dzizerti being, like the Ara, an extinct 
or amalgamated tribe. 

The word Ara is said to mean wasps ; the population 
to which it applies being so denominated from their war- 
like activity. But it most likely means nothing of the 
kind. Word for word, it seems to be Tarang. 



English. 


Inbazk. 


Pumpokolsk. 


Assan. 


Kot. 


Arini. 


Man (homo) 


ket 


kit 


hit 


ilit 


khitt 


(vir)' 


tshet 


ilset 


hadkip 


hatkit 


birkhanyat 


Head 


tsig 


kolka 


takai 


tagai 


kolkya 


Hair 


tonge 


khynga 


khingayang 


hingayang 


khagang 


Foot 


toigen 


aning 


pulang 


pulang 


pil 


Eye 


des 


dat 


tesh 


tetshagan 


tieng 


Ear 


hokten 




klokan 


kalogan 


utkhonong 


Nose 


olen 


hang 


an 


ang 


arkhui 


Mouth 


ko 


kan 


hohui 


hohu 


bukhom 


Tongue 


ei 


iiygyl 


alup 


alup 


alyap 


Sun 


i 


hikhem 


oga 


ega 


ega 


Moon 


khip 


khep 


shui 


shui 


eshui 


Star 


koogo 


kaken 


alak 


alagan 


ilkhoi 



THE TENISEIANS. 



95 



Xoglisli. 


Inbazk. 


Pum'pokolsk. 


Assan. 


Eot. 


Arini. 


Fire 


bok 


butsh 


hat 


khott 


khott 


Water 


nl 


ul 


ul 


nl 


kol 


River 


ses 


torn 


nl 


kem 


sat 


Hill 


kai 


kbai 


yii 


dzhii 


kar 


Tree 


oksa 


oksy 


atsh 


atshshi 


knsh-oshtshe 


Stone 


tshugs 


tshys 


shish 


shish 


khez 


£99 


ong 


eg 


shnlei 


shnlei 


ang 


Fish 


isse 


gite 


tyg 


tig 


ilti 


God 


eis 


es 


etsh 


esh 


es 


Sl-y 


eis 


es 


etsh 


esh 


es 


House 


thu&h 


hnkat 


hnsh 


hnsh 


hn 


Milk 


mamel 


den 






tengnl 


Snow 


b^ges 


tyg 


tik 


tik 


the 


One 


khus-em 


kbata 


hntsha 


hntsha 


khnsei 


Two 


un-em 


hinneang 


iina 


inya 


kina 


Three 


dong-em 


donga 


tongya 


tongya 


tyonga 


Four 


zi-em 


ziang 


sheggiang 


tshega 


shaya 


Five 


gag-em 


kheilang 


geigyan 


kega 


khaia 


Six 


ag-am 


aggiang 


gedndzhiang 


kelntfiha 


ogga 


Seveti 


enh-am 


onyang 


geiliniang 


kelina 


nnnya 


Eight 


unem-boisan 


- hing-basi- 


geiltaniang 


kheltonga 


kina-mant- 




khogen 


khaiyang 






shan 


Nine 


khusem-boi- 


khuta-yamos 


- godzhi-buna- 


hntshabnnaga knsa-mant- 




san-khogen 


khaivang 


giang 




shan 


Ten 


khogen 


khaiyang 


h^^ang 


haga 


khoa. 



I think that, in investigating the extent of the origi- 
nal area of the Yeniseians, we may use the words ket 
and kemi as instruments ; the first meaning man, the 
second Hver. 

Let us consider, then, the presence of these forms as a 
presumption in favour of Yeniseian blood, and ask how 
far they lead us. 

(1 .) Kot, ket, k.c. — The Mongol form for the Teleuts is 
Teleng-^w^ ; the Teleuts being considered to be Mongols 
in blood, though Turk in language. 

The Ir-ket are a smaU tribe of fifty-seven tribute- 
payers, near Tunka — at present considered as Soiot. 
What Castren heard about the Irket was that they had 
migi-ated from the river Sikir, and that they had 
divided themselves into two divisions. One took to the 
level country belonging to the Bucha Gorkhon tribe of 



96 



THE YENISEIANS. 



Buriats. With these they intermarried, probably from 
the necessity of their taking a wife out of a tribe dif- 
ferent from their own ; they themselves being only a 
single tribe. 

(2.) Kem. — The twenty-eight Dyon or Yon of the 
Tshulim Turks were originally called Tutal, a name which 
is now limited to two of these tribes. The people of the 
towns call them Uriankhai. The Tutal name, however, 
for the Tshulim river is Tshum. I think that, word for 
word, this is Tom as well as Kem and Tshem. In the 
Pumpokolsk dialect this {torn) is the actual word for 
river. 

The Alakh and the ^em-tshik form the western 
sources of the Yenisey, which is named by the Chinese 
and the Mongols Ulu Kem = great river, ulii being a 
Mongol term, but kem a Yeniseian one. Here dwell the 
Soyon, Soyony, or Sayanzi, the only names, according 
to Tshitshatsheff, which are known in these parts ; the 
form Soiot being inaccurate. The language and manner 
of life of these nomads are partly Mongol, partlj' Turk. 
At present they fall into two divisions, one of which 
is directly dependent upon China, whereas the other is 
under a zaizan, who resides at Urgha. This confirms 
tlie doctrine suggested by the word Irhet, viz. that the 
Soiot are, more or less, Yeniseian in blood. 

I now subjoin the following vocabularies from Stalen- 
berg : — 

(1.) That of the Kanskoi, of the river Kan, who call 
themselves Khotovzi. 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Fowr 

Pwe 

Six 

Seven 

Eif/ht 

Nine 



Khol ovzi 

opp 

tzida 

naghor 

thseta 

ssoumbulang 

muctu 

seigbe 

scLidsetae 

togus 



English. 


Kliotovzu 


Ten 


bud 


Eleven 


biid-op 


Twelve 


biid -tzida - 


Twenty 


tusenn 


Thirty 


nogb-tuserm 


Forty 


nogb-opp-tuserm 


Fifty 


soum-tuserm 


Sixty 


raouck-tuseiin 


Seventy 


seig-tuscrm 



THE YENISEIANS. 



97 



Fnglish. 


Kliotora. 


Eighty 




Ninety 


togns-thiserm 


Hundred 


tban 


ThoiLsand 


byat-tnn 


God 


nnm 


Father 


abam 


Mother 


imam 


Brother 


aya 


Sister 


yhaB 


Wife 


nah 



English. 


Khntorzi. 


Fire 


thuy 


Water 


ai 


Earth 


dscha 


^fountain 


bia 


Sun 


kaya 


Moon 


kysschtin 


Hone 


Dnnda 


Head 


stiba 


Man (homo) 


hya. 



This is Samoyed. Still, the people call themselves 
Kotovzi ; as do the existing Kotovzi, who are probably 
their descendants, but who speak Buriat. 

(2.) That of the Kamacintzi, who call themselves 
Kishtim, and live on the River Mana : — 



English. 


Kamacintzi 


English. 


Kamacintzi. 


One 


chnodschse 


Sixty 


hkelosa-ta 


Tico 


ynae 


Seventy 


fakelina-tugu 


Three 


tonga 


Eighty 


cheltong-tugt 


Four 


schagse 


Ninety 


hwelin-tugu 


Five 


hkagse 


Hundred 


duss 


Six 


hkelnsa 


Thousand 


liag-dnss 


Seren 


hkelina 


God 


esch 


Eight 


cheltonga 


Heaven 


urach 


Nine 


hwelina 


King 


pats^hai 


Ten 


haga 


Water 


nhl 


Eleven 


haga-chnodschse 


Earth 


pang 


Tadve 


haga-inse 


Mountain 


kgy 


Twenty 


yn-tnng 


Sun 


egse 


Thirty 


tonga -tu 


Moon 


tzui 


Forty 


tonga-ta-chnodschie 


Wind 


japei. 


Fifty 


hkog-tnga 







These are simply Yeniseian. 

(3.) A Turk dialect in the Asia Polyglotta head Kan- 
gazen, in the few words, wherein it is other than Turk, 
is Yeniseian. 



H 



98 THE TURK DIALECTS. 



CHAPTER XV. 

The Turk Languages. — Import of the term. — The Uighur. — Tshagatai. — 
Uzbek. — Turcoman. — Kirghiz. — Barabinski. — Tshulim. — Teleut. — 
Koibal. — Karagas.— Soyony. — Yakut. — Bashkir. — Kazan. — Nogay. — 
Meshtsheriak. — Kumuk. — Kuzzilbash.- — Cumanian. 

When the word Turlc is used by either the ethnologist 
or the philologue, it has so wide a signification that the 
Tui'ks of European Turkey form but an inconsiderable 
fraction of the great population to which it applies. The 
so-called Tartars (or Tatars) of Independent Tartary 
are Turks ; so are the Turcomans of the Persian fron- 
tier ; so are the occupants of more than one district 
named Turkestan ; so are several other populations with 
several other names. Even in respect to its literary 
development, the Turkish of Constantinople divides its 
honours with the Uighur and Tshagatai dialects, 
which, at the present time, are, comparatively, incon- 
spicuous dialects, but which, in point of priority of cul- 
ture, are to be preferred to their congeners of the west. 

Turk, then, is a generic name, and the class it applies 
to is a large one. Its area is of great magnitude, and 
that in every direction, A language intelligible at Bok- 
hara is spoken on the very confines of Afiica. A lan- 
guage scarcely unintelligible at Constantinople is spoken 
at the mouth of the Lena, on the shores of the Arctic 
Sea. We have a vocabulary of the Cumanian Turk 
once spoken in Hungary. The Uighur Turk is spoken, 
at the present moment, on the frontiers of Tibet and 
Mongolia. 

The Turk area, then, is large, and it is irregular as 
well ; and very various indeed are the districts with 



THE TURK DIALECTS. 99 

which it comes in contact. In the south-east, it touches 
Tibet ; in the south, India and Persia. By the Kurd, 
Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, and Greek, the Turkish of 
Asia Minor is irregularly bounded. It mixes itself with 
the languages of Caucasus ; is spoken in contact with 
the Russian in the Crimea ; and with the Bulgaiian, 
Servian, and Eomaic in European Turkey. The govern- 
ment of Caucasus and Astrakan, to the south ; of Viatka 
and Perm, to the north ; and of Grodno, to the west, 
contain Turks. Orenbercr is Turk in language : so is 
Kazan. Tobolsk and Tomsk give us the Turks of 
Southern, Yakutsk those of Northern Siberia. Dioscu- 
rian, Mongolian, Tungus, and Ugrian forms of speech, 
all come in contact with the Turkish. 

In some cases, the Turk has been encroached on ; 
in othei-s it has encroached. In Hungaiy, it has given 
way : indeed, as a general rule, it has given way where 
the language with which it has come in contact has been 
European. In Siberia, for instance, it yields to the 
Russian. Where the language is Ugrian, it encroaches. 
It has most especially encroached on the Samoyed. In 
consequence of this, the coincidence of Turkish blood 
with the Turkish language is anything but close. The 
blood is Turk where the language is Hungarian or Sla- 
vonic. The language is Turk where the blood is Ugrian or 
Mongol. 

Notwithstanding the inordinate size of the Turk ai'ea, 
the differences which it presents are but slight. As a 
general rule, the dialects graduate into each other ; and 
I doubt whether even tlie extreme forms — provided that 
the conversation be on a simple subject — are mutually 
unintelligible. 

In respect to the direction in which the Turk lan- 
guage has diffused itself, we may safely say that in the 
north and west it is intrusive. Except Independent 
Tartary and Turkestan, there is no spot where Turkish 
is spoken where it cannot be shown to be exotic. The 

H 2 



100 THE UIGHUR. 

claims, however, of Independent and Chinese Turkestan 
to be considered as the fountain and origin of the Turk 
language has yet to be examined. These, however, are 
matters for the ethnologist rather than the philologue. 

The name Turk, totidem Uteris, first appears in a.d. 
569, when Justin sent an embassy to the Kltan Zemar- 
chus, whose residence was near the Ek-tagh ; the words 
in italics being Turkish glosses. 

Of the Turk of this district, Klaproth gives the 
following words, taken from Chinese authorities, who 
refers them to the language of the T'uk'iu, i. e. Turks. 



English. 


T'uk'iii. 


Turkish. 


Sky 


tangri 


tangri 


House 


ui 


ui 


Helm 


t'uk'iu 


tekhieh 


Hair 


shoka 


shadzh 


Chief 


kan 


khan 


Black 


koro 


khara 


Old 


kori 


khari 


Wolf 


furin 


buri. 



As the source of these samples is China, it is fair to 
suppose that they represent a language of the Chinese 
frontier, i. e. one of the most Eastern divisions of the 
group. It to this that the name Uighur most especially 
applies ; the proper Uighur being the population which 
most closely came in contact with two of the languages 
— the Tibetan and Mongol — which lay to the east of it," 
and approached the third, i. e. the Chinese. This is an 
inference from the fact that, at the present time, a tribe 
calling itself Ighur speaks Tibetan, and touches the Sok 
districts of Mongolia. 

The Uighur Turks were the first of their stock to 
use an alphabet, and used it betimes, perhaps as early 
as the seventh century. The Mantshu alphabet (as has 
been stated) came from Mongolia ; and the Mongolian 
from the Uighur Turks, the Uighur Turks having taken 
it from Syria, under the instructions of the Nestorian 
missionaries. 



THE UIGHUR. 1 01 

It is chiefly in its descendants — the Mongol and the 
Mantshu — that this interesting alphabet survives ; since 
it was replaced by the Arabic when Mahometanism re- 
placed Christianity. Nevertheless, a few samples of it 
are extant, viz. (1) the Baktyar Nameh of the Bodleian; 
(2, 3) the Miradzh and Tezkirehi Evliyd of the Biblio- 
th^que du Roi ; and (4) Kaudatkubilik in Vienna. 
None of these, however, except so far as the alphabet is 
concerned, are much more than literary ciu-iosities. The 
fii-st was written a.d. 1434, the second and third A.D. 
1436, the fourth, A.D. 1459. The Miradzh, a history 
of the ascension of Mahomet, is a translation from the 
Arabic ; the Tezkirehi Evliyd, or Legend of the Saints, 
being one from the Persian. The Baktyar Kameh is 
either a translation from the same language, or rifac- 
ciamento. The Kaudatkuhilik, or Science of Govern- 
Tnent, shows a little more onginality — the matter, and 
perhaps the composition itself, being older than the MS,, 
perhaps as old as A.D. 1069. 

The Mogul dynasty was Tshagatai, and the Indian 
descendants of the Great Mogul are of Tshagatai blood. 
So are many families in Caubul, just as certain families 
in England are Norman. The family of Timur was 
Tshagatai ; Kokan, or Ferghana, being the district where 
the Tshagatai language was most especially cultivated. 
The Persian, however, was in immediate contact with it, 
and in some of the provinces prevailed over it. Ande- 
jan, however, the district of the capital, was so Turk, 
that " there was no one," writes Baber, " who did not 
understand the Turki tongue." Asfera and Marghiuan 
were Persian. The languages acted and reacted on 
each other. Persian models were copied by Tshagatai 
writers, and Persian works translated by them. 

Of the Tshagatai, eo Twmiiie, as spoken at the present 
moment, I have seen no specimens. Nor is this strancre. 
The language spread itself beyond its own boundaries. 



102 THE UIGHUR. 

and, having found its way into Persia, Afghanistan, and 
India, became Persian, Indian, or Pushtu. 

Theoretically, the main differences between the Tsha- 
gatai and Uighur are considerable ; and they would be 
more so if the existing Uighur works were older. But 
they must be the newest of their class. Were they not 
all subsequent to the Hegira? subsequent to the intro- 
duction of the Arabic alphabet, which must have been 
used concurrently with the Uighur, and subsequently to 
the predominance of Persian and Arabic models ? The 
old Uighur compositions would have been different, they 
would have been Christian in creed and Syriac in style. 
But none such exist. Yet they must have existed, or 
why the alphabet ? Why its extension into Mougolia ? 
Uighur, then, as the word has been used, means New 
Uighur. 

But what if the Uighur alphabet, concurrent with the 
Arabic in the newer Uighur literature, were also concur- 
rent with the Arabic in the earlier Tshagatai? In such 
a case, the works in question may be Tshagatai — for, it 
must be remembered, that it is only the alphabet which 
makes them Uighur. Their date is that of the Tshaga- 
tai dynasty. If so, the division between the two groups 
is either artificial or provisional ; in which case Uighur 
means the Turk of Chinese Turkestan, Tshagatai the 
Turk of Bokhara and Ferghana. However, according 
to common parlance, the works already enumerated are 
Uighur. A Uighur alphabet makes a Uighur work. 
At the same time, it should be added that Davies 
(though without quoting his authority) especially states 
that during the period immediately subsequent to their 
conversion, the Tshagatai made use of the Uighur 
alphabet. 

The Memoirs of Timur, and the Institutes of Timur, 
though translated from a Persian original, are said to be, 
in their earliest form, Turkish compositions — the Turk 



THE UIGHUR. • 103 

dialect being the Tshagatai. These earlier forms, how- 
ever, have jet to be discovered. Ulug Beg, about A.D. 
]44;(), was a Tshagatai poet, as well as a Tshagatai 
patron of astronomy. His age, it should be observed, 
is within ten years of that of the Uighur MSS. Then 
comes Mir Ali Shir, a poet also, whose works, though 
unedited, are extant. Thirdly, comes the Emperor 
Baber himself. 

The e\-idence of the Arabic alphabet being used con- 
currently with the Uighur, is to be found in the MS. of 
the Koiidat, where there are interlineary glosses and re- 
marks, some in Arabic, some in Persian — aU, however, 
in the ordinary alphabet of the Koran, Now, whether 
these be as old as the rest of the MS. or not, the reader 
who wrote them must have been the reader of a work 
in Uighur. 

The Uzbek has, to a great extent, replaced the 
Tshagatai, if, indeed, the two dialects were notably 
different. Khiva is Uzbek. The dominant populations 
in Bokhara and Ferghana are Uzbek — the remainder 
being Tajik. So it is elsewhere. This means that, 
except in the parts about Khiva, there is in the Uzbek 
countries, side by side \N-ith the ruling nation, a subor- 
dinate population speaking Persian — differing in its 
numerical proportion to that which speaks according 
to the country. Thus — 

In Khiva, the Uzbek is at its maximum. 

It preponderates in the parts about Balk. 

So it does in Kunduz. 

So it does in Huzrut, Imaum, and Khullum. 

On the other hand, in Khost, Inderaub, and Taulik- 
haun, the Tajik element prevails. 

In Meimuna, Andkhu, and Shibbergaun, the second 
element, though other than Uzbek, is still Turk, i.e. 
Turcoman. 

The Turcomans are independent nomads between 



104 



THE KIRGHIZ. 



Bokhara and the Caspian, bounded on the south by 
Persia, and on the north by the Uzbeks and Kirghiz. 

Whether the Kirghiz can be separated from the 
Turcomans and the Uzbeks by any definite line of de- 
marcation, is uncertain. The central portions, however, 
of their area may be looked upon as the points where 
the blood and language most closely coincide : where 
foreign elements and foreign contact are at the mini- 
mum, and where the type of the group is to be sought. 
On the east and nortli the character changes. There 
is contact with strange languages ; those languages being 
no longer Persian and Tibetan, but the Ugrian and Rus- 
sian of Siberia. That the Kirghiz of the northern portion 
of their area are intrusive is certain, though it is difficult 
to give the exact boundaries of their original occupancy. 

The name deserves notice. In Menander's account of 
his embassy to the Turk king Dizabulus, whose sove- 
reignty seems to have lain in the Tshagatai district, we 
find the word Xepx^s — a Kirghiz female slave being one 
of the presents. In the Chinese geographers, Kilikiszu 
are placed on tlie Yenisey, where the terra is current at 
the present time. Finally, I believe that, word for 
word, Kirghiz is Tsherkess, i. e. Circassian. The 
Kirghiz of Pamer are on the Persian and Uzbek 
frontier. 



English. 


Ui;bek. 


Turcoman. 


Kirghiz. 


Head 


' bash 


bash 


baz 


Hair 


zatsh 


zatsh 


tshatsh 


Hand 


al 


kol 


kol 


Foot 


ayak 


ayak 


ayak 


Eye 


kyus 


kUs 


kus 


Ear 


kulak 


klak 


kolak 


Tooth 


tish 


dish 


tiz 


Blood 


kan 


kan 


kan 


Day 


klindus 


kyondos 


klindus 


Sun 


kyonash 


koyash 


kUn 


Moon 


ai 


ai 


ai 


Star 


yoldos 


yoldos 


dzhildzhis. 



THE BARAMA TURKS. 105 



English. 


Uzbek. 


Turcoman. 


Kirgbiz. 


Fire 


ud 


Ot 


ut 


Water 


zu 


ZU 


za 


Tree 


agatsh 


agatsh 


agatsh 


Stone 


task 


tash 


tax 


One 


bir 


bir 


ber 


Two 


ike 


iki 


oH 


Three 


utsh 


utsh 


utsh 


Four 


dyort 


durt 


iyort 


Five 


bish 


bish 


bez 


Six 


alty 


alto 


alty 


Seven 


edi 


edi 


dzhede 


Eight 


zigis 


zikis 


zikes 


Nitie 


tokas 


tokos 


tokos 


Ten 


on 


on 


on. 



The Bafahinski, Baraba, or Barama TuvTcs, between 
the Obi and the Irtish, touch the Ostiaks on the north, 
and are probably the occupants of an originally Ostiak 
area. At any rate, their language is Turk, the soil 
Ugrian, their blood, in all probability, mixed. Their 
political relations are Russian, and their creed Sha- 
manism, or imperfect Christianity rather than Mahome- 
tanism. 

Like the Barabinski, the so-called Tartars of Tobolsk 
are Turks ; occupants of ground originally Ugrian, and 
so far as it is not Russian, Ostiak. 

The Verkho-Tomski tribes. — Verkho means upper, 
and is a Russian word. Hence, the Verkho-Tomski are 
the Turks of the Upper Tom, i. e. the Tom above 
Kuznetsk. 

The Abintsi are a part of them. Their dialect, pro- 
bably, graduates into that of 

Kuznetz, where the frontier is Mongol and Samoyed. 

The Teleut are believed to be Mongols in blood, 
though Turk in speech. Below Kuznetsk 

The tribes of the Tshulini, though occupants of a 
district originally Ugrian, are said to mix Mongol (? Ye- 
niseian) words with their vernacular Tm-kish. Their tribes 
are called Dyon or Yon. 



106 THE TURKISH OF SIBERIA. 

The Turkish of the Yenisey, especially in the circle 
of the Minusinsk, and in the Sayanian mountains, is 
spoken by individuals who seem to have adopted it after 
the abandonment, not only of some native language 
other than Turk, but after the adoption of some inter- 
mediate one, different from both the Turk and the ori- 
ginal mother-tongue. Thus, a language which will be 
noticed in sequel under the name of Yeniseian, seems to 
have been replaced by the Samoyed, the Samoyed itself 
having been replaced by the Turk. Phenomena of this 
kind make the parts about Minusinsk one of the most 
obscure areas in Asia. We may advantageously con- 
sider these strata and substrata of languages in detail. 

1. There is the Russian — recent in origin, but en- 
croaching upon even the Turk. 

2. There is the Turk, which has spread itself in the 
west, at least, at the expense of the Ugrian, and which, 
in its Barabinski, Tobolski, and Tshulim elements, so 
far as it is heterogeneous, is Ugrian. 

3. There is the Mongol, which on the Tom, and in 
the Teleut districts may have preceded the Turk, itself 
preceded by something Samoyed or Yeniseian. 

4. There is the Ostiak of the Obi — the language 
which best represents the Ugrian of the Kirghiz fron- 
tier. 

5. There is the Samoyed, spoken as far north as the 
Arctic Sea, and as far south as the parts about Lake 
Ubsa within the Chinese frontier — the Samoyed which, 
in some cases, has been replaced by the Mongol, itself 
replaced by the Turk. 

6. There is the Yeniseian — a language known only 
in fragments, but which, in one case at least, has been 
replaced by Samoyed. 



THE TURKISH OF SIBERIA. 



107 



English. 


Baraba. 


Tobolsk. 


Tshulim. 


Kuznetsk. 


Head 


liash 


pash 


bash 


bash 


Eye 


kos 


kus 


kos 


kns 


Ear 


kalak 


kulak 


knlak 


knlak 


Nose 




parun 


murun 


TnonrlTi 




lUUUUU 


Mouth 




anus 


agus 


aksy 




Hair 


tshatsh 


tsate 


tshatsh 


tshatsh 


Tongue 




tu 


til 


til 






Tooth 
Hand 




tish 
khal 


tish 


tish 




kal 


kol 


Sun 


kyosh 


knn 


knn 


kun 


Moon 


ai 


ar 


ai 


ai 


Star 


eldar 


yoldns 


yoldns 


tshlitis 


Fire 


nt 


ot 


ot 


ot 


Water 


zuu 


sn 


sn 


sn 


Tree 


agaz 


yagats 


agats 


agatsh 


Stone 


tash 


tash 


tash 


tash 


One 


bir 


bir 


bir 


pir 


Two 


ike 


ike 


ike 


iki 


Three 


ytsh 


itsh 


itsh 


ntsh 


Four 


tyort 


dort 


dyort 


dort 


Five 


bish 


bish 


besh 


bish 


Six 


alte 


alty 


alte 


alty 


Seven 


sette 


siti 


sette 


setti 


Eight 


zogua 


aegis 


zegus 


segys 


Nine 


togns 


togns 


togns 


togns 


Ten 


on 


on 


on 


on. 



Respecting the Teleuts, it has already been suggested 
that though Turk in language, they have generally been 
looked upon as Mongols in blood : and it has also been 
suggested that, in the way of blood, they may be less 
Mongol than Yeniseian. The Mongol name is Teleng- 
gut, as has already been stated ; whereas Abulgazi calls 
them Uriat, which, word for word, is Urianchai, Yarang, 
and the Hke — all apparent derivatives of Ara. At the 
time of the Russian conquest they were called White 
Kalmuks. 



English. 


Tdeut. 


English. 


Telent 


Head 




Sun 


knn 


E,je 


kns 


Moon 


ai 


Ear 


knlak 


Star 


yiltis 


Nose 


muran 


Fire 


ot 


Mouth 


ous 


Water 


sn 


Hair 


tshatsh 


Tree 


agash 


Tongue 


tu 


Stone 


tash. 


Hand 


kol 







108 



THE KOIBAL. 



Of the language of the Katshintsi Turks, the Kats- 
halar, of the Turks of Katsha, although we hear much 
about them in the way of history, we have, eo nomine, 
but few words ; mere ohiter dicta of Castrfen's. Their 
dialect is essentially Koibal or Soiot. 



English. 


Katsha. 


English. 


K»tsha. 


Woman 


ipthi 


Saddle 


izer 




6pthi 


Butterfly 


irbakai 


Wind 


aba 


Sable 


kish. 



The Koihals form eight tribes ; in two of which the blood 
is Samoyed, in three Yeniseian. In 1847, a few old 
people knew a few Samoyed words. From the generation 
which preceded them a vocabulary in Samoyed was col- 
lected. Even then, the Samoyed was going out fast. 



English. 


Ktibal. 


English. 


Koibal. 


31an (vir) 


ir 


Snake 


dilan 


{homo) 


kizi 




thilan 




er 


Tree 


agas 


Woman 


ipthi 


Earth 


dhir 




epthi 




thir 


Head 


bas 


Stone 


tas 


Hair 


sas 


Hill 


tax 


Ear 


kulak 




tag 


Eye 


karak 


River 


khem* 


Month 


axse 


Ice 


bus 


Bone 


sok 


Village 


ai 


Blood 


kan 


One 


ben 


Hand 


kol 


Two 


ike 


Foot 


azak 





iki 


Tooth 


tis 


Three 


us 


Tongue 


til 




us' 


Sky 


tiger 


Four 


tort 




tSger 


Five 


])is 


Sun 


khun 




bes 


Moon 


ai 




bis' 


Star 


dhetes 




bes' 




theltes 


Six 


al 


Fire 


ot 




alty 


Water 


BUS 


Seven 


dhlte 




sug 




thite 





su 


Eight 


sigus 


Bird 


kus 




sfigus 


^99 


numertka 


Nivie 


togos 





numerka 





tdgos 


Fish 


balak 


Ten 


on. 




• Yeni 


seian. 





THE KARAGAS. 



109 



The Koibal is stated by Castren to have as dialects, 
the Kondakov and the Salbin. Out of the few words 
he gives, I pick out a few evidently Turk. 



English. Kandokoy. 


Salbin. 


Hair 


shash 


TofAh 


tish 


Beard 


sagal 


Belly 


k&ryn 


Star dhettes 


thythysh 


theltes 


thyltesh 


Earth dhir 





thlr 




Rain nangmer 


nangmjT 


Tree 


agasb. 


igas, amounting in 1851 


to 284 and 259 



females, fell into 

a. The Kas ; 

6. The Sareg Kash ; 

c. The Ty^ptei ; 

d. The Tyogde ; 

e. The Kara Tyogde. 
Tliey all, now, speak Turkish, 

English. Karagas. 

Water sag 

Ice tosh 

Egg nyumurha 

Fish balak 

Snale thulan 

Hill tag 

dag 

Stone taish 

Village nyon 

One bira 

Two iM 

Three uis 

Pour tort- 

dort 

Five l)eia 

Six alt^ 

Seven thede 

Eight sehes 

Nine tohos 

Ten on. 



EiiglUh. 


Kara gas. i 


Man (rir) 


1 
er 


(homo) 


kishi 


Woman 


epshe 




kat 


Eye 


karak 


Ear 


kulak 


Mouth 


akse 


Tooth 


dish 


Tongue 


tel 




del 


Hair 


thash 


Hand 


kol 


Foot 


but 


mood 


khan 


Beard 


sahal 


Shy 


tere 


Sun 


kun 


Moon 


?ai 


Star 


settes 


Fire 


ot 


Water 


sux 



110 



THE SOIONY. 



The Soiony (Tshitshatsheff takes pains to tell us that 
this is the right form of the word) are chiefly within 
the Chinese frontier. Still some are Russian. Their 
original language I hold to be Yeniseian ; yet, now, 
they speak Turkish. In Castren, as obiter dicta, 
and as illustrations of his Koibal and Karagas vocabu- 
lary we have a few Soyony words. They are the tribes 
from whom the Sayanian range takes its name. Some 
of the Soyony, as here stated, speak Turkish ; others 
Buriat ; some, probably, Saraoyed. The basis, however, 
seems to be Yeniseian. 



English. 


Soiony. 


English. 


Soiony. 


Head 


pas 


Star 


theltes 


Hair 


tiik 


Fire 


Ot 


Tooth 


tes 


Water 


sux 


Tongue 


tib 




sug 


Eye 


karak 




su 


Ear 


kar 


Earth 


dhir 


Foot 


put 




thir 


Beard 


sagal 


Stone 


tas 


Belly 


k&ren 


Hill 


tag 


Sun 


kar 


Ice 


tosh 


Star 


dbeltes 


Tree 


yas. 



The Sayanian tribes, one of which is said to be 
named Sokha, lead to the Sokhalar of the Lena and the 
Arctic Sea, the Turks of the extreme north, the Turks 
who are usually called Yakuts ; but whose native names 
must be carefully remembered as Sokhalar — lar being 
the sign of the plural number. The Sokhalar, from the 
parts about Lake Baikal, are said to have separated 
from the Brath (? Buriats), with whom they formerly 
made one nation, under a chief named Tarkhantegin ; 
the land upon which they intruded themselves having 
been Samoyed, Tungtis, and Yukahiri. 

The language of the third column of the following 
table is from the Asia Polyglotta. It is simply headed 
Yeniseian, i. e. Turk of the Yenisey. 



THE SOKHALAR OR YAKUT. 



Ill 



English. 


Yakut. 


Yeniseian. 


Head 


baz 


bask 


Eye 


kharakh 


karak 


Ear 


kulgakh 


kulak 


Nose 


murun 


burun 


Mouth 


ayakh 


aksy 


Tongue 


til 


tyl 


Tooth 


tiz 


tish 


Sun 


kun 


kon 


Moon 


ai 


ai 


Star 


znlns 


tshiltis 


Fire 


vot 


ot 


Water 


■wi 


su 


Hill 


taz 


tag 


One 


bir 


bir, nagysh 


Two 


iki 


iki 


Three 


uz 


ntsh 


Four 


tirt 


tort 


Five 


vez 


besh 


Six 


alta 


alta 


Seven 


seta 


dzhuti 


Eight 


agys 


segus 


Nine 


dogya 


togos 


Ten 


on 


ongus. 



Such are the details of the Turks of Siberia, who are 
so far exceptional as to be, to a great extent, Pagans, 
rather than Mahometans, and, of course, unlettered. 
Since the Russian conquest of Siberia, Christianity has 
made some way amongst them. There is, however, 
some Mahometanism, and a little Buddhism. 

The Tui-ks of the Khanats of Kazan, Astrakan, and 
the Crimea now claim notice. They are all intrusive, 
i. e. other than aboriginal to the countries where their 
language is spoken. 

The Bashhirs, chiefly occupants of the Government of 
Orenburg, Turk in tongue, are, more or less, Ugrian in 
blood. So are, probably, 

The Meshtshenaks, who are believed to have immi- 
grated from the Oka, in the Mordvin and Tsherimiss 
neighbourhood. 



112 



THE KAZAN, ETC. 



English. 


Kazan. 


Meshtsheriak. 


Bashkir. 


Nogay. 


Head 


bash 


bash 




bash 


bash 


Hair 


tshatsh 


tsats 




zaz 


zatsh 


Hand 


kol 


kul 




kol 


kol 


Eye 


kus 


kus 




kyus 


gyos 


Ear 


kolak 


klak 




kulak 


kulak 


Tooth 


tyesh 


tish 




tish 


tysh 


Tongue 


tyel 


til 




tel 


til 


Blood 


kan 


kan 




kan 


kan 


Day 


kyun 


kun 




kyun 


giin 


Sun 


kuyash 


kuyash 




kun 


gyon 


Moon 


ai 


ai 




ai 


ai 


Star 


yaldus 


yuldus 




yuldus 


ildis 


Fire 


Tit 


ut 




ut 


ut 


Water 


zu 


zu 




zu 


su 


Tree 


agatsh 


agatsh 




agatsh 


agatsh 


Stone 


tash 


tash 




tash 


tash 


One 


ber 


ber 




ber 


bir 


Two 


ike 


ike 




ike 


iki 


Three 


utsh 


uz 




ysh 


utsh 


Four 


diirt 


dyort 




dort 


dort 


Five 


bish 


besh 




besh 


bish 


Six 


alty 


alty 




alty 


alty 


Seven 


yedi 


idi 




yedi 


siti 


Eight 


zigis 


zigis 




zigis 


zegis 


Nine 


tokus 


togus 




togus 


togus 


Ten 


on 


on 




on 


on. 


The Kuzzilbash is the Turk of Persia : 




English. 


Kuzzilbash. 






Engh 


sh. 


Kuzzilbash 


Head 


bash 






Hand 


el 


Eye 


gos 






Sv/n 




gun 


Ear 


kulakh 






Moon 


a 


Nose 


buruni 






Star 




yuldus 


Mouth 


aghis 






Fire 




oth 


Hair 


sadzh 






Water 


su 


Tongue 


til 






Tree 




dyadzh 


Tooth 


dish 






Ston 


e 


dash. 



The Basian, Karatshai, and Kumuk that of Caucasus. 

English. Kumuk. Karatshai. 

Head bash bash 

Eye ^os gos 

Ear kulakh kulakh 

Nose b\irun burun 

Mouth aus ul 

sadzh 

til 

dish 



Hair 


sadzh 


Tongue 


dil 


Tooth 


dish 



TURK PATER-NOSTERS. 113 



English. 


Kumak. 


Karatshai 


Hand 


kol 


kol 


Sun 


gun 


gun 


Moon 


al 


ai 


Star 


yoldus 


iildus 


Fire 


ot 


ot 


Water 


ea 


sa 


Tree 


terek 


ayadzh 


Stone 


tash 


tash. 



Of the following Pater-nosters, all of which are taken 
from the Mithridates, the first three represent the lan- 
guage of the parts to the north of the Caucasus or to the 
east of the Caspian, i. e. the Tartar of Independent 
Tartary. The last three, on the other hand, give the 
Turkish of Asia Minor. The first of them is from Georgie- 
wicz, who, in the sixteenth century, lived thirteen years 
in Anatolia as a slave. The second is the Turkish of 
Armenia ; the third, like the first, of Anatoha ; its date 
being A.D. 16G6 — earlier than the Armenian specimen, 
but later than that by Georgiewicz. — De Turcarum Mo- 
ribus, Lyons, A.D. 1555. They are given, verbatim et 
literatim,, as they stand in Adelung, i. e. they have not 
been collated with the originals. 

1. 

Atha TTzmn, ki kok-ta sen ; evlia ol dnr sennng ad-ung ; kelsen memleket- 
ung ; olsun sennng iradat-nngale jer-dahi gng-de ; ver visum gundelik et- 
mege-muzi bu-giun ; va vizum jasu-ngisch kail ot-nitegim kail biz juz jasun- 
gisleru muze ; dahi koima LDzi visvasije ; killa korta viLd jeman-dan. Amen. 

2. 
Atba wisom, chy chok-ta sen ; algusch Indur sinung ad-nng ; kelsanm sen- 
nng hauluchnng ; belsung sinung archung aley gnr-da uk ackta ; wer wisum 
gundalnch otmak chumnsen won -gun; kay wisum jasochni alei wis dacha ka 
yelle nin wisnn jasoch lamasin ; dacha koima wisni snna-macha ; ilia garta 
wisni geman-dan. 

3. 

Ya Ata-muz, ki yuksek ghiogh-da sen ; aadin ari olsun ; padashah-lighin 
ghelsiin ; boiruklerin itsmish olsun giogh-da, kibi dahi yirda ; her-ghuinaghi 
e kmeki-vir bize bu-ghiun ; muzi va burgjleri-mnzi bize bagishla, nitshaki biz 
dahi burgjleri-muza baghishleriz ; va bizi sinisha ghiturma ; likin Tarama - 
zdiz bizi sali-vir (va kortar va sakla) ; zira-ki senungh-dier padisha-lik, va 
kadirlik, va bojuklik, ta gjanid gjavidana. Amin. 

I 



114 



THE CUMANIAN. 



Baba-moz hanghe gugte sson ; cliuduss olssum ssenung ; adun gelsson ssen- 
ung memlechtun ; olssun ssenung istedgung nycse gugthe, vie gyrde ; echame 
gu-mozi hergunon veie bize bu gun ; hem bassa bize borsligo-moze, nycse bizde 
baslaruz bortsetiglere-mozi ; hem yedma byzegeheneneme ; de churtule bizy 
Jaramasdan. Amen. 

5. 

Baba-miz ki chioiler-de sin ; senin ad-in mubarek olsun ; senin padischia- 
lij-in chielsin ; nikhe cbisi-de boile kher-de senin murad-in olun-sun ; her- 
chiun laziru oalaru ekmekhe-mizi bize ver cu chiun ; ve borglari-mizi bisc 
baghishla nikhe ki biszde borghila-miza baghishlariz ; ve bizi ighva-den emin 
eile ; amma bizi fena-den kurtar. 

6. 

Bisum Ata-mus ki kiokler-deh sin ; seniing ad-iing mukaddes olsun ; seniing 
melait-ung kielsun ; siniing iradet-iiag olsun nitekim kioh-deh dachi jer-deh ; 
her kiunki bisiim etmeke miisi wer bise bu kiun ; we-bisiim burdschler-iimi 
bise baggisehlek, nitekem bis dachi bisiim burdschliiler-iimiisi baggischlerus ; 
ice-bisi tadschrihe adehal etma; lekin sc/ie?'W'-den-bisi nedschat eile; sira 
eeniing-diir melcul, we sultanet, we Medschi ta ebed. Amin. 

In A.D. 1770 died Yarro, a native of Czarszag, the 
last Hungarian who spoke the Gumanian dialect of the 
Turk. For this we have the five following Pater-nosters ; 
all imperfect. 

1. 

Bezom Atta-masz, kem-ke kikte. Szelezon szen-ad-on ; ..... 
dosson szen-kiiklon netze-ger-de, ali-kuk-te; bezom ok nemezne ( ? okne- 
mezne) gUt biittor gungon borberge; eli bezou mene-mezne ther-mez-bezgo 

ovgyi tengere 

2. 

Bezen Atta-maz, chen-ze kit-te. Szen liszen sin-ad-on ; 

Doson mittigen kenge .... ale-kik-te ; puthuter kingiri ilt bezen 

iltne, bezen kutin ; Bezen migni bolsotati bocson 

megne tenge nizni. Amen. 

3. 

Bezon Atta-maz kem-ze kek-te. Szen leszen szen-ad-on ; 

mitzi jegen-ger-de, ali kek-te ; bezom akko mozne bergezge pibbiitoor kungiid; 

lit bezon mene-mezde utrogergenge ilt mebezde Olyon 

angja manya boka tsali botsanigjs tengere. Amen. 

4. 

Bezam Atta-masz ken-ze kek-te. Szen-lezon szen ad-on ; 

Dosiin szen-kiiklon netze ger-de, ali guk-te ; bezamok menemezne ( ? bezam 
okmene-mezne) gutba tergunger ( ? gutbater gunger) ; ali -bezam me-mezne 

..... tscher-mez-bezga ; kutkor-bezga eniklera-bezda ; 

Ovia malna szembersauk bokvesS.te ;.,... tengeri ovia tengeri 
tengeri. Amen. 



THE TSHUVASH. 



11 



Bezen Atta-maz ken-ze kik-te. Szen leszen szen ad-on ; 

Doson szen kiiklon nicziegen ger-de, ali kek-te ; bezen ako-moze ( ? okne- 
mezne) bergezge pitbiitor kiingiJn ; il bez mene-mezne neszem-bezde, jermez- 
bezge utrogergenge iltma tscher-mez-bezga ; bezne olgya manga kutkor bezne ; 
algya manna szen borszong boka csalli {aliter osalli) bocson igyi tengeie. Amen. 

In the Government of Kazan reside as many as 
300,000 Tshuvashes, differing from the other Ugrian 
populations in their somewhat superior civilization, and 
from the so-called Tartare in the fact of their beino" 
Christians rather than Mahometans. Respecting their 
language much has been written ; some inquirers main- 
taining that it is essentially Ugrian upon which a great 
deal of Turk has been engrafted ; others that it is Turk 
at bottom, but Ugrian in respect to its superadded ele- 
ments. 



English. 


Tshuvash. 


Osmanli. 


Tsheremia. 


Head 


poz 


bash 


boi 


Eye 


kos 


g03 


shinsya 


Ear 


khnlga 


khulak 


piliksh 


Nose 


snmsali 


bumn 


ner 


Mouth 


znxar 


aghis 


nshma 


Hair 


znz 


satsh 


ip 


Tongue 


tsbilge 


dil 


elmye 


Tooth 


fibil 


dish 


pnntshal 


Hand 


alia 


el 


kit 


Sam, 


khwel 


gynn 


ketshe 


Moon 


oikh 


ai 


tilsye 


Star 


Koldar 


yildis 


shuder 


Fire 


wot 


od 


tol 


Water 


shiva 


sa 


wut 


Tree 


evyi 


agatsh 


pn 


Stone 


tshol 


tash 


ku 


One 


pi» 


bir 


iktet 


Two 


ikke 


iki 


koktot 


Three 


vise 


ntsh 


komat 


Pour 


dwatta 


dort 


nilit 


Five 


pilik 


besh 


Tisit 


Si^ 


alta 


ahy 


kndnt 


Seven 


ratshe 


yedi 


sbrmit 


Eifjht 


sakar 


sekis 


kandashe 


Nine 


tukhon 


dokos 


indeshe 


Ten 


wonka 


on 


la. 

I 2 



116 THE TSHUVASII. 

The Tsliuvash plurals end in -zam or -zem ; the 
Osmanli in -lar, or -lev. In Tshuvash op, or ah, in 
Osmanli, men = I. The Tshuvash verb substantive is 
holah = sum ; the negative, -ast- ; as hazariadip = oro ; 
haziarmastaiJ — non oro. 

Schubert reckoned the Tshuvash at 370,000 ; a high 
number for a Ugrian, or even a Turk, population in 
these parts. 

The Pater-nosters of the preceding pages were taken 
down before the grammatical structure of the dialects 
which they represent was studied. As such, they are, 
more or less, inaccurate. On the other hand, they are 
better samples of the average character of the Pater- 
nosters of rude languages than more accurate com- 
positions would have been. 

They show difference rather than likeness : whilst, on 
the other hand, words like those of our vocabularies 
show likeness rather than difference. Hence, we get, as 
a rough rule, the doctrine that, in the present work, 
languages are more like each other than the Pater-nosters 
make them, and less like each other than the lists of 
words make them. 



I 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



117 



CHAPTEE XVI. 



The Ynkahiii. 



Due east of the Sokhalcor lie the Yukahiri, or Yuka- 
giri, who call themselves Andon Domni — Yukahiri being 
the Turk, and Atal the Koriak, name. "Their lan- 
guage/' writes Klaproth, is " one of the most outlying in 
Asia." It is one, too, of which next to nothing is known. 
It is, also, a language of a receding fi-ontier. In a.d. 
1739 the numbers of the Yukahiri were high. The 
tribes of the Omolon, according to Sauer, were called 
Tsheltiere ; those of the Alasey, Omoki ; those of the 
Anad^T, Tshuvantsi and Kudinsi. A numerous tribe 
named Konghini occupied the Kolyma. " Wars," 
writes Prichard, " with the Tshuktshi and Koriaks have 
almost exterminated them." 

But there must (if the views of the present writer be 
correct) have, also, been encroachment from the West — 
effected, most probably, by the Sokhalar. 

The language is certainly very different from that of 
any of the surrounding populations. 



English. 


Tukahiri. 


Koriak. 


Yakut 


Tnngus. 


Head 


monoli 


lawut 


baz 


dyU 


Eye 


angdzha 


lalat 


kharakh 


eha 


Ear 


golendM 


vyilut 


knlgakh 


zen 


Nose 


yongyul 


enigytam 


moron 


ongokto 


Mouth 


angya 


zekiangin 


ayak 


bamon 


Hair 


manallae 


katshngui 


az 


nyoritt 


Tongue 


andzhub 


giigel 


tyl 


ingni 


Tooth 


tody 


wannalgyn 


tiz 


ikta(1) 


Hand 


tolondzha 


myngakatsh 


iU 


ngala 



118 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



English. 


Yukaliiri 


Koriak. 


Yakut. 


Tungus. 


Day 


bondzhirka 


hallo 


kun 


inangi 


Sun 


bugonslie 


tyketi 


kun 


ziguni 


Moon 


kininshe 


geilygen 


ui 


bega 


Star 


lerungundzhia 


lelapitshan 


Zulus 


haulen 


Fire 


yenyilo 


milugan 


wot 


togo 


Water 


ondzhi 


mimal 


u 


mu 


Tree 


tshal 


uttepel 


maz 


mo 


Stone 


kaU 


giiggon 


taz 


dzbolo 


One 


irken 


onnon 


bir 


omukon 


Tivo 


antaklon 


nioktsh 


ike 


dzhur 


Three 


yalon 


Diyokh 


uz 


ilyan 


Fou/r 


yekalon 


niyakh 


tirt 


dygyn 


Five 


onganlon 


myllangin 


ves 


tongo 


Six 


malhiyalon 


onnanmyllangin 


alta 


nyungun 


Seven 


purkion 


langin 


seta 


nadan 


EifjJit 


malhielekhlon 


I) iy ok h - my llan gin 


agys 


dzhapkun 


Nine 


khuni-izkeel- 
lendzhin 


khonnaitshinkin 


dogys 


yagin 


Ten 


kuniella 


mynegytkin 


on 


dzhur. 



The root malhi, in the Yukahiri numerals for six and 
eight, is the malhuh (malguk) r= two of several of the 
dialects of North-west America ; and I may add, that, 
East of the Lena true American characteristics present 
themselves, and that prominently. 

In 1850, I published, in my work on the Varieties of 
Man, the following tables, one of which gave a certain 
number of affinities between the Yeniseian and the 
Yukahiri, the other some between the Yeniseian and the 
Samoyed. I also expressed the opinion that, on the 
strength of these affinities, the three groups might be 
thrown into one, and that the name of the class thus 
formed may be Hyperborean. "Whether the tables were 
sufficient to justify the fonnation of such a class is 
another question. They ought to have been fuller. 



The Yenisean and the Yukahiri of the Asia Polyglotta, 
English, beard Kott, hulup 



Inbask, Icidye, hulgung 
Pumpokolsk, clcpuk 
Assan, cidup, chulp 



Arinzi, Icorolep 
Yukahiri, hu-gylhe 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



119 



Enffllsh, head 
Inhask, tskig 
Yukahiri, yok 

English, mouth 
Pompokolsk, khan 
Yukahiri, anya 

English, nose 

Inbask, olgen, olen 

Pnmpokolsk, hang 

Assan, ang 

Yukahiri, yonyul, iongioula. 

English, tongue 
Assan, aldp 
Kott, aldp 
Arinzi, alyap 
Yukahiri, andzhub 

English, ear 
Assan, hdogan, Jclokan 
Kott, kalogan 
Yukahiri, golondzhi 

English, man 
Inbask, ^et, hlet 
Pumpokolsk, ilset 
Kott, hatket 
Yukahiri, yadu 

English, dog 
Inbask, tsip, tip 
Yukahiri, tabaha 



English, thunder 
Arinzi, eshath-yantu 
Yukahiri, yendu 

English, lightning 
Inbask, yakene-hok 
Yukahiri, bug-onshe 

English, egg 
Inbask, onge 
Arinzi, ang 

Pnmpokolsk, tanyangeeg 
Yukahiri, langdzhango 

English, leaf 
Assan, yepan 
Kott, dipang 
Yukahiri, yipan 

English, eat 
Assan, ray all 
Yukahiii, lagid 

English, yellow 
Kott, shuiga 
Yukahiri, tshaiatoroU 

English, moon 
Pumpokolsk, (ui 
Arinzi, shui 
Yukahiri, kinin-shi. 



B. 



The Yenisean and the Samoyed of the Asia Polyglotta. 



English, arm 
Arinzi, khinang 
Mangaseia, kannamunnt 

English, finger 
Inbask, tokan 
Pumpokolsk, toh 
Tawgi, fyaaka 
Yurass, tarka 

English, flesh 
Arinzi, is 
Assan, if, ir-i 
Pumpokolsk, rjp 



ilangaseia, osa 
Turuchansk, odzha 
Narym, &c., ue^ 
Karass, hne^ 
English, fir-tree 
Inbask, ei 
Arinzi, aya 
Obdorsk, ye 

English, egg 
Inbask, ong 
Arinzi, ang 
Pumpokolsk, eg 
Tas, iga 



120 



THE YUKAHIRI. 



English, egg 
Assan, shulei 
Kott, shulei 
Motorian, shlok 

English, tree 
Assan, atsh 
Kott, &c., aps/tg 
Motorian, &c., cha 

English, brother 

Assan, pobesh 

Koiljal, paMm^younger 

English, butter 
Assan, Icayah 
Motorian, clmyah 

English, moon 
Assan, shui 
Koibal, Jcui 

English, sun 
Assan, etc., ega 
Motorian, haye 
English, stone 
Inbask, p.jgs, lyes 
Pumpokolsk, qys, kit 
Assan, shish 
Kott, shish 
Arinzi, hhes 
Motorian, dagia 

English, summer 
Assan, shega 
Kott, chushshega 
Arinzi, shei 
Motor, claghan 
Koibal, taga 

English, tbey 
Assan,' ^a<m 
Arinzi, itang 
Motor, tin 

English, woman 
Inbask,' &yjTO 
Arinzi, hyk-hamalte 



Obdorsk, pug-utsii 
Pustosersk, ^mg-i^a 

English, river 
Denka, chuge 
Pustosersk, yaga 

English, great 
Assan, pa^a 
Arinzi, hirkha 
Pustosersk, pirge 

English, evening 
Inbask, his 
Pumpokolsk, bigidin 
Assan, pidziga 
Yurass, p)aiLsema 
Obdorsk, paus-emya 
Pustosersk, paus-emye 

English, hill 
Inbask, &c., chai 
Samoyed, syeo, ko 

English, bed 
Inbask, chodzha 
Obdorsk, choba 
Tawgi, kufu 

English, birch-tree 
Inbask, uusya 
Assan, uga 
Kott, uga 
Pustosersk, chu 
Tawgi, &c., kuie 
Ket, tiue 

English, leaf 
Yeniseian, yp-an 
Pumpokolsk, ejig 
Pustosersk, wyba 
Obdorsk, wiibe 
Yurass, newe 
Tomsk, tyaba 
Narym, (abe 
Kamash, dzhaba 



It is clear that, if Gastrin's association of the Sa- 
moyed with the Fin be (as it is) right, the Yukahiri and 



THE YUKAHIRI. 121 

Yeniseian sliould be in the same category, and, as such, 
Ugrian also. Does Castren make them so ? The answer 
to this question is as follows : — 

Of the Yukahiri he says little or nothing any way. 

Of the Yeniseian he expressly, states that it is other 
than UgHan. 

An opinion to this effect and from such a quarter 
rendered a re-consideration of the doctrine involved in 
the previous classification imperative ; and so sensible 
was I of this that, having published a notice of the 
tribes under consideration between the publication of 
the Lectures on the Altaic family, and the Giximmar of 
the Kott and Yeniseian, " in deference to his " (Castren 's) 
"opinion, I suspended my judgment until the last-named 
work should be published." 

When published, as it was soon after, it put the 
Yeniseian as it stands in the present work — leaving the 
Yukahiri to be dealt with as it best may. 

In Sauer's account of Billing's Expedition there is a 
list of 2 o Yukahiri words. These, in conjunction with 
the list of Imperial Vocabularies, and a Pater-noster 
from Witsen's North and East Tartary, constitute the 
whole of our data. The greater part of them appears 
in the Asia Polyglotta ; in the body of the work by 
itself, and in the Atlas in a tabular form, compared or 
contrasted with the Koriak, Kamskadale, and Eskimo 
languages ; from all of which (as aforesaid) it differs 
visibly. 

How far is it Samoyed — the Pater-nosters being 
compared? The following are the details, clause for 
clause, 

(1-) 

Yukahiri. — Otje mitsje. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Modi Jescje. 
Taxcgi Samoyed. — Mi Jeseme. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Mani NisaL 
Ostiak. — Jez mi. 
Vogul. — ^Mem Jef. 



122 THE YUKAHIRI. 

(2.) 
Tukahiri. — Kandi Kudsjunga. 
Turukliansk Samoyed. — Teio na Csonaar. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Neiteio Nuontone. 
Archancjd Samoyed, — Huien tamuva Numilembarti tosu. 
OstiaJc. — Kundina jejand Nopkon. 
Vogul. — Conboge Eterdarum. 

(3.) 
YuJcahiri. — ^Temlalangh nim totlie. 
Turulchansk Samoyed. — Todi nilo torcke csuzuiro. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Ton on nilo tontokui kusiuro. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Tadisse pider nim. 
Ostiak. — Nuni nip tat. 
Fo^itZ.— Naerderoin amut nema. 

(4.) 
YuTcahiri. — Legate! pugandallanpoh tottlie. 
TurukhansJc Samoyed. — Todi naksiaro toretuSu. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Tonon nuontomeiro tondo tuifantu. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Pider parowadie tosu. 
Ostiak. — Tula nutkotsj tat. 
Vogul. — Nerosia soclitos. 

(5.) 

Yukahiri. — Latiot t'sjemol alkatei, konda koet zjuga (? kundsjunga) je 
leviangh. 

Turukhansk Samoyed. — Todi agnaara toretusu tone na csonaar i jacsona. 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Tonon nianzepsialo tuifano, tondone nuontono mamoru- 
tono. 

Archangel Samoyed. — Pider gior amgade numilembart, tarem jae. 

Ostiak. — Tiit tenel tiit tat nopkon its jots jogodt. 

Vogul. — Omut nun gerae tegali eterdarum scinan maanki. 

(6.) 
Yukahiri. — LUnliangel miltje monidetjelah keyck mitin telaman. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Modi puieresiudara kirva toratsin mena ereksone, 
Tawgi Samoyed. — Mi niliusiame kirvu tozu nanc jele. 
Arcliangel Samoyed. — Man jeeltema nan tuda. 
Ostiak. — Nai me 'tsjelelemi tallet meko sbek titap. 
Vogul. — Candalas tep mi me tiegalgad. 

(r.) 

Yukahiri. — Jeponkatsj mitin taldelpon mitlapul, mitkondan (? mit kondan) 
poniatsjock tannevinol mitlapUl. 

Turukhansk Samoyed. — I kai nene noina oteine, tone imodinani kalodie 
neine oteoponede. 

Tawgi Samoyed. — Kuoje nane mogorene oteine, tondone oniede kuvojefan- 
tome naine oteaoponteinianan. 



THE YUKAHIRI. 123 

Archangel Samoyed. — Ali ona mani isai, tai mano \rangnndar mani mi 
manno. 

Ostial: — Kvodtsjedi mekosjek kolzja mei, tat mei kvocltsjedi kolzja mei. 
Voguh — Julokults me gavorant, txiigali menik julgoli amut tzagaraldin, 

(8.) 
Yuiahiri. — Je kondo olgonilak mitel olo oimik. 
Turukhansk Samoyed. — Iro sirene ta ora basiedo. 
TttTJogi Samoyed. — Letancto men koli cakento. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Ja merum hanna sa neninde baka. 
Osfiak. — Nik jegosjid kvondik mat kekend. 
Vogid. — An mengolen jul\agarias. 

(9-) 
TuL-ahiri. — Kondo moliak mitel kimda annelan. 
Tundhayisk Samoyed. — I role sireno kodago clioro. 
Taicgi Samoyed. — Si lupto men muzcy logoto. 
Archangel Samoyed. — Japtan mane snadera. 
Ostiak. — Tat . . . maft losogod. 
Vogul. — Toromalt derku mem knl. 

(10.) 

Tv.kahiri. — Le dot pngundal lenpoh, je tonbank, je tandalov knndejank. 

Turuk/iansk Samoyed. — Tone todi tonea naksiaro i nichoro i su ynraaro i 
reine. 

Tawgi Samoyed. — Tondo tonon noncina nn ontomouro ni chomeon ni timeon 
nlecneeno. 

Archangel Samoyed. — Tekindapt schin pider parowadea ni booka, wadado, 
il iwan. 

Oitiak. — Tat tat nndkotsj, omp, UTorganin, tarn nun. Nat. 

Vogul. — Tagolodamu negotsko, vaan booter, nemonsoigi nekostatia. Peitse. 

Remarks. 
1. 

Otje is, apparently, the Russian otets, oice. That mitsje is the Turuk- 
hansk mxtdi is probable. Compare totlie (thine) with todi, and the probability 
increases. 

2. 

Kandi is the relative pronoun, and, word for word, the Ostiak kundina, 

3-4. 
Nim is Gterman. Totlii has already been noticed. 

5. 

Latiot. — What la means is uncertain. Perhaps it should be separated 
from tiat, which is totliS = thy. T'sjemol is, perhaps, the Ostiak ienel. In 
leviangh, the -ngh is inflexional, probably the sign of a locative case. The 
simple form in Billing is levjie. 



124 THE YUKAHIRI. 

6. 
Miltje and mitin are the pronouns of the first person. Mon'ddJelaJi and 
telaman = this day and duily. The root is tel; and it api)ears in both the 
Sanioyed and Ostiak. It appears, too, with the terminations -ma and -mi. 
In Billing, pondscherJca = day, whilst pondscherkoma = to-day, the ma 
being rnan. 

7-10. 
The likeness here seems limited to the roots j)on and tail, in No. 7, as com- 
pared with the Oteapo7itei)iia,na.n of the Tawgi, 



THE UGRIAN CLASS. 125 



CHAPTER XVII. 

The TJgrian Class. — Its Importance and Peculiarities. — Castren's Eesearcbes. 
• — The Sanioyed Division. 

Every language is, in its way, a philological study; 
and so is every group of languages. The Ugiian class, 
however, is one of pre-eminent importance. It is the 
most northern of all : and, in remembering this, we 
must also remember that the world is a sphere. It is 
like an apple or an orange. Now it is one thing to cut 
round an apple in the latitude of its pips : it is another 
thing to do so just below its calyx, or just above the 
stalk. The one section is a long, the other a short, one. 
A language (if such a one existed) that went round the 
world at the equator would cover infinitely more gi'ound 
than one that encircled one of the Poles. Yet the 
number of degrees would be the same. The Malay 
tongues are spoken over fewer degrees of latitude than 
the XJgiian. How different, however, ls the real length 
of their ai'ea. If they were spoken within the Arctic 
Circle, they would cover less ground than the Turk. 
Now the Ugrian tongues belong to the region where 
the degrees of latitude are of the narrowest. Some of 
them, indeed, lie to the south — e. g. the Magyar. As 
a general rule, however, they are northern. 

Again — there are certain parallels which may be 
called zones of conquest and encroachment. The extreme 
north is unfavorable to the development of mind and 
muscle. So are the Tropics. Hence, the nations of 
the medium, or temperate, districts are like two-edged 



126 THE UGRIAN CLASS. 

swords. They cut both ways — encroaching accord- 
ingly. 

The Ugrian tongues are the tongues of the North, of 
the narrow longitudes, and of the unfavoured climates. 
They have been inordinately encroached on. Again — 
they lie, to a great extent, between Europe and Asia. 

The Ugrian area was once continuous. It is now 
fragmentary. Many of the Ugrian districts are islands, 
with a sea of Slavonism around them. Or we may 
change the metaphor, and call them oases. The desert 
around them is sometimes Slavonic, sometimes Turk. 

The Tungus, the Mongol, and the Turk were philo- 
logical classes in the way that the Solidungula con- 
stituted a class in Zoology. The difference between the 
horse and the ass was all the difference they embraced. 
The Ugrian is a class in the way that the Rodentia are 
a class. There are many members, and the differences 
embraced are the differences between a mouse and an 
agouti. 

The chief languages of the Ugrian class are the 
Ostiak, the Vogul, the Magyar, the Permian, the Votiak, 
the Tsherimis, and the Mordwin — all recognized by the 
earlier philologues. Then comes the Samoyed, recognized 
as Ugrian since the researches of Gastrin. Then the 
Yukahiri and the (?) Yeniseian, of which much has al- 
ready been said. 

The Koriak and its congeners can only be made 
Ugrian by raising the value of the class. 

In three respects Ugrian philology is easy. A lan- 
guage spoken in the centre of Asia has affinities on each 
side — north, south, east, and west. A language 
spoken on the northern end of the world has affinities 
in one direction only — to the south. The affinities of 
the Lap are one-sided ; those of the Turk (to borrow an 
expression from the geologists) quaquaversal. 

Secondly — the boundai-ies of an island or an oasis 
are easily marked out. The limits of a tract in the 



THE SAMOYED. 127 

middle of a continent may easily be indefinite. Now, 
many of the Ugrian tongues are absolutely isolated. 

Thirdly — the Ugrians have generally been encroached 
on. Hence, there is much which, though Russian, Li- 
thuanic, German, or Turkish in speech, is Ugrian in 
blood ; although the converse is (comparatively speaking) 
rarely the case. 

There are not ten millions of Ugiians (tested by their 
language) in the world. Of these nearly half are in 
Hungary ; three-fourths of the remainder being the 
Fins of Finland. Assuredly, the Ugrian is a fiagmen- 
tary class. 

The Ugrians lead not only from Asia to Europe, but 
to America as well. 

The data for the Ugrian languages are ample. This 
is because the nationality of the Finlanders, not discou- 
raged by Eussia, has been devoted with more than merely 
laudable activity to the study of them. From the days 
of Porthan to those of Sjogi-en and Castren, the inves- 
tigation of Ugrian ethnology has been pursued with 
learning and acumen. 

The language * of the present group which is best 
known, and which most especially illustrates the word 
Fin or Ugrian (for the two terms are nearly synony- 
mous), is the Fin of Finland. As a literary language it 
is, by no means, unimportant. Neither is it the lan- 
guage of a nation destitute of political importance. 
Still it is not the right lanoruasre to begin mth. It is 
part and parcel of the present work to make an approx- 
imate sequence in the way of connection : and the group 
of prospective languages which comes nearest to the 
preceding is — 

The SaTnoyecl : this being a name for a class of 
dialects which, within the last ten years, has commanded* 
more attention than any class of equal political and lite- 
rary unimportance. Yet fifty yeai-s ago they were 
known only by name. The Mithridates gives us little 



128 THE SAMOYED. 

more than a few Pater-nosters. The Asia Polyglotta, by- 
means of the Vocabularies of Strahlenberg and Messer- 
schmidt, gave us fuller materials. Nor were they neg- 
lected. Klaproth, who spared so few that few have 
cared to spare him, has got less credit than he deserves 
for the amount of arrangement which he introduced 
amongst them. Castren has been hard upon his errors; 
— perhaps unduly so : but when men deal in hard mea- 
sures towards others, hard measures is all they can expect 
for themselves. I find no notable and really material dif- 
ferences between his divisions and Castren's — no notable 
and really material ones. . Some, however, exist ; though 
unimportant. As for Castren's own, I take them as I 
find them ; seeing plainly that they are made on the 
principle of demarcation rather than type ; and (as such) 
only provisional. How far they are based upon single 
characters rather than upon a multiplicity of characters 
in mass, the incomplete state of his Grammar and Dic- 
tionary (both of which are posthumous works, with little 
or no original matter added by the able editor) prevents 
me from ascertaining. 

The first fact connected with the 'class is the vast 
style of its area both in respect to latitude and longi- 
tude. The first Samoyeds are found as far west as the 
neighbourhood of Mezen ; the last on the banks of the 
Chatunga. Considering, however, their Arctic locality, 
this is nothing very extraordinary. The degrees of 
latitude in the neighbourhood of the Icy Sea are 
narrow. Much more interesting is the extension south- 
ward, or the fact of their being found so low as 50° 
N.L. within the Chinese frontier. Of these southern 
Samoyeds there are two divisions ; one on the upper, or 
middle, Obi ; one on the upper, or middle, Yenisey. 
• Between the two there is this difference — the Samoyed 
area of the Obi is either neai-ly, or wholly, continuous ; 
in other words there is a chain of Samoyed localities 
which, either nearly or wholly, continues the chain of 



THE SAMOYED DIALECTS. 129 

dialects from the Barabinski steppe to the mouth of the 
river. The Samoyeds, however, of the upper Yenisey 
are utterly isolated. They are found on the Yenisey 
where it is cut by the Russian and Chinese boundary, and 
they are not found again until we approach its mouth. 

In many respects these South-eastern Samoyeds (the 
simple term Southern is insufficient) are the more impoi-- 
tant members of the class. In the first place, it is Likely 
that they represent the occupants of the original situs 
of the family: so that it spread from south to north 
rather than from north to south. This, however, is a 
matter which requires more consideration than it has 
received. Neither is it a doctrine to which the writer 
commits himself without reserve and conditions. In the 
next place, it is in the south that the Samoyed has been 
(what we are scarcely prepared to expect) an encroaching 
language. 

Who would unlearn liLs own mother-tongue for the 
Samoyed ? Not the Turks, not the Mongols, scarcely the 
Tungus — though it is possible that certain tribes belong- 
ing to some (or all) of these divisions may have done so 
to some slight extent. The populations which have most 
especially, either by amalgamation or conquest, allowed 
their own language to be replaced by the Samoyed are the 
Yeniseians of the Kot and Ara divisions. This, however, 
we have already seen. On the other hand, the Samoyed, 
(in some cases as pure Samoyed, in others as Samoyed 
which has superseded the Yeniseian,) is, itself, replaced 
by the Turk ; as we saw when speaking of the Koibal 
and Karagas, and as we suggested when speaking of the 
Tuba and other dialects. Probably, also, certain Tungus 
and Buriats are Samoyed in blood though other than 
Samoyed in speech. Of the Turk language, however, in 
Samoyed mouths, there is no doubt. 

Its encroachment is recent. In the Asia Polyglotto, 
there are two Vocabularies ; one headed Motorian, re- 
presenting the language of the Matar, Matlar, or Matorzi, 

K 



130 THE NORTHERN SAMOYED. 

and one headed Koibal. Both these were collected by 
Messerschmidt, in the last century. The Motorian Sa- 
moyed, then nearly extinct, is now no longer to be found 
— at least eo nomine. The Koibal may possibly be 
spoken by a few individuals, StiU, the Koibal of the 
Koibal Grammar of Castren is simply Turkish. The 
Kamas, the third of Klaproth^s (or Messerschmidt's) Vo- 
cabularies, is still spoken ; and Gastrin has given us a 
Grammar of it. Still the main language of the division 
is Turkish — with the exception of a minimum of 
Kot. There Tnay be a Soiot form of the Samoyed; 
though this, if it exist, is, probably, Samoyed in the 
mouth of Yeniseians. The few words, however, that 
we know of the Soiot are Turk. Still the details of 
the country within the Chinese fi"ontier are most im- 
perfectly known. On the part of the Northern Samoyeds, 
the philological encroachment has been less. Still there 
have been encroachments. Castren writes that some of 
the frontier Ostiaks have learned to speak Samoyed. 

Of the Ncrrthern Samoyeds the chief divisions, ac- 
cording to Castren, who founds them upon the differ- 
ences of dialect, are three ; (1 ), the Yurak ; (2), the 
Tawgi ; and f3), the Ostiak. 

(i.) The Yurak Samoyeds are those that lie in the 
closest contact with the Russians. To them the name 
Samoyed was first applied. It is a name which is, by 
no means, native. The native name is Kasovo (Hasa- 
wayo), or Nyenets r= riian. 

The Yurak Samoyeds, or the Samoyeds of Yugoria, 
appear on the eastern coast of the White Sea, towards 
the mouth of the river Mezene. On the lower course 
of the Petshora they are more abundant still. They are 
separated from the Russian Laplanders by the White Sea 
and by the valley of the Dwina ; for the parts about 
Archangel have long been wrested from them and Rus- 
sianized. 

Between the Petshora and the Ural, the Samoyed is 



I 



THE NORTHERN SAMOYED. i31 

bouoded on the south by the Zirianian area. On the 
Obi he comes in contact with the Ostiak ; and that at 
the ver}^ mouth of the river. In the parts, however, 
about Obdorsk Samoyed is spoken. From the Obi to 
tlie Tas all is Yurak Samoyed. On tlie Tas, however, 
there is a break ; beyond which the details are obscure. 
The Yurak division is generally carried as far east as 
the Yenisey. We will here, however, carry it to the Tas. 

The Yurak Proper is only one dialect out of five ; 
the other four being represented by the (a), Kanin and 
Timan ; (&), the Ishim ; (c), the BoLshizemla and 
Obdorsk ; (d), and the Kondin, or Kazym, forms of 
speech. 

(2.) The Tawgi division reaches from the lower Yeni- 
sey to the Chatunga ; the tribes which belong to it being 
sometimes called the Avam, orAvamski, Samoyeds. 

(3.) The Ostiak Samoyeds have the disadvantage of 
being described by an inconvenient name. The true 
Ostiaks are something else, as has been seen. 

Of their dialects, however, in situ, the most northern 
is that of the parts about the Tym and Narym ; next 
comes that of the river Ket ; thirdly, that of the Tshulim 
The Ket forms of speech extend as far as the rivers 
Parabel and Tshaja, feeders of the Obi, on the frontier 
of the Barabinski steppe. The dialect of the Circle of 
Pumpokolsk is also akin to the Ket. 

The migrations are represented by the Karasin and 
Tas forms of speech ; the former being spoken in the 
parts to the north of Turukansk, on the Yenisey, and 
the latter by the Tym and Karakon tribes of the Tas ; 
tribes that use the reindeer and call themselves Mo- 
kase. 

In the way of language, the Kamash, Kamas, Kang- 
mash, or Kamasintzi (the ^Motorian and Koibal being 
extinct), are the only existing representatives of the 
Southern Samoyeds. They are Nomads and Shamanist 
pagans, on the head-waters of the Kan and Mana. 

K 2 



132 



THE SOUTHERN SAMOYED. 



From one division of them Castren got the materials 
for liis Grammar. 

I have said that between the groups of Klaproth and 
Castren there were some differences of detail. Klaproth 
lays the Tawgi in the same class with the Yurak ; along 
with which he places the Pustosersk, the Obdorsk, the 
Mangaseia, and the Turukansk dialects. His second 
class contains the Tas, Tomsk, Narym, Ket, Tym, and 
Karas forms of speech, along with a sliort specimen of 
what he calls the Lak. Finally, a list headed Taigi 
(the import of which is not explained), finds place in 
the third division, containing the Motorian, the Koibal, 
and the Kamash. 

Even in Castren the details and value of a fourth 
section called (most inconveniently) the Yeniseian, are 
obscure. The class itself is small. Its name gives the 
locality of its members. They lie between the Ym-ak 
and Tawgi divisions on the lower Yenisey. 

It is from Castren that all the following specimens 
are taken, and it is in the orthography of his Samoyed 
Grammar and Dictionary that they are given. 





NORTHERN 


SAMOYED. 








(1-) 








Yurak. 




English 


YuraV. 




English, 


Yurak, 


Man {homo) 


nenete 




Ear 


ha 




nienece 
nieneca 




Beard 


inunate 
munace 




nience' 






munac' 




nienec' 






munabt' 


Man (vir) 


hasawa 




Tonfjue 


nami 


Head 


"aewa 




Tooth 


tibea 


Hair 


iiotba 
"■obt 






tiwe 
tea 




6abt 






tiw 




eabt 




Hand 


"uda 




tar 




Foot 


"ae 




tabor 




Blood 


hfim 


Eye 


saeu 






xeam 



SAMOTED DIALECTS. 



133 



English. 


TiHak. 






Euglish- 


Tnrak. 


Blood 


horn 






Earth 


ya 


Nose 


pmyea 








yea 


Mouth 


na 






Hill 


sea 


Bone 


ly 








sa 




le 






Tree 


pea 


Sim 


h4yer 






Iron 


yesea 





haijer 








yese 




hayar 






Fish 


halea 


Jfoon 


yiry 
yiry 








hale 
hale 




yirt 






2>of7 


yandu 


Star 


numgy 








yando 


Night 


pi 






House 


h4rad 


Egg 


s4rna 








x&rad 


Fire 


tu 






Water 


yi 


Stone 


pae 






Rain 


saru 


Mountain-range 


soty 








skm 




s6ty 






Lalt 


to' 


The Kondin vociibulary is short. The 


following 


the chief words 


wherein it differs from 


the or(] 


Yurak : 










English. 




KonOiii. 




Yurak. 


Man {vir) 




hiiberi 




nienece 






hiiweri 






Eye 




haem 




saea 


Mouth 




nang 




na' 


House 




xirad 




b&rad 


Iron 




wese 




ytee 


Rain, 




sata 




s&U 


Lake 




m4ri 




lo' 


Water 




wit 

(2.) 
Tawgi. 




JT 


English. 


Tairgi 






English. 


Tawgi. 


Man {rir) 


knaynma 






Hand 


yntu 


Head 


'aevra 






Foot 


"oai 





'aiwua 






Nose 


pniyea 


Hair 


*apta 






Mouih 


na 




*&bta 






Blood 


kam 


Eye 


saime 






Bone 


lata 


Ear 


koa 






Sun 


kou 


Beard 


mnndoii^aii 


g 




Moon 


kitad4 


Tongue 


sieya 






Star 


fata 


Tooth 


timi 






Night 


fing 



134 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



English. Tawgi . 






English. 


Tawgi. 


Egg mdnu 






Fish 


kolu 


Fire tui 






Dog 


b&ng 


Stone fala 






House 


koru' 


Earth mou 






Water 


b6 


mamara 






Rain 


soruang 


Tree ik 






Lake 


turku. 


Iron basa 












(3.) 








Ostiah. 

1 






English — man (homo) 




X. 


Tiff,?— sai 




Narym — ^kop 






Tshwaia — sei 




Eet — kum 






Nat-2>umpoJcolsk- 


-saiji. 


Middle Ostialc — krnn 






English — hand 




Nat-pumiwholsh — kume 






Ket — utte 




Yetogui — kup 






Nat-pumpoholsh- 


-utte 


Bailcha — kup 






Yelogui — ut 




Tas— kup. 






Tas—wi 




English — l\ead 






Ballha — ut 




Ket—o\\Q 






Karassin — ut. 




Nat'pumpol-olsk — ul 






English — nose 




Yelogui — uT 






Narym — tob 




JBaikha — ul 






Ket — toppa 




Karassin — ul. 






Nat-pumiiolcolsl:- 


—toppa 


English — heard 






Tshwaia—i6\>3. 




Nari/m—und 






BaikJut — tobe 




Yelogui — unde 






Tas — tope 




Baihha — unde 






Karassin — tup. 




Karassin — unde 






English — hlood 




Middle Obi — nmd 






Narym— kan 




Eet — nmdde. 






Tshulim — kam 




English — tongue 






Nat-pumpokolsh- 


— kame 


Narym — se 






Yelogui - kem 




Tshulim—sie. 






BaikJm — kem 




English — eije 
Narym — hai 






Tas—hhm 
Karassin — kem. 




Ket — sai 






English — bone 




Yelogui — sai 






Naiym — li 




Baihha — sai 


€ 


> 


Nat-pumpokolsk- 


-le. 


English. 


"Upper Obi. 




Man {homo) 


kum 


also Middle Obi. 




{vir) 


tebii, 


also Tshaia. 




Hair 




opte 







SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



135 



En^ish. 

Beard 

Eye 

Ear 

Nose 

Moutk 

Hand 

Foot 

Blood 

Bone 

Sm 

Moom 

Star 

KifjU 

Fire 

JRirer 

Stone 

Tree 

Hotue 

^ 
SaU 



Kngtish — earth 
MiddU Obi—in 
Ket — |u 
Narym — 'cu 
Ta.i — s6 
Baikha — su 
Karatsin — su. 

English— Ai72 
Naryen — ^ke 
Baiiha — -ki 
YeUfgui — ki 
Karasnn — ke. 

English — stone 
Narym — p6 
Tshvmia — ^pu 
Nat-puwq)otold: — pu 
Tehgtd — ^pii 
Baikha — pft 
Tba— pA 

English — mn. 
Narym — 'eel 
Tdoffui, d:c. — tel 
TAwaia, dx. — {jeL 



Upper ObL 

nmde 

sd, abo TAaia, 

kne, also T^ultM. 

pato; Tshaia, pnto ; Mid. 0&^ poL 

eang; TshuUm, oang. 

ode; T i huli wif ntd 

tdbe; TshMUwij tdln. 

kim, al» TthmUm. 

fi 

td, also T'duaa, 

ire, aim TAma. 

kasaa^u; TAaia, kesanka. 

pa; Middle Obi, pe. 

to, ako Tshaia 

k^eS, abo Tshulim. 

tang ; Tghaioj t4. 

pao, alaol^Aaia. 

moat 

k^ai, also Tihmlim. 

aeak; Middle Ofn^ sak. 



3. 



]&glisb-~«ioo» 
Narym — ire 
KH—m 
TsA^idim — in 
Ydogui — ire 
Ta» — xiA 

Natr^mmp«ikoU:-~^r% 
Karatanr—eok. 

English — voter 
Narym — ikt 
ok 

English — kouae 
Narym — m&t. 

English — lake 
Battor—ta 
Ta»—ta 
Karastiit — ta 
Middae 06»— to 
Ket— to 
Upper Obi — \o 
Ttftwoia— to 
Nat-fvmjioM$t — ^to. 



136 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



English- 


-rain 




Tas—T^h. 






Narym— 


-huromS 




Baikha— 


-p& 




Baikha- 


-sorom3 




Karassin 


-pft. 




Karassii 


. — soroma 


English— 


-fish 




Ket — saro 




Tas — kuele 




Middle OU—soto 




Nat-p um'po'kolsk 


— kuele 


TaJiwaia 


— soro 




Yelogui- 


-kuele. 




Nat-2mmpokolsk— 


-semi. 














English- 


-egg 




Englist— 


-tree 




Narym— 


-n^bi 




Narym— 


-po 




Ket — n&pi 




Tshwaia 


— puo 




Yelogui- 


-eng 




Nat-pumpolcoUlc— 


-pe 


Tas — eng 




Yelogui- 


-p<i 




Karassin — eng. 








(?4.) 










Yeniseian. 






Englisb. 




Yeniseiaii, 


Chant a. 




Baiklia 


Man {homo) 


ennete' 








{vh 


) 


kasa 








Head 






abuli 




eba 


Hair 






t6' 




td' 


Beard 




muddute' 








Eye 




sei 








Ear 






kd 




k6 


Nose 






fuiya 




puiya 


Mouth 






6' 




na' 


Tongue 






siolo 




sioro 


Tooth 




ti 








Hand 






ura 




uda 


Foot 






-k 




~d 


Blood 






ki 






Bone 






Hri 




Udi 


Sun 




kaiya 








Moon 






ilio 




yirie 


Star 






foreseo 




fadesei 


Night 






fi' 




fi 


Fire 






tu 




tu 


Water 






bi' 




bi' 


River 






yaha 




yoha 


Sain 






sale 




sare 


Snow 






sila 




sira 


Earth 






da 




y& 


Stone 






it 




fu 


Tree 






fe 




fe 


Home 






kamoro 




kamodo 


Salt 






St 




si' 


Egg 




mona 








Fish 






kale 




kare. 



SAMOYED DIALECTS. 



137 



B. 

SOUTHERN SAMOTED. 



English. 


Kamas. 


English. 


Kamas. 


Man {homo) 


keiza 


Moon 


khi 


Head 


ulu 


Star 


khinzigai 


Hair 


adde 


Night 


phi 


Byt 


sima 




phy 


Ear 


ka 


Fire 


'su 


Beard 


muizen 


Rain 


snma 


Tongue 


'sika 


Lake 


thu 


Tooth 


thima 


Water 


bu 


Hand 


nda 


Stone 


phi 


Foot 


uyii 


HiU 






iiyu 


Hill-range 


bor 


Nose 


phiya 


Earth 


tu 


Mouth 


ang 


Tree 


pha 


Blood 


khem 


Iron 


batza 


Bone 


le 


Fish 


kola 


Sun 


kuya 


Dog 


men 



The Yurak Samoyeds call \:hevas,^YQsndsawayo = men; 
the Tawgi and Yeniseian Samoyeds call them Juraka 
and Julaka ; the Samoyeds of the Obi, Koelak, KwalaJc, 
and Kivdleng. Meanwhile the Yurak call the Ostiaks 
Hahi. It is the Yeniseian Samoyeds who give to the 
great river on which they are fixed the name which 
nearest approaches its European one. They call it 
Yeddosi. The Tawgi call it Yentayea. The Obi 
Samoyeds, on the other hand, know it as the Nyandesi, 
the Kola {■=river), and the Tyagandes Kola = broad 
river. 



138 THE OSTIAK 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The TJgrian Class.— The Ostiak, the Vogul, and the Magyar, 

The Ostiak is the language of the Obi and Irtish on 
the drainage of which it is spoken from about 56° to 67° 
N.L. I am not aware that it touches any part of the 
water-system of the Yenisey ; though certain tribes 
belonging to the Samoyed and Yeniseian groups have 
improperly been called Ostiak. This inaccuracy, with 
which Klaproth and others found it necessary to contend, 
is now unimportant. The latest authorities, when they 
have not discarded the term altogether, have, in general, 
warned the reader of its impropriety. So influential a 
writer, however, as Castren still applies the term Yeni- 
seian Ostiak to a form of speech which, whatever else it 
may be, is certainly different from the dialects under 
notice. 

These belong, as has just been stated, more especially 
to the Obi and the Irtish, where they are bounded on 
the south by the Barabinski and Tshulim Turks, on the 
west bj'- the Voguls and Zirianians, on the north by the 
Samoyeds of the Icy Sea, and on the east by other 
Samoyeds, and the Yeniseians of the Ket. In 1838 
the number of Ostiaks was about 19,000. Narym, 
Surgut, Beresov, and Obdorsk are the towns which lie 
most especially on the Ostiak frontier. 

The only Grammar of the Ostiak is one by Gastrin, 
in which, contrary to his ordinary habit, he has repre- 
sented the language in Russian, rather than Italian, 
letters — Russian as adapted by Sjogren to the Iron. 
The dialect is that of the Irtish j besides which there 



THE OSTIAK. 139 

are, at least, two others on the Obi, viz : the Surgufe 
and the Obdorsk. The former falls into sub-dialects ; 
at any rate certain words are quoted as belonging to the 
upper Surgut, or the Surgut of the river above, and 
others as belonging to the lower Surgut, or the Surgut 
of the river below, the city. 

That the language of a nation of fishers and foresters 
should be uncultivated and unlettered is what we both ex- 
pect and find. That it has been largely superseded by the 
Barabinski and Tshulim Turk is probable. That cer- 
tain Ostiaks of the Samoyed boundary have exchanged 
their mother-tongue for that of their frontagers is es- 
pecially stated by Castren. 

The Ostiaks call the river Obi As. 

The As-yakh=^Men of the J..s=xlsicol8e, or 06icolae, 
call 

The Ostiaks of the Demianka, Tshonto-yakh. 

Irtysh, Long-gol-yakh. 

other rivers, Nang-wanda-yakh. 

Naryra, and the banks of the river Ket, are the 
most eastern points of the Ostiak occupancy ; and there 
the Ostiaks come in contact with the Samoyeds. Now 
the term for man changes here, and is — 

In the singular number, kup = homo. 
plural hula ^= homines. 

Hence the compound Gentile names end differently, 
and a Narym Ostiak calls 



Himself 

The Surgut Ostiaks 

— Russians 

— Turks in sreneral 



DshumAil-kida. 
Tangyl-kula. 
Ruzhil-kula. 
Tiil-kula. 



of the Tshulim Tshulim-ku-kula. 

— Tungusians . . Guellon-kula. 

of the river Obi Koldy. 

— Tym Kasukh-k'd. 



140 



THE VOGUL. 



The Asjakh of Surgiit call themselves Naxta-yakh. 

the Ostiaks of Narym Nyorwrri' 

yakh. 

— — Samoyeds Yeryan-yakh. 

— — Turks . Katan-yalch. 

Russians Rutsh-yakh. 

Germans JVimet-yakh. 

Word for word, Njorum=^Nary'm,=fen ; and, as a 
Ugrian gloss, it is an instrument of criticism. Where 
the root n-r-nti and a swampy locality go together, we 
have a presumption in favour of either a Ugrian occu- 
pancy or a Ugrian neighbourhood. 

The Vogul language belongs to the ridge of the Urals 
and to its two sides ; being spoken by about 900 indi- 
viduals in the Government of Perm, and 5000 in that 
of Tobolsk, a few of whom are tillers of the soil, the 
majority being fishers and hunters. It is the only 
Ugrian language of which we have no Grammar ; 
indeed, it is the one which, upon the whole, has com- 
manded the least attention. The Vocabularies, however, 
are sufficient to show not only that it is truly Ugrian, 
but that it belongs to the same class with the one which 
now comes under notice. 



English. 


Ostiaki 


Vogul. 


Man {vir) 


kuim 


kom 


(homo) 


koiet 


klas 


Head 


ngol 


pank 


Hair 


upat 


ata 


Eye 


sem 


sham 


Ear 


pel 


bal 


Nose 


nal 


n5I 


Mouth 


lul 


tozh 


Tongue 


nalim 


nelma 


Hand 


ket 


kat 


Foot 


kur 


lat 


Swn 


syunk 


kotal 


Moon 


tylesh 


yankop 


Star 


koz 


kenza 


Fire 


tyod 


taut 





THE VOGUL. 




English. 


OstiaV. 


VognL 


Water 


ying 


wit 


Tree 


yog 


yo 


Stone 


kiw 


kn 


One 


ogy 




Two 


ketto 




Three 


kholyni 





Four 


niil 




Fire 


net 




Six 


knt 




Seven 


labut 




Eight 


nuul 




Nine 


yirteng 




Ten 


iyani 





141 



The Yoguls hold a cheerless and inhospitable tract of 
land bounded by the Zirianians, the Samoyeds, and the 
Kondicho, whom Voguls call by the name they give 
themselves, viz. Mansi. 

In the south part of the Vogul country Christianity 
has advanced a little ; feebly and imperfectly, but still a 
little. In the north, paganism prevails. 

The Voguls call the Irtish . Shap. 

Tawda . Tagget. 

Konda . Klionda. 

How far the Ostiak and Vogul extended southwards 
before the encroachment of the Turks is imknown. 
Neither is it known whether their extension was easterly 
or westerly. The opinion of the closest investigators, 
amongst whom may be placed Castren, is in favour of 
their having extended tliemselves bodily from the south. 
Be this as it may, the Government of Orenburg, though at 
present the chief occupancy of the Bashkirs, was origin- 
ally Ugrian. More than this, its Ugi'ian elements, though 
not exactly either Ostiak or Vogul, were closely akin to 
both. In Orenburg, however, no one, at the present 
moment, uses the original language. It is spoken 
nevertheless. It is spoken elsewhere ; far to the south 
and far to the west of its original locality. It is 



142 THE MAGYAR. 

spoken by more individuals than any Ugrian tongue 
whatever ; indeed, by more than all the speakers of all 
the Ugrian tongues put together. It is the language of 
no less than 4,000,000 Hungarians, the native name of 
whom is Magyar. 

Magyar, then, is the term by which we denote the 
descendants of those Ugrians who, in the tenth century, 
cut their way from the ridge of the Ural and the 
streams of the Yaik to the rich pastures and fertile 
tilths of Hungary, as opposed to the Slavonians, 
Rumanyos, and Germans of that kingdom ; and Magyar 
is the name of the language as well as the people. The 
time when it was introduced into Europe is one of 
which the history is too obscure to allow us to give the 
exact details of the languages which it displaced. Thus 
much, however, is certain, viz. : that it came in contact 
with German on the west, with Rumanyo in the east, 
and with Slavonic forms of speech on every side ; 
besides which there were the dialects which it actually 
displaced, the majority of which, I believe to have been 
Turkish. 

As the first Magyar Christians were converts to the 
Latin rather than the Greek Church, their alphabet i? 
Roman, so that the historv of their civilization and 
literature is that of Poland and Bohemia rather than 
Servia and Bulgaria ; indeed, Poland and Hungary are 
the two countries where the Latin, from its inordinate 
use as the language of law, religion, and learning, has 
made the nearest approach to an actual vernacular 
without becoming one. 

The early works in Magyar were few and far between. 
Neither were they important. In a bibliographical list 
of all the compositions in Magyar, printed in 1803, the 
total number of works referred to the year 1784 (a date 
of which the importance will soon appear) amounted to 
no more than 29 : the majority of which consisted of 
funeral sermons. Amongst the most important ones of 



TUE MAGYAR. 143 

the list at large were three translations — one of a for- 
gotten tragedy of Cronegk's, one of Voltaire's Zaire, 
and one of the Cyropccdia. 

The year 1784 was the year of the Emperor Joseph's 
famous edict by which he attempted to introduce German, 
as the language of the Diet, the Law Courts, and all 
public offices. It enacted, inter alia, that . within three 
years fi'om that time, unless special circumstances could 
be adduced which should justify him in allowing a 
respite, all the cases in aU the Courts, whether in first 
instance or as appeals, were to be conducted in German. 
This excited universal consternation. The Diet at 
Presburg resolved that the records of its proceedings 
should be in Magyar ; and that a committee should 
report on the best means of fostering the study of the 
native toncme. One of the recommendations of this 
Committee was the establishment of a national theatre : 
another was the establishment of an academy. Neither 
was carried into efiect at the time : both bore fruit in 
the sequel. 

The languaore of the claims thus enforced was the 
Magyar. The language, however, against which the 
edict of Joseph was more especially directed was the 
Latin ; for it was the Latin, rather than the Magyar, 
which had up to then become the language of the laws 
and the constitution. And, to a great extent, it was the 
Latin, rather than the !Magyar, which was defended. 
Still, the ujishot of the national movement was the de- 
velopment of the Magyar. 

The history of the Magyar literature now becomes 
the pei-sonal history of those energetic patriots who 
availed themselves of the reaction in its favour : firet 
and foremost of whom was Francis Kazinczy. For more 
than forty years he laboured at the language. I say the 
language rather than the literature, because his literature 
was a means rather than an end. It was the language 
which he wished to improve. The efforts of the Ger- 



144 THE MAGYAR. 

mans in the same direction were before his eyes ; and 
he claimed for the Magyar the same freedom in dealing 
with its elementary terms and making new compounds 
out of them as the Germans were indulging in. He 
substituted home-made terras for terms of foreign origin. 
In a language upon which both the Latin and the German 
had so long exercised what he (as a purist) would consider 
baleful influence, there was much to be done in this way; 
yet Kazinczy was not the reformer that was tempted by 
his opportunities. Some went farther than he did. He 
was, however, upon the whole successful in his coinage. 
For secretary and counsellor he introduced titoknok, and 
tanacsnot, from titok, a secret, and tanacs = counsel. 

With the words ending in ne the sign of the feminine 
gender, he dealt more boldly still. They correspond to 
the German forms in -inn, as freundinn = female friend, 
to a certain extent only. Baratne, from harat =■ a friend, 
meant, up to 1800, not so much friend of the female 
gender as a friend's wife. In like manner kiralyne, 
from kiraly, a king, meant a king's wife rather than a 
queen or female king. Both these words either changed 
or enlarged their meaning under the influence of 
Kazinczy. There was a word for the Latin virtus 
wanted, and there was a competition between Kazinczy 
and others as to who was to coin it. There was also 
a prize of fifty florins offered for a native equivalent 
to spiritus ; another one for universum. These words, 
though manufactured rather than grown, have kept 
their place better than was to be expected. 

At the same time, the quantity of still-born words in 
Magyar is very great. No wonder. The births are nu- 
merous. In 1845 Dr. Block published a German and 
Hunsarian Lexicon. In 1847 a second edition was 
wanted, and the whole work had to be recast ; so great had 
been the additions to the language within the last two 
years. I take this, as Mr. Watts takes it, i. e. as a mea- 
sure of the rate at which innovation goes on ; adding 



FIN AFFINITIES OP THE MAGYAR. 



145 



that it is from a paper of Watts' in the Philological 
Transactions that the whole of the foregoing notice is 
taken. 

The following list of the Fin afl^ities of the Magyar 
is picked out of the tables of the Asia Polyglotta. By 
going to other sources it might be largely increased. 



English. 


Magyar. 


Other Ugrian Languages. 


Eye 


szem 


sem, Ostiak, <fcc. 


Belly 


has 


waz, Fin 


Tree 


i& 


pa, Fin and Permian 


Hill 


hegy 


kumk, Tsherimis 


Leaf 


lewel 


lybet, &c., Ostiak, <tr. 


Blood 


wer 


wyr, ditto 


Bad 


kar 


kurya, Fin 


Bread 


kenyer 


kinda, Tsherimis 


Thou 


te 


ty, &c., Permian, &e. 


Ice 


jeg 


yenk, &c., Ostiak, <frc. 


£ff9 


mony 


mono, Tsherimis, Ac. 


Feather 


toll 


tuul, Vogul, fkc. 


Fire 


tiiz 


tut, Ostiak, dc. 


Finger 


uij 


lui-yoi, ditto 


Fish 


hal 


kul, ditto, dec. 


Spriny 


tawasz 


kaved, Karelian 


Foot 


lab 


lal, Vogul 


Goose 


Ind 


lond, Ostial, <tc. [rin 


Grass 


pasit 


padj,Ostiak ; j>izhe,Mord- 


Throat 


torok 


tun, Ostiak, <kc. 


Good 


jo 


joiTO, Fin 


Cock ■ 


kakas 


kikkas, &c., Estonian 


Neck 


nyak 


nangol, Ostiak 


Hand 


kez 


ket, Ostiak, d-e. 


House 


haz 


kat, ditto, d-c. 


HeaH 


sziv 


sem, ditto 


Spy 


meny 


manen, Mordtin 


Horn 


szarv 


saw, &c., Estonian, d-e. 


Cold 


hideg 


itek, Ostiak 


Bone 


czont 


koint. Fin 


Head 


fo 


pa, ditto 


Herb 


fu 


puBB, Ostiak 


Slow 


lassan 


lasy, Vofptl 


Live 


elet 


let, &c., Ostiak, Jce. 


Easy 


komna 


kniua, Vogul 


Man (nV) 


fery 


veres, Zirianian 


Mouth 


szaj 


so. Pin 


Night 


es 


at, Oaiak 


Take 


elrenni 


wain, Vogul 

■ 1. 



]46 



FIN AFFINITIES OF THE MAGYAR. 



English. 


Magyar. 


Other Ugrian Languages 


Ear , 


ful" 


pel, Ostiak 


Horse 


lo 


lo, Vogul 


Rye 


ros 


oros, ditto 


Reed 


Teres 


vyr, ditto 


Sow 


vetek 


vidit, Mordvin 


Sand 


humok 


yema, Vogul 


Sleep 


alom 


olm, ditto 


Surf 


gyors 


tshuros. Fin 




sereny 


saray, Ostiak 


Black 


fakete 


puqqete, ditto 


Sister 


hngom 


iggem, ditto 


Silver 


ezyst 


esys, Permian 


S(m 


fui 


pu, Vogul 


Sum 


nap 


nai, Ostiak 


Stone 


ko 


ku, Vogul 


Star 


tzillag 


tisil, Permian 


Deep 


mely 


mil, Ostiak, d;c. 


Bead 


hallal 


kul, ditto 


Brink 


iszom 


asokh, Vogul 


Over 


felette 


palla, Fin 


Under 


allat 


alia, ditto 


Water 


viz 


wisi, ditto 


Wind 


szel 


tyl, Permian 


Winter 


tel 


telli, Ostiak 


We 


mink 


mung, Vogul 


Worm 


fereg 


perk, ditto 




nyii 


nynk, ditto 


Tooth 


fog 


penk, Ostiak 


Tongue 


nyelu 


Dalem, ditto 


One 


egy 


ogry, Ostiak 


Two 


ketto 


ketto, ditto 


Three 


harom 


korom, Vogul 


Four 


negy 


niil, Ostiak, 


Five 


ot 


net, ditto 


Six 


hat 


kut, ditto 


Seven 


het 


sat, Vogul 


EifjU 


nyoltz 


nuul, Ostiak 


Ten 


tiz 


das, Permian. 



The dialects of the Magyar are few and unimportant^ 
They are said to fall into two divisions, divided by the 
Danube. 



Note. — The statement made in the previous sheet, that there is no gram-] 
mar of the Vogul, requires correction. There is a very recent one, in /lun^ 
garian. 



THE MORDVIN. 147 



CHAPTER XIX. 

The Volga Fins. — The Mordvin.— The Tsherimis. 

Next to the Magyars, and the Finlanders Proper, the 
Mordvios are the most numerous of the Ugrians. They 
are the most southern members of the family ; the Hun- 
garians, as strangers to their present localit} , being laid 
out of the account. They are also the most western ; 
some being found in the Governments of Tambov and 
Penza. For this reason, the Mordvin area takes great 
prominence in all speculations as to the original extent of 
the [Jgrians in the direction of the Euxine and Poland. 
That they have extended further is a matter of history. 
That they have extended very onuch further is one of the 
most reasonable of ethnological opinions. 

They fall into three divisions, the Mokshad, the 
Ereari, and the Karatai ; of these, the second has a 
name sufficiently like that of one of the Turkoman 
tribes, to be, in all possibility, more or less Turk in blood 
— though the conjecture rests on only colourable data. 
The same applies to the Karatai ; inasmuch as Karatshai 
is also a Turk name. The Mokshad give no such com- 
plications. 

The Mokshad are on the Sura ; 

— Karatai near Kazan ; 

— El-sari on the Oka. 

In the southern part of the Government of Astrakan 
some fifty Mordvins constitute an outlying group of (I 
believe) recent settlers. So do 340 individuals in the 
Crimea. 

L 2 



148 THE MORDVIN. 

The distribution of the others is as follows : — 

In Penza . . . 106,025 

— Simbirsk . . 98,968 

— Saratov. . . 78,010 

— Samar . . . 74,910 

— Nizhni Novogorod 53,383 

— Tambov . . . 48,49] 

— Kazan .... 14,867 

— Orenlurg . . . 5,200 

The name Mordvln is native, and signifies man ; as 
it does, not only in other Ugrian languages but in certain 
Persian and Indian dialects also. 

The Mordvin, so far as it is written (which is very 
little), is written in Kussian letters ; the Mordvin 
Christianity being that of the Greek Church. 

The Mordvins are far more Eussianized than either 
the Tsherimis or the Votiaks. Their language, too, is 
one of the most outlying members of its stock. 

The Mordvin Grammar of Gabelentz is founded upon 
a translation of the Gospels ; the alphabet being the , 
Russian. In this the vocalic harmony shows itself but 
partially. Whether this be due to the language or the 
author, is doubtful. Gabelentz refers to the latter. 

The Tsherimis language is spoken by nearly 200,000_ 
individuals, of which nearly three-fourths are inhabitant 
of the Governments of Viatka and Kazan. The dialects 
on the two sides of the Volga differ from each other ;] 
and, it is probable, that they fall into sub-dialects ; foi 
the population is sporadic and fragmentary, and th€ 
Tsherimis villages stand far apart. The native cultiva- 
tion of the language amounts to nothing beyond a feA 
songs. The exertions of the missionary have given 
Catechism, and a translation of the Gospels — the alpha- 
bet being Russian. In Castren's Grammar, however, it 
is Roman, and so it is in Wiedemann's German. Therel 
is no reason for believing that any notable number of thei 



THE TSHERIMIS. 



149 



speakers of the Tsherimis language are other than Tsher- 
imis in blood. The converse, however, is far from being 
the case. Both Turks and Russians may be, more or 
less, Tsherimis in blood. 

As a member of the Ugrian group the Tsherimis is 
comparatively isolate. Its nearest congeners, I believe 
to be the Ostiak, Yogul, and Magyar. 

The Tsherimis falls into two dialects, divided from 
each other by the Volga. One has, the other has not, 
the vocalic harmony. Such, at least, is the statement of 
Wiedemann. Our data, however, are scarcely sufficient to 
bear out a negative statement. 



EniUsh 


Tsherimis, 


MordTiD. 


Man (nV) 


mara 


inirda 


{homo) 


edem 


loman 


Head 


hui 


pra 


Hair 


ip 


tsher 


Eye 


shinsha 


syalme 


Ear 


piliksh 


pilye 


Nose 


ner 


smdo 


Mouth 


ushma 


kurgo 


Tongue 


yolma 


kel 


Tooth 


pU 


p&i 


Hand 


kit 


ked 


Foot 


yal 


pilge 


Sun 


ketshe 


tRhr 


Moon 


tilsye 


kOT 


Star . 


shuder 


teslitye 


Fire 


tul 


tol 


Water 


wiit 


wat 


Tree 


pu 


tshnfto 


Stone 


kii 


kav 


One 


iktet 


wait 


Two 


koktet 


kafto 


Three 


kumut 


kolmo 


Four 


niiit 


nUye 


Fire 


wisit 


waze 


Six 


kudut 


kota 


Seven 


shimit 


sisem 


Eight 


kandashe 


kauksa 


Nine 


indeslie 


waiksye 


Ten 


la 


kiimen. 



150 THE VOTIAK. 



CHAPTER XX. 

The Votiak, Permian and Zirianian. 

The Votiak is the Ugrian of the Government of Viatka ; 
in which the circle of Glasov is the chief Votiak locaUty 
— then, those of Malmysh, Yelabuga, and Sarapul. Into 
the Yelabuga dialect the Gospel of St. Matthew, into 
the Glasov dialect that of St. Mark, has been translated. 
Many of the Votiaks speak Turk as well as their own 
language ; the Turkish elements being at their maximum 
in Yelabuga and their minimum in Glasov. In tlie 
library of the Bible Society at Viatka is a translation of 
all the Four Gospels, except a part of St. Luke. Though 
not without decided Tsherirais elements, the Votiak 
affinities are less with the languages that have preceded, 
than with those that are about to follow it ; these 
being 

The Permian and the Zirianian ; the former, the 
Ugfian of Perm ; the latter, the Ugrian of Vologda. 
They are closely allied dialects of one and the same form 
of speech. The Zirianian section falls into four sub-dialects, 
three being pretty closely allied to each other, but the 
fourth being an outlyer, much mixed up with tl>ej 
Samoyed. Nevertheless, somewhat unfortunately for the 
philologue, it was in the northern, the outlying, and th< 
modified dialect of the Zirianian that the first attempts at 
a grammar were made. This was Florov's, published ii 
1813, the dialect being the Udorian — i. e. that for the 
parts about Udorb'k, Since then, the Gospel of St 



THE ZIRIANIAN. 



151 



Matthew has been translated into the Ustsyssola dialect ; 
probably the purest of the four. Yet, even here we 
have a great number of Russian words. The other two 
forms of speech, allied (as aforesaid) to each other and to 
the Ustsyssola, are the Zirianian of the Upper Vytshegda, 
and the Zirianian of the Yaren. 



English. 


Votiak. 


Permian. 


Ziriauiau. 


Man (rir) 


kart 


aika 


weres 


(homo) 


mura 


mort 


mort 


Head 


jor 


jor 


jor 


Hair 


jirsi 


jors 


jorsi 


Eye 


sin 


sin 


sin 


Ear 


pel 


pel 


I)el 


Nose 


nyr 


nyr 


nyr 


Mouth 


im 


im 


vooa 


Tongue 


kyl 


kyl 


kyv 


Tooth 


pin 


pin 


pin 


Hand 


ki 


ki 


ki 


Foot 


pud 


kok 


kok 


Sun 


shnnde 


shonde 


shonde 


Moon 


toles 


tyles 


tyles 


Star 


kesele 


kod 


kadzil 


Fire 


tal 


by 


bi 


Water 


wu 


wa 


wa 


Tree 


pn 


pu 


pu 


Stone 


is 


is 


is 


One 


odyk 


oiyk 


ytyp 


Two 


kik 


kyk 


kyk 


Three 


kwin 


kwiu 


kuim 


Four 


nU 


njnla 


njul 


Five 


•wit 


wit 


wit 


Six 


knat 


kwet 


kwait 


Seven. 


sisim 


sysini 


sisim 


Eight 


kiyamis 


kykamys 


kekames 


Nine 


ukmys 


okmys 


ykmis 


Ten 


das 


das 


das. 



The Zirianians have long been converted to the Greek 
Church ; being, along with the Permians, the first of the 
Eastern Ugrians to whom the Gospel was preached. 
Their apostle was St. Stephanus. 



152 THE FIN PROPER. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The Fin Proper.- — ^^Division into Tavastrian and Karelian. — The Tver Dialect. 
—The Vod.— The Estonian. 

A DISTINCTION, drawn by the native investigators in 
Fin philology, now requires notice. Whatever may be 
its real value, it is a distinction upon which much stress 
is laid. It is that between the Tavastrians and the 
Karelians. 

The Tavastrians are the Finlanders of the south-west, 
especially of the parts about Tavastahus, the Karelians, 
those of the interior; the interior meaning those parts 
both of the Duchy and of the Government of Olonets 
which are drained by the Lakes rather than by the 
Baltic. To either the Tavastrian or the Karelian area 
belongs the great mass of the Fins of Finland. 

But besides these, and besides the Ugrians of Estonia, 
of whom more will be said in the sequel, there are 
several sporadic populations, lying like islands in the 
midst of a Russian population, sometimes forming an 
imperfect connection with the Ugrians to the south of | 
the Gulf of Finland, and sometimes absolutely detached, 
of which the ethnological history has been investigated. 
Some of these are recent settlers : others the representa- 
tives of an original population which was once Ugrian, 
but is now Slavonic. To separate the old from the 
new has been one of the objects of the native inquirers. 
To separate the Karelian from the Tavastrian has been 
another. 

Again — the names Fin and Finland are anything but] 



THE FIN PROPER. 153 

native. The nearest approach to a general name is 
Suomelaini (in the plural Suomelaiset) a word wliich 
means the men of the fen, morass, or swamp. Word for 
word it is the Sabme of the Laps ; a name which will soon 
re-appear. Suomelaiset, however, is only an approach to 
a general name. The Quains are Kainulaiset, and tlie 
Karelians Kirialaiset. A third division is Hamalaiset. 
Now the name Yam is prominent in the history of the 
early contests between the Slaves and the Ugrians ; as 
the name of a separate section of the Suomelaiset — the 
Hamalaiset being supposed to coincide with the Tavas- 
trians. 

Bej'ond the proper Fin districts the language of 
Finland is spoken in Norway, where, in the district of 
Soloer, on the Glommen, a Fin settlement, from Sweden, 
was effected in 1624. The chief Fin parishes are Hof 
and Grue ; where the district is called Finskoven or 
the Forest of the Fins, and where the settlers amount 
to about 2000. 

The following populations are all, more or less, spo- 
radic, and all held to be recent settlers rather than 
aborigines, as well as to be Karelian rather than Tuvas- 
trian. 

1 . The Auramoiset of the Gtovemment of St, Petersburg 
— 30,000 in number. 

2. The Savakot to the number of 43,000. 

3. Karelians of — 

The Government of Arcliangel . 11,228 
Novogorod . 27,076 

St. Petersburg . 3,660 

Tver . . . 84,638 

Yaroslav . , 1,283 

To wliich add some in Olonets. 

The following is the Parable of the Sower, in the Fin 
of Tver, contrasted with that of Finland Proper. 



154 THE YOD. 

Tver. 
Ka laksi kulvaa kulvamax ; I kulv?assa mulvv6nnet uvat langettyx <i6da- 
vas : i tuldyx linnut ; i giat nokittyx. Miivvenet langettyx kivi ruopahilla 
kumbaz/en-pzalla vaga oli mu^dda: i tervax guo novstyx, zen-tax, evldu 
muassa suvax : Paivazen novstuS guo kellissuttix, i kuin cvldu uurdunu6t 
kuivettyx. Muvvennet langettyx tug'iix i kazvo tug'u i gi'at katto. A muv- 
vennet langettyx huvalla muSlla i kazvettyx lizavon-kera, kumbane toi suS^n 
kumbane kuuzikummenda, kumbane kolmekflmmenda. Kella ollax korvat 
kuulla kuulgax. 

Fin. 

Katso kylwaja mene kylwiimaan. Ja hanen kylwaissansa, lankesiwat 
muutamat tien obeen, ja linnut tuliwat, ja soiwat ne. Muutamamat taas 
lankesiwat kiwistohon, kussa ei heilla ollut paljo maata, ja nousiwat peari 
paalle, ettei beilla ollut sywaa maata. Mutta koska aijrinko nousi, niin he 
poudittin : ja orjantappurat kawiwat ylos, ja tukahuttiwat ne. Muutamat 
taas lankesiwat hywaan maahan, ja tekiwat hedelraan, mutuama satakercaisen, 
muutama kuudenkymmenen kertaisen, ja muutama kolmenkymmenen kertai- 
sen. Jollo on korwat kuulla, se kuulkaan. 

The Ugrians of the parts to the south of the proper 
Fin area who pass, and that on good grounds, for 
aboriginal, are — 

1. The Tshud, or Vesp. 

2. The Izhor. 

3. The Vod. 

1. The Tshud or Vesp (15,617) on the bank of the 
Onega and Bielozero, speak a dialect which is held to be 
Tavastrian, and which they call Liudin Kiele, i. e. 
Lingua Ludina. 

2. The Izhor (17,800) in the Government of St. 
Petersburg, who call themselves Ingrikot or Ingrians. 

3. The Vod, who occupy a few villages in the circles 
of Yamburg and Oranienbaum, to the number of 
15,148, who call themselves Vadjalaine and Vadjalaiset 
and whose language is the Ves — tunnet paiattaa 
Vaihsi = loquerisne Votice. 

What has been written about the division between j 
the Karelian and Tavastrian deserves notice, as a feict in] 
the history of opinion rather than as a fact in language. 
It is one, however, that must needs be known if we wish] 



TAVASTRIAN AND KARELIAN. 155 

to look at the Fin question from a Fin point of view. 

I have doubts, however, whether it is more — doubts 

that, coming from an amateur in London, in opposition 

to the decided and (I believe) unanimous voice of such 

competent judges as the native philologues themselves, 

must be taken at the reader's, rather than the writer's, 

valuation. I cannot, however, see that the report is 

borne out by the evidence ; admitting, at the same time, 

that it is very likely that I have not seen the e\ddence 

in full. Indeed, it is morally certain that I have not. 

Still, I see a generalization of great breadth, and along 

with it probable and particular sources of error — one of 

which is the love of generalization itself, combined with 

the fact that in comparative philology it is over-hastily 

indulged. I think that, rautatis mutandis, what the 

Fins write about Tavastrians and Karelians has been 

written by Englishmen of equal eminence about the 

Angles and Saxons ; and, as an Englishman, I am well 

aware that nine-tenths of what is so written is wronfj. 

It is written by able men, nevertheless. At the present 

moment, Ahlqvist's Grammar of Vod is lying before me ; 

and it fully veiifies the statement that, even when v.e 

have got our results as to the distiibution of the 

several Fin forms of speech over the two divisions, they 

are, by no means, decided. The Vod, itself, is a Yam, 

dialect vjith Karelian elements. The written lanmiafje 

itself is more Karelian than is genercdly believed. The 

Ugrian of Ingria is, more or less, Vod. Lastly, the 

Estonian and A'^esps are less Karelian than the rest. Upon 

the recognition of Karelian elements in the literarj- Fin, 

great stress is to be laid ; since it is probable that, either 

consciously or unconsciously, most inquirers have taken 

it as the standard Tavastrian. 

Such are the qualifications. As to the characteristics 
themselves, they are, to a great extent, arbitrary ; at 
any rate, the evidence to any one of them being the 
sign of others is wanting. Again — though the details 



15G FIN PROPER. 

of tlie sporadic Fins are numerous, our information 
as to the local dialects of Finland itself — vast as is 
its area — are of the scantiest. Lastly, neither the 
Karelian nor Tavastrian are extreme forms. They may 
graduate into one another less tlian the present "writer 
believes them to do. 

All this means, that, in the division before us we 
have a classification by definition, where, in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, definition by type is alone 
practicable. 

The earliest specimens of the Fin language are 
referrible to the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries ; amongst 
which is a Translation of the Psalms by Agricola, 
Bishop of Abo. It is preceded by a short poem in 
which the heathen gods and goddesses, in whom a 
latent belief, notwithstanding the professed Christianity 
of the country, still existed. The list contains more 
than twenty names ; the majority of which can be found 
at the present time. Indeed from the time of Bishop 
Agricola till now, the old Fin mythology has commanded 
the attention of able inquirers ; of Ganander and 
Porthan, followed by Topelius in the last generation, 
and Lonrott and Castren in the present. Topelius col- 
lected more especially the poems which bore upon the 
history of a particular personage — Wainamoitien ; so 
forming what we may call a Wainaraoinen cycle. With 
this the Fin lays took form, until, from accretion upon 
accretion, the Kalevala was the result. If we look at 
this remarkable poem in respect to its parts, it is a 
series of rhapsodies. If we look to it as a whole, it 
may be dignified by the name of Epic. It is pagan 
in respect to its machinery and subject-matter, though 
not without decided Christian elements : indeed, towards 
the end, the Virgin Mary under the name Marietta, 
and Herod appear. It should be added, however, that 
this is in a kind of appendix to the work rather than 
in the body of the poem itself. 



THE ESTONIAN. 



157 



Whatever may be the age of either the oldest or the 
newest portions of the Kalevala, the language is the 
Fin of the present day. 

The Ugrians who occupy Estonia are in contact with 
the Germans and Lets rather than with the Scandina- 
vians. For this reason the foreign influences have been 
German rather than Swedish. The Estonian alphabet 
is Roman, the religion Protestant. At one time, when 
all Ingria was Ugrian, the Estonian and Fin populations 
must have been in contact. 

The Estonians call themselves Rahwa, and their coun- 
try Marahwa, or Rahwa Land ; the parts north of the 
river Salis beincr their chief area. 



In Liefland the Rahwa number 

— Estonia 

— Vitepsk 

— Pskov 

— St. Petersburcr 



355,2 J 6 

252,608 

9,936 

8,000 

7,730 

633,490 



The Estonian is divided into two main dialects ; one 

rith Reval, the other with Dorpat as its centre ; so that 

re hear of the Doi-patian and the Revalian forms of 

)eech as paramount. I believe, however, that almost 

every parish presents some peculiarities, and I am by 

10 means sure that the distribution of the numerous 

ialects and sub-dialects thus developed coirresponds with 

le usual classification. 

A love for song and music is exhibited throughout 

the Rahwa country ; and of this we may judge by more 

lan one collection of songs, legends, charms, nursery 

lymes, and the hke. The harp was the instrument — 

the harp, or kandel. With this the bards, the exact 

analogues of the Gaehc bards of almost our own days, 

musical and locomotive, used to wander from place to 



158 THE ESTONIAN. 

place, as the harvest-home, or the wedding-feast, might 
tempt them. The last of them died in 1 813. He had 
no fixed residence ; but was known, and welcomed, 
whithersoever he chose to roam, as the wanna laulumees, 
or the old singer. 

Those who apply classical names to modern pheno- 
mena describe the Ugrian metres in general as trochaic ; 
sometimes being dactylic, but never iambic. This means 
that the accent is on the first, third, and fifth syllables, 
rather than the second, fourth, and sixth ; a fact which 
arises out of the structure of the language. 

The common formula is -**, -«, -« -w; sometimes 
with -«« instead of -^, more rarely with --, or the 
so-called spondee ; e. g. 

Toulis rebbust Korge-sare, 
Muna walgest Tiittar-sare, 
Mufla tumest teised sared. 

or, 

Kotkad lensid Some -male, 
Some-maalta Soksa-male. 

Within a certain interval, a certain number of words 
must begin either with a vowel, or, if with a consonant, 
with the same ; as 

Minna sulg ei annud suda 
Egga ^arg ei poomud j^eada. 

This is the alliteration of the old German metres ; 
almost to its minutest details. It is held, however, 
to be no more German in origin than the German is 
Ugrian. 

Archaic words are, in Estonia, as elsewhere, poetical ; 
a ffxct which creates trouble and perplexity to modern 
commentators ; indeed, many expressions which have 
wholly dropped out of the current language are to be 
found in the sonss. 



FIN AND ESTONIAN. 



159 



English. 




Fin. 




Vod. 




Eatoniau. 


Man (ctV) 


mids 




mes 




mees 


{ho 


mo) 


ingemin 




mes 




innimene 


Head 




poja 




pa 




peja 


Hair 




iwusa 








karw 


Eye 




silme 




silma 




silm 


Ear 




kyrwa 




korwa 




korw 


Nose 




njena 




nena 




ninna 


Mouth 




sua 




sd 




sun 


Tongue 




kieli 




c'fiU 




keel 


Hand 




kesi 




c'aai 




kassi 


Foot 




jalka 




jalka 




jalk 


Blood 




weri 




weri 




werri 


Sun 




pbiwa 




paiwa 




paw 


Moon 




kou 




ka 




kuu 


Star 




togyt 








tjecht 


Fire 




taU 




tali 




tulli 


Water 




wesi 




wesi 




wesi 


Tree 




plin 




p(i 




pu 


Stone 




kiwi 




'ciwi 




kiwwi 


One 




yks 




iihsi 




yks 


Two 




kaks 




kahsi 




kaks 


Three 




kolmi 




kolme 




kolm 


Pour 




nelja 




nell'a 




nelje 


Five 




wisi 




wlsi 




wis 


Six 




kusi 




kiisi 




kuus 


Seven 




seitseman 




seitsfe' 




seitse 


Eight 




kadeksan 




kahets^ 




kattesa 


Nine 




ydeksan 




iihets^' 




uttesa 


Ten 




kymmemen 


'eiimmfi 




kuemme. 




English. 




Karelian 




Olonets. 




Man {vir) 


mizajh 




mes 






— — {homo) 


inegmine 


mes 






Head 




pija 




pa 






Hair 




tukka 




tnkka 




Eye 




silma 




silma 






Ear 




korwa 




korwn 




Nose 




nena 




nena 






Mouth 




shun 




sa 






Tongue 




kijali 




keU 






Hand 




kasi 




kasi 






Foot 




jalja 




jalgu 






Blood 




weri 




weri 






Sun 




paiwane 


pewen 




Moon 




kuudoma 


ka 






Star 




tagti 




techte 




Fire 




tali 




tuli 





J 60 





KARELIAN. 




English. 


Karelian, 


Olonets. 


Water 


wesi 


wesi 


Tree 


puu 


pu 


Stone 


kiwi 


kiwi 


One 


juksy 


. juksi 


Two 


kaksi 


kaksi 


Three 


kolmje 


kolshe 


Four 


nella 


nelli 


Five 


wiisi 


wizhi 


Six 


kuuzhi 


kusi 


Seven 


zhitsheman 


setshemi 


Eight 


kagekshan 


kaesak 


Nine 


iujekshan 


igokse 


Ten 


kymmen 


kiimmene 



The Liefs gave its name to Liefland or Livonia. 

In Livonia, about twelve individuals still speak the 
Lief language.* They are to be found near the mouth 
of the river Salis. 

In Curland about 2000 use an allied form of speech 
— fallino; into an Eastern and a Western dialect. 

* Elsewhere, the number of these Liefs is put at twenty-two. The present 
number, however, is only twelve. 



I 



THE LAP. IGJ 



CHAPTEK XXII. 

The Lap of Norw^an, Swedish, and Russian Lapland. 

The last division of the Ugrian stock is, at one and 
the same time, the most northern. and the most western. 
It is also the one whereof the physical form of the men 
who constitute it is the most abnormal, Notwith- 
standincr a considerable amount of exacrcreration as to 
the shortness of their stature and the slightness of their 
frames, the Laplanders are an undersized population ; 
and those who enlarge upon the differences between lan- 
guage and blood make much of the physical contrast 
between the Lap and his well-fed and warm-housed 
congeners. They also make much of his nomad habits, 
as opposed to the agi-iculture of the cow-keeping Fins. 
Yet the Ugrian character of the Lap language has long 
been recognized. It was recognized before the word 
Ugrian came into vogue ; indeed, one of the first 
inklings as to the true nature of the Magyar arose 
out of comparisons made with the Lap. 

In the way of dialect the Lap language falls into 
two primary divisions ; the basis of wliich is, perhaps, 
poUtical and religious rather than truly ethnological. 
There are the Laps of Russia and the Laps of Scandinavia. 

The imperfect Christianity of the Laps of Russia is 
that of the Greek Church ; the alphabet applied to their 
languages being Russian. They amount in the Govern- 
ment of Archangel to 2289. 

The Lkps of the Duchy of Finland are Scandinavian 
rather than Russian ; or, if not actually Scandinavian, 
transitional. 

The Scandinavian Laps faU into two divisions — one 
containing those of Sweden, the other those of Norway. 

H 



162 THE LAP. 

It is from want of information that I have but little 
to say about the former. 

The Norwegian Laps are called, by the Norwegians, 
Fins ; the Fin of Finland being called a Quain — so that 
Finmarken, the great Lap district, is the March of the Fins. 
They called themselves Sabme ; but are not displeased 
to be called Fins by their neighbours. Between the 
Norwegian Lap and the Fin Proper, there is much in- 
termarriage ; a little between the Lap and Norwegian. 

Their imperfect Christianity is that of the Latin 
Church, in its Protestant and Lutheran form. Their 
alphabet, in its present form, is an improvement on the 
Norwegian. It is an improvement, because the first of 
three elaborate Lap Grammars was the work of one of 
the first of comparative philologists — Rask. He met 
the fact of the Lap system of elementary articulate 
sounds being in many respects peculiar, by the bold 
application of new and well-adapted letters. These 
have been recognized both by Stockfieth and Friis ; by 
the former in his Norwegian and Lap Dictionary, by the 
latter in his Grammar and Reading-book. 

According to Friis, the Lap of Norway falls into two 
main dialects, a northern and a southern. The north- 
ern, or that of Finmark, falls into the subdialects of th 
parishes of 

1. Utsjok, Tanen, Varanger, Vestertanen, and Lang-I 
§ord. 

2. Karasjok, Laxfjord, Porsanger:Qord. 

3. Kontokseno, Hammerfest, Lopper, Allen, Skjoervo,] 
Karlso, Lyngen. 

The southern into those of 

1. Vals^orden and Tyfjorden, with the intermediat 
parishes. 

2. Vessen and Roraas, with the intermediate parishes.! 
South of Roraas the Lap area ceases to be continuous. 

A few outlying families, however, are to be found in 
Hedemarken. 



i 



THE LAP. 



163 



That the extension of the Laps to the south was, 
at one time, greater than at present is a matter of 
history. That the whole of the Scandinavian Peninsula 
was originally Lap is a fair inference. The statement 
that fragments of a Lap population were to be found on 
the very shore of the Baltic at the beginning of the 
historical period is, perhaps, exceptionable. Many, how- 
ever, of the provincial terms from the parts about Ber- 
gen are of decided Lap origin. That some of the Fins 
Proper may be Lap in speech is probable. With this 
exception the Lap language coincides pretty closely 
with the Lap blood. 

As a general rule the Russian Lap has fewer details 
in the way of inflection and vowel-changes than the 
Norwegian and the Swedish. It has in many cases 
replaced the final vowel by the Russian liquid. It has, 
in one district, Norse, in another Karelian, in another, 
Russian glosses. To judge of it in its purity these must 
be eliminated. Of the Norse dialects it is the Lap of 
the Hill Laps to which it comes nearest. It is divided 
into three main dialects. 

1. That of Petsingi, Muotki, Patsjoki, Synjel, Nuoto- 
sero, Jokostrov, and Balra. 

2. That of Semiostrov, Lavosero, Voronesk, Kildin, 
Maanselka. 

3. That of the Terski Peninsula, on the West of the 
White Sea. 



English. 


Lap. 


Man (nV) 


olma 


(homo) 


almaz 


Head 


oike 


Eye 


tjalme 


Ear 


pelje 


Nose 


njuone 


Moulh 


nalme 


Tonffue 


njuoktem 


Hand 


ket 


Foot 


juolke 


Sun 


peiwe 


Moon 


mano 


Star 


taste 



English. 


Lap. 


Fire 


toUo 


Water 


tatse 


Stone 


kedke 


One 


akt 


Two 


kwekt 


Three 


kolm 


Four 


nelje 


Five 


wit 


Six 


kot 


Seven 


kjeta 


Eight 


kaktsat 


Nine 


aktfe 


Ten 


tokke 




M 2 



164 THE LAP. 

The Lap is usually connected more closely with the 
Fin Proper than the present writer connects it. Klaproth, 
for instance, throws both into a class headed Germanized 
Fins; a class which contains the Magyar, the most 
southern of the Ugrian forms of speech, just as the Lap 
is the most northern. The languages which this very 
unnatural class brings together, are simply certain lan- 
guages which have been in contact with the Germans of 
either Germany Proper or Scandinavia. The present 
place of the Lap, which gives it a sub-order to itself, 
is, more or less, subject to correction. It rests upon the 
extent to which the Lap is a language of which the 
frontier has receded, rather than upon any minute philo- 
logical investigation of the structure of the language 
itself. As far, however, as the writer has examined 
this, it confirms his view. Upon the whole, however, 
the displacement of probably transitional forms in the 
retrocession of tlie Lap frontier is his chief argument. 



I 



PENINSULAR GROUP. 165 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

The Peninsular Langaages. — Korean. — Japanese and Lacho. — Aino or Ku- 
rilian. — Eoriak and EamskadaL 

For the group that now comes under notice I have sug- 
gested the name Peninsular ; inasmuch as the area to 
which it belongs stands in strong contrast to those of 
the preceding ones ; all of which lay inland, and con- 
sisted of large blocks of land. The area, however, under 
notice, is essentially maritime ; so much so that it has 
but one large mass of inland district, whereas, on the other 
hand, it has two (if not three) well-known peninsulas, 
and one important archipelago. From this we may 
anticipate its chief details. It belongs to the north-east 
of Asia, and contains, along with other tracts of minor 
importance, Korea, Japan, the Kurile Isles, and Kam- 
tshatka. 

It is, in respect to its import, a wider class than?, any 
one of the last four, — wider than even the Ugrian ; by 
which I mean that the difference of its extremes is 
greater than the difference between any two Ugrian 
forms of speech. It falls, too, into divisions of greater 
magnitude — indeed, it is possible that there may be 
points of view fi-om which those who contemplate it may 
think it should be broken up. Upon the whole, how- 
ever, I consider that it is natural. 

Upon one condition required to make it so there is 
neither doubt nor shadow of doubt — viz. : the extent to 
which it is separated by broad and trenchant lines of 
demarcation from the other languages of Asia. With 
the Ocean on one side, and with languages which have 



166 THE KOREAN. 

effected such vast displacements as the Chinese and 
the Tungtis on the other, anything like ambiguity in 
respect to its boundaries is out of the question. 

Its nearest approximations, then, are distant — distant, 
but important. Nothing is, at one and the same time, 
other than monosyllabic and even approximately akin to 
the Chinese. The Korean, however, the most southern 
continental language of the present group is less distam 
from the Chinese than anything else — anything elsi 
other than monosyllabic. Indeed, if this affinity wen 
all we looked to, the present group would have bee; 
taken earlier, i. e. in the place of the Tunglis. Se- 
quences, however, of this kind are impracticable. 

On the north the affinities are decidedly with the Ian 
guages of America — a fact upon which more will be sai 
when the philology of the New World comes unde: 
notice. 

The several members of the group not only stan 
clearly and definitely apart from one another, but th 
distances between them are considerable — at least in thi 
present state of our knowledge. In the present state^J 
too, of our knowledge they seem equal — this meanings 
that the Japanese is (there or thereabouts) as Kke (or 
unlike) the Korean on the one side as the Aino on^ 
the other. This doctrine, however, will probably b^ 
modified as our information increases. 

Of the Korean I know of no grammar, and only 
few vocabularies — the chief of which is Medhurst's 
Klaproth's, upon which the greater part of the curren 
opinions is founded, is taken partly from Broughton's 
Voyage, partly from Witsen, and partly from Chinese 
and Japanese sources. 

To this, as well as to the remainder of our materials, 
much can, doubtless, be added ; since the Korean is a 
lettered language, the immediate origin of the alphabet 
being obscure. 



I 



THE JAPANESE. 



167 



English. 


Korean. 


English. 


Korean. 


Eye 


nuon 


Tru 


nan 


Head 


mati 


Stone 


tn, UA 


Ear 


kui 


Fish 


koki 


Nose 


ko 


One 


hodzhon 


Mouth 


yip 


Two 


tnpa 


Tongue 


hie 


Three 


sai 


Tooth 


ni 


Four 


nai 


Band 


son 


Fire 


tasha 


Foot 


pal 


Six 


ishu 


Sun 


heng 


Serm 


iki 


Moon 


oru 


Eight 


ita 


Star 


peru 


Nine 


yahao 


Fire 


pol 


Ten 


ye. 


Water 


ma 







The JajKtnese is purely and exclusively insular ; i. e. 
has no concrener on the continent with which it can be 
immediately connected, or from which it can be definitely 
derived. The Keltic of the British Isles is nearly in 
this predicament — nearly, but not quite. It has the 
Armorican of Brittany as a congener ; not to mention 
the ancient language of Gaul, which has an historical, 
though not a present, existence ; whilst the Gaelic of 
Ireland and Scotland, though itself strange to conti- 
nental Europe, is, still, indirectly connected with it 
through the British. There is nothing, however, on the 
mainland of Asia which is so near to the Japanese as 
the Armorican is to the Gaelic. In no other island is 
the isolation (or insulation, as we may call it) so com- 
plete. The language of the Luchu islanders is Japanese. 



English. 


Japanese. 


Liich4. 


Eye 


mi 


mi 


Head 


kaobe 


bnsi 


Ear 


mimi 


mimmi 


Nose 


khaoa 


honna 


Mouth 


kati 




Tongue 


Bita 


steba 


Tooth 


Uia 


kha 


Hand 


te 


ki 


Foot 


am 


shanna 



168 



THE JAPANESE. — THE AINO. 



English. 


Japanese. 


LdcUtL 


Sun 


fi 


tida 


Moon 


zuki 


gwazi 


Star 


fosi 


fasM 


Fire 


fi 


fi 


Water 


midz 


mizi 


Tree 


ki 


ki 


Stone 


isi 


ishi 


Fish 


ivo 


io 


One 


fito 


tizi 


Two 


fitak 


tazi 


Three 


miz 


mizi 


Four 


yots 


yuzu 


Five 


izuts 




Six 


muts 


mutsi 


Seven 


nanats 


nanatsi 


night 


yats 


yatsi 


Nine 


kokonots 


kannizi 


Ten 


tovo 


tu. 



The small islands between the L6chu group and For- 
mosa are in the same category with the Ltichtis them- 
selves, i. e. they are Japanese rather than Malay. The 
names of them end in -sima (Madzhikosima, &c.) ; sima 
meaning island. 

In Yesso the Japanese is intrusive ; the original lan- 
guage being the Aino, or Kurilian. The Kmilians, or 
Aiuo, occupy two localities on the main land and all 
the islands between Kamtshatka and Japan, The locali- 
ties on the main land have been already mentioned. 
One was at the mouth of the Sagalin, one at the 
southern extremity of Kamtshatka. 

That the Kurilian area, like the Korean, once ex- 
tended beyond its present frontier, is likely. The 
numerals of tUo Mantshu of the frontier seem to have 
taken the Aino ending in /. 



English. Aino of Kamtshatka. Tarakai. 

Man okkaiyu okkai 

(vir) ainuh ainu 

(ftomo) guru guru 

Eye sik shigi 

Head gpa . shaba 



YeM. 
oikyo 



THE AIXO DIALECTS. 



169 



English. 


Aino of KaTiitshutka. 


TarakaL 


Yeso. 


Hair 


ruh 


nnma 


kama 


Ear 


gsahr 


kisara 




Nose 


ahdum 


idu 




Mouth 


tehar 


para 




Tongue 


aukh 


ai 




Tooth 


imak 


nimaki 


mimak 


Jland 


dek 


tegi 




Foot 


kehmma 


kima 




Blood 


kehm 


kim 





Sun 


tsbupu 


tshnkf-kamoi 


touki 


Moon 


tsliupu 


tshukf 


znki 


Star 


kytta 


nodzi 


noro 


Fire 


apeh 


nndzhi 


abe 


Water 


peh 


raka 


Takba 


Tree 


nyh 


nij 




Stoyte 


poinah 


shioma 




Egg 


nokh 


nuka 





Fish 


tshep 


zepf 


zizf 


One 


syhnap 


shnepf 


senezb 


Two 


dapk 


tup 


zozb 


Three 


raph 


repf 


rezb 


Four 


yhnap 


inipf 


inezb 


Five 


ahsik 


ashiki 


asaraniof 


Six 


ihguahn 


yuvambi 


yuiwambe 


Seven 


arnahn 


aruvambi 


aruambe 


Eight 


duppyhs 


tubisambi 


zuyemaiube 


Nine 


syhnapyhs 


shnebishambi 


sinesambe 


Ten 


npyhs 


wambi 


fambe. 



The KamshadaJ, (or Kamtshafkan,) and the Koriak, 
are members of the same class, though separated by 
Klaproth. 



English. 


Koriak. 


Off Kaiaga.* 


Man (rir) 


diakotsh 




(homo) 


nateiian 


nutaira 


Head 


lent 


leut 


Hair 


kytybnir 


kitigil 


Tongue 


ulygyl 


yilegit 


Mouth 


dzhekergen 


homagalgen 


Ear 


wilugi 


\relolongen 


Eye 


leldgi 


lalangen 


Nose 


eyekitsbg 


baahgeng 


Beard 


lelyugi 





* This means that part of the coast whicb lies opposite the island of 
Karaga, in opposition to the island itself, for which see the following table. 



170 





THE KORIAK. 




English. 


Koriak. 


Off KarHga 


Blood 




mulumul 


Bone 


khattaam 


komlathom 


Hand 


mynnagylgen 


mylgalgen 


Night 


nigonok' 


kyhmeu 


Sky 


khayan 


haian 


Sun 


titkapil 


dykupyhsol 


Moon 


gailgen 


yailgat 


Star 


engen 


angehri 


Fire 


milhemil 


milgupil 


Water 


mimel 


mimlipil 


Earth 


nutelkhan 


nutalgan 


Tree 


uttuut 


utut 


Hill 


gyeigor 


knayukhi 


River 


weiom 


woyampyh 


Sea 


intmg 


inu 


Egg 




ligliguh 


Fish 


innaen' 


annaau 


House 


rat' 




Horn 


yinnal'gin' 




Dog 


atar' 


hathan 




atan 




Milk 


nyokin 




One 


onnen 


ahnahn 


Two 


hyttaka 


ytahgau 


TItree 


ngroka 


rohgau 


Four 


ngraka 


ragau 


Five 


myllanga 


millangau. 


English. 


The Kolyma. 


Karaga. 


Man (vir) 


khuyukutsh 


inylakhylsh 


(homo) 


uiratahula 


oshamshahal 


Head 


lawut 


tennakam 


Hair 


katshugui 


lankhshakh 


Tooth 


wannalgyn 




Tongue 


giigel 


laksha 


Mouth 


shekiangin 


shekshen 


Far 


wyilut 


ilyufi 


Eye 


lalat 


ellifa 


Nose 


enigytam 


enku 


Beard 


lelu 


lilyuf 


Blood 


muUjomul 


mutl'muth 


Bone 




hatamfa 


Hand 


myngakatsh 


k'onmenkhlan 


Night 


nekita 


tenkiti 


Shj 


khain 


shilkhen 


Sun 


tykete 


shabalkh 





THE KORIAK. 




Euglisb. 




The Kolyma. 




Karaga. 


Moon 




geilygen 




shagalkli 


Star 




lelapitshan 




engysh 


Fire 




milugan 




mi'lchamil 


Wat^ 




mimal 




iin 


Earth 








nyntiimyat 


Tree 




nttepel 




ngoft 


Hill 




nayu 




mysankosi 


River 




waim 




gykhi 


Sea 




ankaTi 




nyungen 


Egg 




lygby 




t'higlhifaha 


Fish 




kokayalgating 


tahataha 


House 




yayanga 




shishtshu 


Dog 




attahan 




atapela 







khatalaa 






Milk 




lyukhoi 






One 




onnon 




ingsing 


Two 




niokhtsh 




gnitag 


Three 




niyokh 




gnasog 


Four 




niyakh 




gnasag 


Five 




myllangin 




monlon. 




EngUsh. 




Beindeer Tshaktshi. 




Man (vir] 




oyakutsh 




(homo) 


klaol 






Head 




lent 






Hair 




kirtshivi 




Tooth 




rytlynta 




Tongue 




^ 






Mouth 




inkigin 






Ear 




weliulgin 




Eye 




lilagin 






Nose 




ekhaekh 




Beard 




walkalorgiid 




Blood 




mullamnl 




Bone 




attitaam 




Hand 




miDgilgin 




Night 




Tiikitlya 




Sky 




eikhi 










ying 






Sun 




titktshit 




Moon 




geilgin 






Star 




engerenger 




Fire 




milgin 






Water 




mimil 






Earth 




nutetsh 


in 




Tree 




attaa 






Hill 




niet 





171 



172 



THE KAMTSHATKAN. 



English. 


Reindeer Tshuktslii 


Hill 


khallelegin 


River 


waem 


Sea 


angka 


Egg 


Hgli 


Fish 


annegui 


House 


oranga 


Horn 


ritten 


Milk 


lukhai 


One 


ennene 


Two 


giyakh 


Three 


guakh 


Four 


gyrakh 


Five 


millgin. 



The following is the Kamtshatkan of the Middle of 
the Peninsula. 



English. 


Kamtshatkan. 


English. 


Kamtshatkan. 


Head 


kobbel 


Fish 


etshuda 


Eye 


elled 


River 


ktig 


Ear 


ilyud 


God 


kutkhai 


Nose 


kayako 






Mouth 


tskbylda 


Sky 


kokhal 


Hair 


tsheron 




kollaa 


Tooth 




Snow 


kolaal 


Tongue 


dydzil 


One 


dysyk 


Hand 


tono 


Tioo 


kaas 


Hay 


taazh 


Three 


tsuk 


Sun 


koatsh 


Four 


tshaak 


Moon 


quingan-kuletsh 


Five 


kiimnak 


Star 


ezhingin 


Six 


kylkoak 


Eire 


pangitsh 


Seven 


etakhtana 


Water 


i 


Eight 


tshonutono 


Tree 


00 


Nine 


tslianatana 


Stone 


kual 


Ten 


tshemyktagona 


Egg 


nygagada 







To the north of this Kamtshatkan of the Middle dis- 
trict is spoken the language of the foiTner, to the south 
of it the language of the latter of the following tables : 
in the first of which it is to be observed that one of the 
vocabularies, though it represents a Kamtshatkan form of 
speech, is headed Koriak. 



THE KA.MTSHATKAN. 



173 



Enslish 


Koriak of the Tigil. 


Kamtshitkan of the TigU 


Man (vir) 


kymshan 


kamzhan 


(homo) 


tshandzhal 


nzlikamzha 




kelgola 




Head 


komptko 


ktkhyn 




koltsh 




Hair 


tshelgad 


kniba 


Eye 


leUe 


lella 


Beard 


lael 


lanUa 




elan 




Hand 


kh'ketsh 


khkatsh 


Sky 


kysha 


keis 


God 


kuikvnakha 


kntkha 


Fire 


hymlee 


brjanmkhitsh 


Tree 


na 


nu 


Earth 


nntelehan 




Bgg 




Iflkhatsh 


Fish 


nishatkin 


onnitsh 




dentsh 




Rirer 


kytshme 




HiU 


enzalkhen 


aala 


House 


kisht 


kisha 


Snow 






J)og 


koeha' 






lieten 




English. 


TTkUi. 


Saath Kamtshatkan. 


Man (vir) 


k&ngge 


elku 


(homo) 


khyllgc^hla 


nnhkamzha 






kulnsanga 


Head 


hbh&hel 


tshysha 




kols 




Hair 


zelgakh 


kabiin 


Eye 


ellath 


nannin 


Beard 




katikan 


Blood 


mythlung 




Bone 


kotham 




Hand 


sotong 


sythi 


Sty 


kokhan 


kagal 


God 


dnsdeakhtshik 


knt 


Fire 




blnmligtsb 


Tree 


ntha 


nada 


Earth 


b'symth 


ma 
symmit 


Egg 




lylida 


Fish 


entshude 


entshndn 



174 



THE KAMTSHATKAN. 



English. 


Ukaii. 


South Karalshatkau 


River 


kothhoul-kygh 




Hill 


pehkugtsh 


namud 


Dog 


kosha 


kosha. 



I know of nothing that illustrates the grammatical 
structure of either the Karatshatkan or the Koriak. 

The Kamtshatkan call themselves Itulman ; the 
Koriaks call them Kontshala and Numelaha ; the 
Kurilians call them Arutarunkar. 



GEKERAL OBSERYATIONS. 175 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

General Observations on the preceding Languages. — Value of the Class. — 
Original Turk, Mantshu, Mongol, Yeneseian, and Ugrian Areas. 

In taking a review of the group which has just been dealt 
with, we cannot but be satisfied with the precision 
and definitude of all its boundaries : those of the class 
itseli^ taken as a whole, being pre-eminently broad 
and clear. Where the Mantshii and the Chinese, the 
Mongol and Bhot, the Turk and Bhot, the Turk and 
Persian, confront each other, there has been encroach- 
ment accompanied by the obliteration of transitional 
forms, on both sides — the Mantshu, for instance, press- 
ing southward, on the one hand, and the Chinese press- 
ing northwards on the other. And so on with the rest. 
Where the Turk and Persian cease to confront each 
other, the Caspian intervenes with its waters. After 
this comes the mountain-range of Caucasus, to the 
very feet of which the Turk and Russian have extended 
themselves — doubtless at the expense of some language 
akin to the Circassian, or, at any rate, more akin to it 
than they are themselves. In Europe, all beyond the 
Dnieper, at least, though now Russian, was originally 
other than Russian ; so that whatever may have been the 
affinities of the original languages of the Governments of 
Kursk, Penza and the districts nearest the Mordvin area 
to the Mordvin and its congeners, aU such transitions as 
they may have efiected are annihilated. Again — ^in 
Norway and Sweden the present Norwegian and 
Swedish are intrusive ; so that whatever came in contact 



176 GENERAL OBSERYATIONS. 

with the southern area of the Laps is annihilated also. 
The remaining boundaries are formed by the Ocean. 

Still the distances between the languages of the pre- 
sent group and those of the rest of the world, though 
great, are, by no means, equal. There are points where- 
at there is an approximation. These are the neigh- 
bourhood of Behring's Straits ; Korea ; and Lithuania 
— in other words, the Koriak is notably American, the 
Korean notably Chinese, and the Lithuanic notably 
Ugrian. This merely means that there are certain points 
about which the encroachment and displacement have 
been less than they have been about others. 

This applies, in a less degree, to the minor divisions] 
which lie between the secondary groups. The Tungtis,} 
the Mongol, and the Turk, with their intrusions, have] 
effectually obliterated any such congeners as may have 
led from one of them to the other. From the small] 
amount of difference between their extreme dialects we] 
infer that their diffusion has been recent. 

The Ugrian, on the other hand, was a large class,! 
falling into divisions and sub-divisions, and covering a] 
surface which grows wider and wider the more we go] 
back. It is now discontinuous ; the result of its dis- 
continuity being definitude of boundary. In Hungary] 
alone it has been intrusive — we might say protrusive ;] 
for the Magyar of Hungary is separated from its nearesfcj 
congener by many degrees of latitude, having found its! 
way into Hungary not by any gradual extension of thej 
Ugrian frontier, but by being bodily projected (so to say)| 
into a strange and foreign country. Of pure protrusion ' 
and projection — protrusion and projection accompanied 
with a separation from its congeners — it is one of the 
most remarkable examples in ethnographical philology; 
and one which should never be either forgotten or over- 
looked when we have languages in extraordinary locali- 
ties to account for. 

Something in the way of an approximation to the 



ON THE TURANIAN CLASS. 177 

original area of the Tungus, Mongol, and Turk languages 
is possible. It is the easiest with the Turk. Tiiere are 
many localities where we know that the Turk is not in- 
digenous. It never came from Hungary ; nor yet from 
Constantinople ; nor yet from the Lower Lena ; notwith- 
standing the existence of the Cumanian, the Osmanli, 
and the Yakut forms of speech in those districts. It. 
scarcely originated on the northern side of the Caucasus 
in immediate contact with the Tsherkess ; nor yet in the 
Sayanian range, where it is spreading itself at the 
present time. It could scarcely have originated in the 
immediate contact of either the Tungus or the Mongol, 
from which it differs as a language which meets another 
from some distant quarter and in an opposite direction. 
If the doctrine that it is more L^grian than either Mon- 
gol or Tungus be true, it must be a language of western 
rather than Eastern Asia. 

The area for which the evidence of the Turk being 
intrusive is at its niinimuTii, and (changing the ex- 
pression) the area for which the evidence of its being 
indigenous is at its maxinium, is Independent Tartary. 
On the other hand, it is little better than a desert. 

Next to this comes Chinese Tartary. This, however, 
is unfavourable to its Ugrian and (I may add) its 
Yeniseian) affinities. 

Next comes the Tshuvash and Tsherimis frontier. 

To go in detail through the remainder of the groups 
would be to give a theory of the ethnology of Siberia. 
The conditions, however, which are required are the 
same throughout. Where can we prove intrusion ? 
Where is the residuary locality where it cannot be 
proved ? When this is obtained, how will it account 
for the affinities ? Such is the method. As far as I 
have been able to work it, I have been led to place the 
Mongol nucleus in the parts about the Hi and the lakes 
of its vicinity ; the Tungus on the Upper Anmr, the 
Korean somewhat to tlie west of its present area ; and 

N 



178 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 



the Aino to some portion of the districts now occupied 
by the Lamut. The Koriak, the Jukahiri, the Yeniseian, 
the Samoyed, tlie Vogul, and the Ostiak, I refer, one 
and all, to some point considerably to the south of their 
present northernmost localities. In this, however, there 
is a mixture of ethnological and philological conside- 
rations. 

The best name for this class, and perhaps the com- 
monest, is Turanian : a term which sometimes gives a 
larger and sometimes a smaller class than the one which 
we are now leaving, for India, Persia, and Caucasus. 



THE DARAHI, ETC. 179 



CHAPTER XXV. 

The Darahi (Denwar) and Kuswar. — The Faksya and Tharu. — The Koocb. 

The present section of the class now coming into notice 
is artificial. It is ambiguous. It is more than this. It 
is only equivocally ambiguous. The languages which it 
contains take their present place because they are, to 
some extent, both Bhot and Indian. Yet they may be 
so much more Bhot than Indian, or so much more 
Indian than Bhot, as to require no intermediate classifi- 
cation. Again, one of them may be Bhot, one Indian, 
and one truly ambiguous. They are so Tamul. What 
they really represent is the author's want of knowledge 
and leisure. 

The class, then, is provisional. Thus much, however, 
may be said of its members. 

1 . Tliat they ai"e Indian in respect to their numerals, 
throughout ; and Indian in a great many other words. 

2. That, so far as they are other than Indian, they 
are Monosyllabic and Tamul. 

The degree to which they are this varies with the lan- 
guage ; and it is possible that, in some of them, the ori- 
ginal element may be so thoroughly displaced, as to leave 
the other bases Monosyllabic and Tamul only in the way 
that a knife with a new blade and a new handle is stiJl 
the same knife. But, again, the group is artificial, 
and the Hindu character of the numerals is, to a great 
extent, an arbitrary t«st. 

The Darahi and Kuswar are spoken by two broken 
tribes (I use Mr. Hodgson's expression) in Nepaul. 

N 2 



180 



THE DARAHI, ETC. 



Engrsh. 


D.iralii. 


Kuswar. 


Man 


mana» 


gokchai cbawai 


Head 


mnd 


kapa 


Hair 


bar 


bar 


Eye 


anklii 


ankhi 


Ear 


kan 


kan 


Mouth 


muhun 


mubu 


Tooth 


dant 


dant 


Hand 


bat 


hath 


Foot 


god 


gor 


Blood 


ragat 


rakti 


Bone 


had 


badh 


Sky 


sarag 


sarang 


Day 


din 


dini 


Night 


rato 


rathi 


Sun 


gama 


suraj 


Moon 


janba 


jun 


Star 


tirya 


tarai 


Fire 


age 


agjii 


Water 


hate 


bani 


Earth 


mat! 


mati 


Mountain 


dan da 


pahar 


Stone 


pathar 


pathar ^_ 


Bird 


chari 


chari '^^| 


Dog 


kukur 


kukol V 


Pm 


anda 


dimba ^M 


Fish 


macbha 


jbain ^H 


Flou-ei" 


phul 


phul ■ 


Horn 


sing 


sinjek ^M 


House 


gbar 


gbara ^M 


River 


khola 


kosi fl 


SnaJce 


samp 


samp ^^H 


Tree 


rak 


gatch ^H 


One 


ek 


( 


Two 


dwi 


dwi 


Three 


tin 


tin 


Four 


char 


char 


Five 


panch 


panch- 


Six 


chah 


chah 


Seven 


sat 




Eifjht 


ath 





Nine 


nou 





Ten 


das 





The Den war is nearly identical with the Darahi — 
differing, however, ioiter alia, in the following words. 




THE DARAIII, ETC. 



J81 



KDg'.ish. 


l^ennrar. 


Darabi. 


J^V9 


dimba * 


anda 


Mother 


ambai * 


nya 


Mountain 


pakha * 


AxnAn. 


Hirer 


lari 


khola 


Rocid 


bat* 


panya 


Stone 


donkho 


paihar 


Tree 


gatch* 


rak 


Water 


kyu 


pati. 



The Pakhja and Thani, like the Darahi and Kuswar, 
are Nepalese in respect to their geography. 



Endish. 
Man 
Head 
Hair 
Eye 
Ear 
Mouth 
Too'.h 
Hand 
Blood 
Bone 
Day 
Night 
Sun 
Moon 
Fire 

Water 
Earth 
Mountain 

Egg 

FiA 

Flower 

Horn 

Haute 

Biter 

Snake 

Tree 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Fire 

Six 



Pakhya. 

manchba 

man to 

ratra 

ankha 

kan 

makha 

data 

hatkela 

ragat 

ha;i 

duiso 

rati 

ghauia 

chandramabel 

ago 

pani 

mato 

pahor 

phul 

machba 

pbol 

sing 

ghar 

khola 

eapa 

rakka 

jek 

doi 

tin 

char 

pack 

chhs 



Thani. 

manhai 

mndi 

bar 

ankk 

kan 

iankha 

data 

tar-hatti 

lohn 

had 

dina 

rati 

randa 

cbandraniajun 

agi 

pani 

mati 

parbat 

anda 

macheri 

phul 

ring 

ghar 

khola 

sapa 

gatcfa 

yet 

dai 

tin 

char 

pacLe 

chha 



* Agree vith Kuswar. 



182 



THE DARAHI, ETC. 



English. 


Pakhya. 


Iharu 


Seven 


eat 


sat 


Eight 


ath 


ath 


Nine 


naa 


nau 


Ten 


das 


das. 



The Koocb belong to India (and Sikkim ?) rather 
than to Nepal ; being occupants of the northern parts 
of Ptungpur, Purnea, Dinajpur, and Mymangsing. The 
Bodo of their frontier call them Kooch ; the more distant 
Bodo of Asam call them Hasa. The Dhimal call them 
Kamul, which, word for word, seems to be Dhimal. 
For tlie Brahminic Kooch the following is a vocabulary. 
For the Kooch, however, who are still the pagan occu- 
pants of the more impracticable forests, we have no 
specimens. 



English. 


Koocli. 


Enjilisli. 


Kooch. 


Man (vi/r) 


beta clioa 


Star 


tara 


Woman 


beti choa 


Fire 


agni 


Son 


beta 


Water 


jal 


Daughter 


beti 


River 


nodi 


Head 


mura 


Stone 


pathar 


Eye 


chakhu 


Wind 


batas 


Nose 


nak 


One 


ek 


Ear 


kan 


Two 


du 


Beard 


dadlii 


Three 


tin 


Moidh 


mukh 


Four 


char 


Tongue 


jivha 


Five 


panch 


Tooth 


dant 


Six 


choi 


Hand 


hath 


Seven 


sat 


Foot 


bhori 


Eifjht 


ath 


Blood 


lohu 


Nine 


nou 


Sun 


bela 


Ten 


das. 


Moon 


chand 







The Kooch, whose separation from the Bodo and Dhi- 
mal, is philological, rather than ethnological, and which, 
even philologically, is, to some extent, artificial, are 
bounded on the south by the Bengali area. The 
Bengali language, however, is not the nearest congener 
of the class to which the Kooch, though an outlying and 
equivocal member, belongs. 



I 



THE KOL DIALECTS. 



183 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Korgroup. — Its AflSnities Tvith the Mon. 

The dialect, other than Bengali, which, in the way of 
geography, is nearest to the most southern language of 
the Tibetan, Burmese, or Nepalese group, is that of the 
natives of the Rajmahal hills ; but this, for a reason 
which Tvnll appear in the sequel, is pretermitted for the 
present ; instead of which we notice the Kol dialects of 
Ramgurh, Monghir, Chuta Nagpur, Gangj)ur, Sirgujah, 
and Sumbhulpur : which fall into divisions and sub- 
divisions. Tlie Sontals, indigenous to the parts about 
Palaraow, have recently intruded themselves amongst the 
Rajraahalis, and, having so done, constitute the most 
northern section of the group. Still they are intrusive, 
and must be kept separate. 

Ho, meaning man, is the true and native name for 
the Kol of Kolehan. 

The Singbhum Kol is the same as the Sontal except 
that some of its forms are somewhat shorter, as ho = hcyrl, 
ho = huliO, nioya and turia = mane-gotang, tuHn- 
gotang, &c. The same is the case with the Bhuraij and 
Mundala dialects. In these, however, the numerals for 
7, 8, 9, and 10 are Hindu — sath, ath, nou (noko), and 
das {dasgo). 



English. 


SonUI. 


English. 


Sontal. 


Man 


horh 


Foot 


suptijanga 


Head 


buho 


Blood 


myan 


Hair 


ub 


Bone 


jang 


Eye 


met 


Sun 


singmanal 


Ear 


lata 


Moon 


chandu 


Hand 


thi 


Star 


ipil ^ 



184 



KOL AND MON. 



English. 


Sontal. 


English. 


Sontal. 


Fire 


sengel 


Five 


mone-gotang 


Water 


dah 


Six 


turin-gotang 


One 


midh 


Seven 


lair-gotang 


Two 


barria 


Eight 


iral-gotang 


Three 


apia 


Nine 


are-gotang 


Fowr 


ponia 


Ten 


gel-gotang. 



An observation, and an important one, of Mr. Mason's, 
respecting the affinities of the Moii of Pegu and the Kol, 
requires notice. The first numerals and several other 
words in the Mon are also Kol. I cannot, however, 
with Mr. Mason, infer from this any affinity between the 
Kol and Mon which is, at one and the same time, funda- 
mental and direct. What I see is this — the chances of a 
considerable influence from the east coast of India upon 
Pegu and, perhaps, Cambojia at an early period. The 
Mon are called by the Burmese Talieng ; which is, word 
for word, Telinga. The number of the monosyllabic 
languages, which, in an early stage, had no numerals of 
their own beyond five, is considerable. The Mon nu- 
merals, then, and tiie otlier words may have come from 
India — imported and incorporated. More than this is 
not necessary to explain the facts ; which, on other 
grounds, will scarcely cover the inference of Mr. Mason. 

The eastern coast, however, of India when the words 
in question were introduced (and, with them, the name 
Talien), must have been Kol rather than Telinga. 



i 



THE KnOND DIALECT. 18-5 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The Khond Class. — Khond. — (Jadaba and Yerikala. — Savara. 

The Khonds coine next ; belonging to Orissa rather than 
Bengal. The Khond CiiUs liis own country Kui Dina or 
Ku Pruti, and that occupied by the Uriyas Sasi Dina. The 
word malo is Uriya, and means a Highland. Witliin 
the Sircar of Ganjaru (in which the Uriya and Telinga 
languages meet) lie the Zemindaries of Gumsiir, Koradah, 
Souradali, and Kimidi. Each lias its malo — and the 
Kimidi Malo is pre-eminently Sour. It falls into — 

1. The Sano Kimidi Malo. 

2. The Bodo Kimidi Malo. Observe the word Bodo. 

3. The Pariah, or Porolah, Kimidi Malo. 

In the Bodo Kimidi Malo the Khond and Sour are 
both spoken. The Pariah Kimidi Malo being chiefly (or 
exclusively) Sour. 

On the south-east and east of the Kimidi Malo lies 
the Souradah — which seems to mean the Sour Country ; 
though Khond in population. 

The smaller divisions of the diTia are called in Khond 
hhand = piece, or j^cn*^. The dina is specified by the 
name of the chieftain ; thus Rogo Dina or Gune Dina 
is the fief (so to say) of Rogo or Guni. The people are 
Rogo Millaka, or Dina Millako, i. e. Children of Rogo. 
There is no collective name. The following is Khond, 
eo nomine ; the numerals being Indian — 



English. 


Kbond. 


Englislk 


Klioml. 


Man 


lokka 


Ear 


kirru 


Bead 


tlafvu 


MouO, 


sudda 


Eye 


kannnka 


Tooth 


shami 



186 



THE KHOND DIALECT. 



English. 

Hand 

Foot 

Blood 

Bone 

Sv/n 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Stone 

Tree 



Khond. 

kaju 

yestamu 

rakko 

pasu 

bela 

layadi 

sukala 

nade 

viddi 

mranu 



English. 
One 
Two 
Three 
Four 
Five 
Six 



Fight 

Nine 
Ten 



The following, viz, the Gadaba, belongs, I 
the malo of Gaddapur, one of the districts of 



English. 

Man 

Head 

Eye 

Ear 

Mouth 

Hand 

Foot 

Blood 

Bone 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 



Gadaba. 


English 


lokka 


Stone 


bo 


Tree 


olio 


One 


nintiri 


Two 


turn mo 


Three 


titti 


Four 


adugesananu 


Five 


yignan 


Six 


vondramgoyi 


Seven 


singi 


Eight 


arke 


Nine 


tsiikka 


Ten 


sungol 





Khond 

rondi 

jodeka 

*tini-gota 

*sari 

*panchu 

*sata 
*ata 

*iiogatta 
*doso. 

presume, to 
Gum stir : — 

Gadaba. 

birel 

sunabbo 

vokati 

rendu 

mudu 

nalugu 

ayidu 

aru 

yedu 

yeni-mede 

torn-midi 

pade. 



Of the following I am unable to give the exact lo- 
cality. 



English. 


Ycrukali. 


English. 


Yerukali. 


Man 


lokka 


Stone 


kellu 


Head 


talayi 


Tree 


chede 


Eye 


supan 





marom 


Ea/r 


soyi 


One 


vondu 


Month 


vayi 


Two 


rendu 


Tooth 


pallam 


Three 


mume 


Hand 


ky Kol 


Four 


nalu 


Foot 


keru 


Five 


anju 


Blood 


regain 


Six 


ara 


Bone 


yamaka 


Seven 


yegu 


Sun 


berule 


EigJd 


yethu 


Moon 


tarra 


Nine 


ombadu 


Star 


tsukka 


Ten 


potliu. 


Fire 


nerupu Tamil 







* The numerals marked tbus are Hindfi. 




THE SAVARA. 



187 



The village is also named Millaka, preceded by the 
name of the founder. Thus Diggo Millaka is the village 
founded by Diggo. In Uriya it is a gam, = Diggogam, 



English. 


Sarara. 


English. 


Savara. 


Man 


mandra 


Fire 


togo 


Head 


aboLumu 


River 


nayi 


Eye 


amu 


Stone 


aregna 


Ear 


lay 


Tree 


anebagna 


Mouth 


amuka 


One 


aboy 


Tooth 


ajagna 


Tico 


bagu 


Blood 


mijamo 


Tftree 


yagi 


Bone 


ajagna 


Four 


Tonjii 


Hand 


asi 


Five 


mollayi 


Foot 


aji 


Six 


kudru 


Day 


tamba 


Seven 


gBl«i 


Sky 


agasa 


Eight 


tamuji 


Sun 


vuyu 


Nine 


tinji 


Moon 


Tonga 


Ten 


galliji. 


Star 


tote 







The Savara numerals are Kol rather than either 
Khond or Tamul, though the Sours are, by no means, 
the nearest to the Kol area. 



188 THE GIIONDS. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

The Ghonds. 

The barest part of the maps of India (and by hare I 
mean a district whicli the paucity of names, whether of 
villages or natural objects, proclaims to be unexplored) 
is a large space named Ghondwana — large and undefined, 
the occupancy of a population named Ghond. Word 
for word, this is Khond. Nothing, however, in the 
way of either affinity or difference between the Khonds 
and Ghonds is to be inferred from the similarity. 
Neither is a native name. Each is a name which cer- 
tain Hindiis apply to certain tribes which they consider 
ruder and more barbarous than themselves. Like other 
names of the same kind it may denote anything or 
nothing in the way of relationship. It may apply to 
tribes closely allied ; or it may apply to tribes, toto codo, 
different. 

The western frontier of the Khonds of the Gumsur 
Malo and the frontier of the most eastern Ghonds touch 
and run into each other. " At Sarangaddah, the Uriya 
quarter is situated between a Khond village to the west, 
and a Ghond settlement to the east. In other places 
a Khond village aligns with it. 

" A few families of the Ghond race have emigi-ated from 
Kalahandi and Bastar at various times. Some have set- 
tled at Sarangaddah, while others have passed on into the 
Goomsur Malo, and penetrated as far to the eastward as 
Udyagiri, near the head of the Kiirminghia Pass, where 
a colony has established itself They are also met with, 
as a few families, at Chachingudah, and Kiritingiah, of 
Goomsur, lying between the above points. These emi- 



1 



THE GHONDS. 189 

grations still continue in times of scarcity, but their 
nainbers are very trifling. It is in the countries bor- 
dering this malo to the west that they are known as a 
people. The Patros of the frontier divisions of Lonka- 
godah and Bellagodah are of this race, as is also the 
Chief of Mohangiri, under Kalahandi, not to mention 
in this place other men of influence. The Gonds settled 
at Sarangaddah, receive land of the Patro in return for 
general service. They intermarry with the families of 
their race in Goomsur : they reside at the godah. With 
regard to their customs, their mythology differs from 
that of the Uriyas or Kondhs. They sacrifice animals, 
drink ardent spirits, eat flesh, but eschew that of the 
cow : they will not partake of food with any other 
class. Their feelings on the question of human sacrifice 
are not, as yet, accurately ascertained ; but it is asserted 
that they do not perform the rite. The titles amongst 
them are Dalbehra and Magi. They esteem them- 
selves of great pjurity of race, so that in former days 
they considered the approach of a Brahman to their 
dwellings as conveying an impurity to the spot ; they 
are now, however, somewhat less rigid on this ground. 
The Uriyas of the hills, while they regard the Khonds 
as a distinct and inferior race, assign to the Ghonds a 
common origin with themselves. The tradition received 
at Sarangaddah is as follows : — 

"A certain raja, named Sobhajoi Singh, being unmar- 
ried, and desirous of issue, called to his bed four parties 
in succession. Those selected were the daughters of a 
washerman, a potter, a distiller of spirits, and a Brah- 
man ; and the respective issue was a Doholo or Dolo, a 
Kohouro, a Gond, and the Nolo Benso Patro — the proge- 
nitors of the four classes now met with in the Malo."* 

The details of the Kol fi-ontier are not so well-known. 
Neither are those of the districts where the Ghond and 

Paper by Lieat. J. P. Fktb. — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
vol. xvii. part 1. 



J90 



THE GUNDI. 



Mahrafcta, the Ghond and Bengali, the Ghond and Telugu, 
the Ghond and the Hindi forms of speech come in con- 
tact. These, however, are the languages by which it is 
bounded. 

A short vocabulary by Mr. Manger, of the Ghond, is 
to be found in the 1 -iSth number of the Journal of ilie 
Asiatic Society, and a longer one in a previous number. 
The former gives the language of the parts about Ellich- 
poor, where the Mahratta is the language with which 
it is most in contact. The latter is from the district of 
Seonee ; on or near the Kol frontier. The following 
extracts are from Mr. Mangfer's notice of it. 



English. 


Giindi. 


English. 


Giindi. 


Male 


mandsa 


Back 


mdrchur 


Boy 


perga 


Arms 


kayik 


Infant 


chowa 


Thighs 


kfirki 


Young man 


pekur 


Navel 


mud 


Old wMn 


sena 


Knees 


tungru 


Woman 


maiju 


Legs 


potri 


Girl 


pergi 


Feet 


kal 


Young woman 


rayah 


Water 


er 


MarHed tooman 


lunguriar 


Fire 


kis 


Head 


tulla 


Tree 


murra 


Forehead 


kuppar 


Flower 


pdngar 


Eyebrows 


kunkunda 


Firewood 


kuttia 


Eyelids 


mindi 


Salt 


sowur 


Eyes 


kunk 


Oil 


ni 


Nose 


mussur 


Ghee 


pdlnl 


Ears 


kobi 


Milk 


pai 


Cheeks 


korir 


Butter 


nenti 


Lips 


sewli 


Mare 


krup 


Mouth 


tudhi 


Cow 


miira 


Tongue 


wunja 


Heifer 


kuUor 


Teeth 


pulk 


Calf 


paia 


Chin 


towrwa 


Bullock 


koda 


Throat 


gdnga 


Udder 


tokur 


Neck 


wurrur 


Horns 


kor 


Shoulders 


sutta 


Buffalo 


urmi 


Nails 


tirris 


Horse 


perral 


Armpit 


k&ukli 


Wheat 


gohuc 


Stomach 


pir 


Bread 


gohuc sari 


Loins 


nunni 


Rice 


paraik 


Entrails 


puddu 


She goat 


peti 



i 



GUNDI GRAMMAR. 



191 



EngiisJi. 






Gundi. 


English. 


Gundi 


Dog 






naie 


Between nnddom 


Cat 






bhoDgal 


Behind pija 


Wild cat 






workar 


Above parro 


Fowb 






kur 


Beneath ddi 


Cock 






gunguri 


On account lane 


CkidceM 






chiwar 


Hither hikke 


Egg* 






mesnk 


Thither hnkke 


Miet 






ulU 


Now indeke 


Serpents 






tanas 


When boppor 


Fish 






mink 


Here iga 


Tiger 






pfilMl 


Thus ital atal 


WaOt 






takana 


Daily dink 


Sun 






witt4na 


One undi 


Laugh 






kow&na 


Two rund 


Sing 






w^rina 


Three m^d 


Dance 






yendana 


Four nalo 


Speal- 






vunkana 


Fire saijan 


Fight 






tarrit4na 


Six s&rfin 


Beat 








Seven (sto 


Weep 






nrtana 


Eight armfir 


No 






hiUe 


Nine urmah 


Tes 






hinge 


Ten padth 


Near 






kurrun 


Twenty wisa 


Before 






nunne 


Fifty pnnnis 


Within 






rupper 


Hundred nur. 


Kora 




ahorse. 


Eorank horses. 


Eorana 
Eorada 




of 


a horse. 


Eorinkna of horses. 


Eorat 


J 


to 


a horse. 


Eorankun horses. 


EorStu 








Eoratsfin 


by 


akone 


EorankK<m byhorta 


Nak or nnnna 


/ 




1 Tmiim. 


Uiou 


Wiir he 


Kowa 


my 




: Niwa 


thy 


Wunna his 


Nakun 


me 




Nikun 


thee 


Wfink him 


Kaksun 


by \ 


m.e 


Niksun 


by thee 


W6nks6n by him 


:,L;k 


ue 




[ Imat 


you ] Wuig they 


M .-an 


our 




iliwat 


your * Wuiran their 


Makun 


u» 




Mekun 


you j Wurriin them 


H&ksun 


6y 


H» 


Miksun 


by you j Wuirunsun by ihent. 


Tirg 


this 




Bur 


who 


\Jdhe,ske,iL 


Yensa 


of 


this 




Bona 


■whose 




Yenk 


this 






Bonk 


whom 


Ten 1 him, her, it, 
Tkae , them 


Yenkstn 


hyihia 




Bonsun 


by whom 



192 



GUNDI GRAMMAR. 



Yirg 
Yirran 
Yirkun 
Yirrlinsun 


these 
of these 
these 
by these 


Burk 
Boran 
Bonk 
Bonsun 




who 

of whom 
whom 
by ivhom 


Tunna, his, hers, theirs. 




Bore, some one. 
Bora, what? 


Plural, 


Bara, something. 

Barauk, what ? ^ 




Wunka 

Wunkunna 

Wunki 

Wunktur 

Wunksi 






sx)eak ; 
to speak ' 
speaking I 
spoken 
having spoken 




Nunna wunki 
Iinma wunki 
Wur wunki 
Mar wunki 
Imar wunki 
Wurg wunki 






I speak 
thou speakest 
he speaks 
we speak 
ye speak 
they speak. 


Nunna wnnkundan ^ 

Irama wunkundi > I was 

Wur wunkundur ) 


^>ea 


':!)ig 


( Nunna, wunksi howe, 
, ttc. < Imma, wunksi howe, &c, 
( same for all persons. 




Mar wunkundura 
Imar wunkundir 
Wurg wunkundurg 


1 


I shall hare spoken. 



Nunna wunktan, / spoke. 
Imma wunkti 
Wiir wunktur 



Wunka, speak thou. 



Mar wunkt<im 
Imar wunktir 
Wurs wunktlirg 



Wunkar, speak ye. 



Nunna wunksi 
Imma wunksi 
Wur wunksi 
Mar wunksi 
Imar wunksi 
Wurg wunksi 

Nunna wunkika 
Imma wunkiki 
Wur wunkandr 
Mar wunkikiira 
Imar wunkikir 
Wiirg wunkanurg 



/ had spoken, ike. 



I shall spetk. 



GUNDI GRAMMAR. 193 



Nunna wunkundan howe ^ 
Imma ■vmnkundi howe 
■Wtir wunkundur howe 
Mar wunkundir howe 
Wfirg wrmkundfirg howe 



IskaU he speahing. 



1. 

Mowa Dowial budrut purro muddar-warr^ ; Niwa purrol dhnnnat-ma 
aie. Niwa rajpat waie. Niwar bichar ital budrit purro mundar atal durtit 
purro aud. Mowa pialda sarin neut mak punkiut : unde bahun mar upnfin 
reina dherrum kisia-turrum, atal imma mak dherum kisiut, unde makfin 
miwa jhara-jherti te niuni watnat unde burrotsun mak pisihat, b4rike 
niwa rajpat, imni niwa bul, unni niwa dhurmat mal sudda mund ital 
&nd. 

In English. 

Our Father heaven above inhabitant ; Thy name hallowed be. Thy king- 
dom come. Thy will as heaven above is, so earth on be. Our daily bread 
to-day to us give : and as we our debtors forgive, so thou to us trespasses for- 
give, and us into thy temptations do not throw, and from evil us deliver, for 
Ay kingdom and thy power and thy glory established remain, so be it. 

2. 

1. Kodawund niwa Purmesur nunna andur, nam(inne niw6r Deo bor6 
hille audur. 

2. Apun lane kit41 penk, bore budde ai jins it41 bndr&te noni dhnrtile, 
tmni yet^ mundar, atal miuni kemut imat wurea kal minni kurmat, unde 
w(irr<in ramakisnl miuni kem&t ; iden laine laine m^k ^n mundur, unde 
dourana pdpun sate chawlin porro s4siut dusta-tona, nati unni punti-lor 
purro, wurg admirun bor nowa bairi munda, unde mat awen — men sun 
hazaron nakun mink p(indat6rg, onde nowa wunkt^n purro taki-turg, nunna 
■wtirrun purro durmi kia tona. 

3. Purmesur-da parrol labarlt purro minni yeumit, tin-lainnn papi ainun 
wdig m^nwal bor Purmesur-da parrol labarit purro yetanfir, 

4. Purmesur-da pidl purriat unde tan sw^f ii^t sarrun pialk bunni b6ta 
limpt, unde sub miwa k^m kimpt, at ernlida piSl Purmesur-da pidl mundur, 
nd pi^l imma buttiai kam kemut, imma unni niwa pergil unni niwa pergol, 
unni niwa rutkawal unni niwa kiinda, unni niwa pownalur run mundfir ; tin 
laine Purmesur sarun pialk ne budra unni dherti unni sumd6r unni cheit- 
kunne jinsk iwit^ mundatan, awen kitur, nude yerrun pial rum tur, tuilaine 
id pi&ltun Purmes(ir dhurm^t-mal tane kltur, 

5. Imma upnon babonna unni awunna sewa kimpt, ten sun niwa yarbiil 
durtit purro Purmesar nlkun situr, paral aud. 

6. Imma mauwan minni jukmat. 

7. Imma pap minni kema. 

8. Imma kulwein minni kema. 

9. Imma upnon biganun purro labari gohai minni sena. 

10. Imma upnon biganun-ta rota lob minni kema. Imma upnon biganun- 
na maigu-na lob minni kema, unde wunna rutkawal unde wunna ktinda, 
innui wunnal guddal unde butti6-jins, upnon bigan^-na mundar tan purro 
lob minni kema. 



194 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 

In English. 

1. The Lord thy God I am, besides me thy gods not any shall be. 

2. To yourselves graven images, any sort of creature such as in heaven and 
on earth, and in sea are, such do not make — you their feet do not embrace, 
and their obeisance do not perform ; because to me jealousy is, and father's 
sins for children on, punishment inflict, grand children and great-grand chil- 
dren upon those men who my enemies are, and I from among those a thou- 
sand (who) me as a friend take, and my commands according to walk, I on 
them my shadows throw. 

3. God's name in falsehood do not take, for guilty will be that man who 
God's name in falsehood shall take. 

4. God's day remember and it holy keep ; six days daily work do, and all 
thy labour perform, but seventh day God's day is, that day thou any kind of 
work do not make, thou and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy servants, 
and thy cattle, and thy stranger (thy) house dwelling ; because God six days 
in, heaven, and earth, and sea, and each creature in them existing, them 
made, and seventh day rest took, therefore that day God hallowed estab- 
lished. 

5. Thou thy father's and mother's service perform, therefore thy life, the 
land upon, God to thee has given, prolonged may be. 

6. Thou a man not kill. 

7. Thou adultery not do. 

8. Thou theft not do. 

9. Thou thy neighbour against false witness not give. 

10. Thou thy neighbour's house covet not. Thou thy neighbour's wife covet 
not, and his house-servants, and his ox, and his ass, and anything, that thy 
neighbour's is it upon covetousness not make. 

3. 
Sandsumjee-na saka kuy^t, ro Baban, 
Sark ask kitur, Sing-Baban hille putt6r, 
Yirrun ask kitur, awlte Sing-Baban autarietur. 
Aular y^tana Baban punwake. 
Taksitun Baban, tunwa pari sumpte kiale 
Barike bouke aie penk putta sika. 
Hikke Sing-Baban putti-le-ai latur. 
Loro askna sowati, sarun mutta. 

Awitun, koti annate tulla durissi, "assun inga chawa putti," 
TJd it, ahe kint annate tullat6n durritun, 
Unni Sing-Baban purtfir, 
Sing-Baban techi urmi sarte michitun, 
Unni nai-pila taniga dussitfin, 
Unni ittfir, nai-jula wattoni, 

Nai-pilla mis3.te ; tank kawM kede kiate tare kittin, 
Sing-Baban, urmi ittdn, ke yenk borre minni jerasit, 
Na tokar jemat, unni torde pdl ptirsi ten (ihat. 
Au sartinge ask whfir setfin, pistur ka satur ? 
Sing-Baban gursundfir. 
Augrul dnde techi mdra na sarkte nuchitun. 



« 



I 



SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 195 

M6rai ittfin Sing-Baban bore jarniut 

Natokar jem^t torde pal pirsi ten fih&t, 

Agra kubber tallick setun, satur ke pisltir ? 

Sing-Baban gursundtir. 

Agral techi knan ruppa nuchitun. 

TisTO dian hur settin, satur ka pistur ? 

Sing-Baban aga tinde gursunddr. 

Agr41 tinde tunsi plillia-na surrit pnrro. 

Kuchlchi situn, Pfillial ask mandsal wandurg ; 

Sing-Baban na arana kinchtttrg. 

PuUial mian tras lakt, naur muni afidfir, 

Ingi techi yet, Tnnwa rund wot nnni tnnwa pil&nstin niaro irt, 

Ehandk tullana tunwa pilanfin thitana 

Pillan hotita, pal Sing-Baban uhnud 

The kina kina ke, Sing-Baban hfisiar atur. 

Undi dian \runna avarl tunwa pilansdn 

Milaf kissichisi, unni pilanfln indalat 

Immer urpa mundana turrim^t minni 

Tisro diafi Sing-Baban itturke, mowa kaia desita 

Makun putchial, kor, pheta tuchim 

Adungi hattum surde ucchi raimat 

Punkatar unni marratur maralur agdol passiturg 

Techi wit, wnrg tunwa guttri potri nuchi surritarg 

Ud techi tucchit, Sing-Baban tunsi knrsi yetfin 

Unni tunwa awarinna kal kurtdr, 

Manna munnake dnde dian unde indalatur 

Ki nak gullele tucchim ud henhud 

Ucchi raimat, Wdrrtir sipahi gullele-warre agdol pussit^ 

Ud vit ktissi, GfiUele nuchi surritfir. 

Ud techi urriwat Sing-Baba sit ; 

Sing-Baba tunna tummlir singne gursi latur, 

Pittun p(id(ir tunna tummur tan tindfir 

The kina ke, Sandsumji niga sube w4tur 

Unni Sandsumji nida latur peak bouk wandum ? lour ehat 

Penk bouke waiyun ? aga Sing-Baba fimhen kiton 

Sing-Baba taksltfir tunna tummur sungue muttur 

Wasiaautfir, uddam atur wfirrfir Bummenal 

"Wtin Sing-Baba teta latur, Wur tedlir ; 

Tunnar^n gussalakt wur Bummenal tingiet6r 

Sing-Baba penk techietur. 

Sube indalatfir ke imma boni audi ? 

Wur ittur ke immer urmifiun unni mfiram^ keat 

Unni tnnwa tumman indalatur, hun dain kesi terali 

Wur vittar kesi tuttur. 

Yen mfinte jins unde punchatite puna attir 

Jub Sing-Baba indalatur k^ iwen puche kimpt 

Awen sun pflche kial latur, yir bfir 4udfir ] 

M6nne urmi wunktun jir Sandsfimje^nfir murri audnr. 

o 2 



196 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 

Wfirg indalatur, imma bane putti ? Awittlin 

Maiga rundidian mungi muttiu*. Bahur mungt muttnr 

Awittlin niwa sarfinge ask tuttchi maiga pikkile nuchi angt 

Unni igga hille saiur, to murana sarte nuchiclie sit(ir 

Awen pficTie kial atQr, Maiga Baban at ? 

Muraitiin ke, Maiga rund dian raungi muttur 

Awen sarflngi ask agral wosi kliante nuchi si tin 

Aga tinde hille saifir. To agrul tunsi kojane bewatun 

Sing-Baban ptiche kial aturk^ agral imma behuth I 

Wur ittnr id nowa awan puche kimpt 

Wtinna awal pfillian pfiche kia latur 

Imma bugga punne mati ] Ud it 

Mowa surde awe sardnge ask mucMchfe mutta 

Nunna techi urri watan, nowa pilan notita 

Pfil yen (ihth^n unni hinda htinda bala buttir 

Nowa chowanfm tbetSn sube j^nk pdlliana 

K^l kdrttir unni tane penk thaira kitflr. 

Unni awe sarunge askntin 3,den plillian sitdrg. 

Udneti t^l Sing-Baban putt41 atfir 

Unni pulli^l ntide penk tbairi mat 

Sandsumjee BabS.na id saka S,ud 

Bhirri bans-Bhirri-ta saka S,ud. 

In English. 
Sandsumjee's song hear, Father. 
Six wives he took, Sing-Baba not born, 
Seventh wife took, by her Sing-Baba was conceived. 
Of her pregnancy Father was not informed. 
Departed Father, his kinsfolk being assembled together 
For this reason to some one it happened to offer a sacrifice to a God. 
Hereupon Sing-Baba began to be bom. 
Small wife was sleeping, the other six were there. 
Said they, grain basket's mouth into^ her head let us introduce in our hou 

child is bom. 
So said, so done, into mouth her head introduced, 
And Sing-Baba was born, 

Sing-Baba having taken up, into Buffaloes' stable threw, 
And a puppy instead placed. 
And said, a puppy is born, 

A puppy having brought forth, thence crows to frighten they set her, 
Sing-Baba, buffaloes said, that him let none hurt, 
Nor blow strike, and into his mouth milk having poured him suckled. 
The six wives said, let us go and see him, is he living or dead ] 
Sing-Baba was playing. 

Thence indeed having taken him into cows' stable threw. 
The cows said Sing-Baba let no one hurt 
Or blow strike, into his mouth milk pouring him suckled, 
Therefore information they sent to seek, is he living or dead ? 




SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDL 197 

Sing-Baba vras playing. 

Thence having taken well into threw. 

On the third day having gone to see, is he living or dead ? 

Sing-Baba there indeed was playing. 

Thence indeed having taken, Tiger's path npon. 

They threw him, Tiger's female and male were coming ; 

Sing-Baba's cries they heard. 

Tigress compassion felt, " my child it is." 

Having said so, took him away. Their den came to and their pops from 

apart set. 
Meat bringing their pnps to feed 
Their pnps weaning, with milk Sing-Baba suckled, 
So continuing to do, Sing-Baba grew np. 
One day his mother her whelps 
Together brought, and to whelps began to say 
Yourselves among together stay, fight not. 
The third day Sing-Baba said, my body is naked 
To me a dhoty, dohur, and pugrey give. 
She going Bazar road seated remained. 
A mnslin-maker and cloth-maker that way came 
Having got up ran, they their bundles having thrown away fled, 
She having taken up brought Sing-Baba took and put on 
And his mother's feet kissed, 
Staying staid then one day indeed began to say 

That to me a bow give. She again went 

Seated remained a sepoy armed with a bow that way came. 

She ran having cried out. Bow thrown away, he fled. 

She having it came and to Sing-Baba gave; 

Sing-Baba big brother little brother together played. 

Birds shot big brother little brother to them gave to eat 

So continuing to do, Sandsumji home returned with his friends 

And Sandsiunji began to say has any one become inspired, let him arise ; 

God into one not entered ? Then Sing-Baba inspiration received. 

Sing-Baba was coming, Ixg Wother little brother together were 

Coming came, in the midst was a brahman 

Him Sing-Baba required to get up, he refused ; 

Big brother became angry, the brahman eat up 

Sing-Baba the image took up. 

All began to say, that you, who are you ? 

He said that you the Buffaloes and cows ask 

And to his little brother said, mother go and call. 

He ran and called. 

These three species before the punchaite a^embled came. 

Then Sing-Baba said that them question, 

From them they asked, this one who is he ? 

First the buffaloes said this Sandsumjee's son is. 

They said, you how understand ? These said 

In our house two days staid. How did he remain ? 



198 SPECIMENS OF THE GUNDI. 

These said thy six wives having taken into our house to kill threw 

And there not injured, then cows' house into threw 

From these asked, How into your house Baba came ? 

The cows said, At our house two days stayed. 

These six wives thence having taken into well threw, 

There indeed not injured, thence taking I know not where took. 

Sing-Baba they questioned that thence you went where ? 

He said of my mother ask. 

They mother-tigress asked 

You where found ? She said 

On my road these six wives threw away ; 

I having taken brought, my whelps weaning, 

Milk him suckled and here there with prey 

My young fed. All-understood, tigress' 

Feet embraced, and her a God established. 

And these six wives to this tigress gave. 

That day Sing-Baba illustrious became 

And Tigress indeed as a God established became. 

Of Sandsumjee Baba this song is. 

Of Bhirry bamboo-jungle Bhirri the song is. 

Bata for the Gundi are pre-eminently deficient. 




THE URAON AND RAJMAHALI. 199 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Uraon and Eajmahali. 

It has already been stated that, though the Kol dialects, 
eo nomine, were the ones which were noticed next to 
those of the class represented by the Daralii and Kus- 
war, the form of speech, other than Hindu, which lay 
in the closest geographical proximity to the Himalayas 
was not, eo nornine, Kol. 

The notice of it was postponed for the following 
reason — its affinities are believed to lie with Khond to 
the south, and with the Uraon to the west of the Kol 
area rather than with the Kol itself. 

Such, at least, is the doctrine expressed in a work 
which, from both its merits and its circulation, is likely 
to inSuence the opinion of investigators — Mr. Caldwell's 
Grammar of the Dravirian Language — JDravirian mean- 
ing akin to the Tamul and its immediate congeners. 
That the Tamul is a lanomage of the extreme south we 
have seen : whereas the lanouasje under notice, though 
scarcely one of the extreme north, is a northern one — 
northern enough to be spoken along a mountain-range, 
the foot of which is washed by the Ganges. Near to 
where this river is cut by the 2oth degree of N. L. 
stand the Rajmahal Hills : where two forms of speech 
are used. One is the ordinary Suntal of certain intru- 
sive Kols. The other is an older, and apparently a 
native, dialect — which we may call the Rajmahali. 

Now, Caldwell has committed himself to the doctrine 
that the Rajmahali is more Dravirian than the Kol — 
though further from tie centre of the Dravirian area : 



200 



THE URAOF AND RAJMAHALI. 



indeed, he excludes the Kol from the Dravirian class — 
or, at any rate, hesitates to admit it. 

I treat, then, the Rajmahali as more Khond than Kol 
— only, however, provisionally and until further materials 
for forming a judgment are supplied. 

In the following table the words marked are from the 
list in Caldwell's Grammar ; the others from a vocabu- 
lary by Major Roberts in the fifth volume of the 
Asiatic Researches : — 



English. 


Bajmabali. 


English. 


Bajmahali. 


Man 


*male 


Nail 


uruk 


Head 


klik 


Hand 


•sesu 




*kupe 


Fingers 


angilli 


Hair 


tuUi 


Foot 


tshupta 


Nose 


moi 




•kev 


Mood 


kiss 


Arm 


tat budahi 




*kesu 


Sun 


*ber 


Eye 


kun 


Moon 


*bilpe 


Eyebrow 


kunmudha 


Star 


badekah 


Ear 


kydule 




bindeke 




*khetway 


Fire 


tshutsha 


Tooth 


pul 


Water 


um 


Belly 


kutshah 


Stone 


tshatshar 


Bone 


*kochal 


Tree 


mln 




kutshul 


Fish 


min 


Each 


kukah 


Snake 


nir. 



The following (from Caldwell) is a comparison of the 
Rajmahali and Tamul pronouns : — 



English. 


Kajmahali. 


Tamul. 


/ 


en 


en, nan 


Thou 


nin 


nin 


He, she, it 


ath 


ata 


We 


nam 


n^m 




om* 


dm 


Ye 


nina 


nim 


They 


awar 


avar 


This 


Ih 


1 


That 


&h 


& 


Here 


Irio 


inge 


There 


&no 


ange. 



The Uraon, compared, by Caldwell, with the Raj- 



I 



THE URAON AND RAJMAHALI. 



201 



mahali, is placed by liim in the same category. It is a 
lancTiaore of western rather than the northern frontier of 
the Kol area, within which it is spoken. It is held, 
however, to be intrusive fi"om the parts about Rotasghur 
near the junction of the Coylle and Soone. ■ 
Its position is provisional. 



English. 


TJrson. 


English. 


Uraon. 


Man 


alia 


Foot 


dappe 


Head 


kuk, M. 


Hand 


khekhah 


Hair 


chutti 


Sun 


dharmi 


Ear 


khebda 


Moon 


chando 


Eye 


khan 


Star 


binka 


Blood 


khens 


Fire 


chek 


Bone 


khochal 


Water 


am. 



The words marked with an asterisk are from Caldwell. 



202 



THE TEiiEGU. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

The Tamul Class. — Telugu or Telinga. — Tamul Proper.— Malayalim. — Cana- 
rese.--Tulu or Tula va.— Rude Tribes.— Tuda.—Budugur.— Irular.— 
Eohatar. 



The Telugu, or Telinga, is spoken from Chicacole to 
Pulicat, and extends westwards as far as tlie eastern 
boundary of the Marathi ; being the chief language of 
the northern Circars as well as parts of Hyderabad, 
Nagpur, and Gondwana, 



English. 


Telugu. 


English. 


Telugu. 


Man 


al 


Thou 


nivu 


Head 


tala 


He 


vadu 


Hair 


ventruka 


She 


ame 


Ear 


chevi 


It 


adi 


Eye 


kannu 


We 


memu 


Mouth 


noru 


Ye 


niiru 


Tooth 


pallu 


They 


varu 


Bone 


emika 


Mine 


nadi 


Blood 


netturu 


Thine 


nidi 


Egg 


gaddu 


His 


vadidi 


Bay 


pagalu 


Our 


ID adi 


Night 


reyi 


Your 


midi 


Sky 


minnu 


Their 


varidi 


Sun 


poddu 


Om 


vokati 


Star 


chukka 


Two 


rendu 


Fire 


hippu 


Three 


mudu 


Water 


nillu 


Four 


nalugu 


River 


eru 


Five 


ayidu 


Stone 


rayi 


Six 


am 


Tree 


chettu 


Seven 


edu 


Village 


uru 


Eight 


enimidi 


Snake 


pamu 


Nine 


tommidi 


I 


nenu 


Ten, 


padi. 



i 



THE TAMUL. 



203 



The Tamul succeeds the Telinga about Pulicat, and is 
spoken along the coast of Coromandel as far as Cape 
Comorin. It then turns north ; but is succeeded in the 
parts about Trevandrum by the Malay alim. Inland, it 
extends to the Ghauts and Nilgherries. It is spoken, 
also, in the north of Ceylon, and by numerous settlers 
and emigrants in Pegu, Penang, Singapoi:e, and the 
Mauritius. 



English. 


TamnL 


Engiiali. 


TamnL 


Man 


al 


I 


nan 


Bead 


talei 


Thou 


ni 


Hair 


mayir 


He 


aran 


Ear 


kadu 


She 


aval 


Eye 


kail 


It 


ada 


Mouth 


vayi 


We 




Tooth 


pal 


Ye 


nir 


Bone 


elombn 


Tha/ 


avar 


Blood 


udiram 


Mine 


enada 


^90 


mattei 


Thine 


nnada 


Day 


pagal 


Hit 


avanada 


Night 


ira 


Our 


nainadu 


Sly 


Tanam 


Your 


nmada 


Sun 


pakalon 


Their 


avarudu 


Moon 


tingal 


One 


onm 


Star 


Tanmin 


Two 


iranda 


Fire 


nemppa 


Thru 


munru 


Water 


tanni 


Pour 


nala 


River 


am 


Fire 


anja 


Stone 


kal 


Six 


am 


Tree 


sedi 


Seven 


ezha 




maram 


Eight 


ettu 


Tillage 


ir 


Nine 


ombada 


Snake 


pamba 


Ten 


patta. 



The Malayalim is the language of the western side 
of the coast of Malabar. On its east lies the Canarese ; 
on its north the Tulava ; on its south the Tamul. The 
Tamul touches it at Trevandrum ; the Tulava and Cana- 
rese of Canara about Mangalore. It stretches over 
about six degrees of latitude, but only in a narrow stnp 
between the Ghauts and the sea. It is the vernacular 



204 



MALAYALIM. 



of Cochin, and the northern and middle parts of Tra- 
vancore. It is a separate substantive language, possibly 
more akin to the Tamul than its other congeners — but 
no Tamul dialect. 



English. 


MalayaKm. 


English. 


Malayalim 


Man 


al 


/ 


guan 


Head 


tala 


Thou 


ni 


Hair 


talamudi 


Be 


avan 


Ear 


kada 


She 


aval 


Eye 


kanna 


It 


ada 


Mouth 


vaya 


We 


gnangal 


Tooth 


palla 


Ye 


ninwal 


Bone 


ella 


They 


avara 


Blood 


chora 


Mine 


enre 


Egg 


mutta 


Thine 


ninre 


Bay 


pagal 


His 


avanre 


Night 


rav 


Our 


nangade 


Sky 


manam 


Your 


ningade 


Sun 


STirga 


Their 


avarude 


Moon 


tingal 


One 


onna 


Star 


minjawna 


Two 


rendu 


Fire 


tiyya 


Three 


munnu 


Water 


vellam 


Fow 


nala 


River 


puzha 


Five 


anja 


Stone 


kaUa 


Six 


ara 


Tree 


chedi 


Seven 


ezha 




maram 


Eight 


etta 


Village 


tara 


Nine 


ombada 




desam 


Ten 


patta. 


Snake 


pamba 







The Canarese touches the Telinsra in the north-east 
and the Tamul in the south-east. Mysore is its centrej 
It touches the coast between Goa and Mangalore ; where 
however, it is intrusive. 



English. 


Canarese. 


English. 


Canarese. 


Man 


alu 


Tooth 


kallu 


Head 


tale 


Bone 


eluvu 


Hair 


kudala 


Blood 


netturu 


Ear 


kivi 


Egg 


tatti, motti 


Eye 


kannu 


Bay 


liagalu 


Mouth 


bayi 


Night 


iralu 



THE KODUGU, OB CURGI. 



205 



English. 


Canarese. 


English. 


Canarese. 


Sly 


bana 


They 


avam 


Sun 


hotta 


Mine 


nannada 


Moon 


tingaln 


Thine 


ninnada 


Star 


chnkki 


His 


aranu 


Fire 


benki {Sing.) 


Our 


nammada 


Water 


niru 


Your 


nimmadn 


Rirer 


hole 


Thar 


avarada 


Stone 


kallu 


One 


ondu 


Tree 


gida, mara 


Two 


emda 


nUarje 


halli, uru 


Three 


mum 


Snale 


havu 


Four 


naDni 


I 


nann 


Fire 


ajida 


Thou, 


ninu 


Six 


ara 


He 


avana 


Seven 


da 


She 


avala 


Eight 


enta 


It 


ada 


Aine 


omUiatta 


We 


nam 


Ten 


batto. 


Ye 


nivu 







In Curgi the language changes, and is, as may be ex- 
pected, of so transitional a character, that whilst Ellis 
calls it a dialect of the Tulu, Mocrlinfj of Mansfalore 
states that it is more allied to the Tamul and Malayalim. 
It is called the Kodugu. 

The Tulu, itself, is the most northern language of its 
class which touches the sea ; and it is essentially a 
language of the coast. It has extended further north ; 
having been encroached on by the Konkani dialect of 
the Marathi, which abounds in Tulu words, apparently 
derived from the earlier occupants. It is a language of 
not only a small ai*ea but a decreasing one : being 
pressed upon by the Canarese. It extends from the 
Nileswara on the south, in N.L. 13° 30', where it 
touohes the Malayalim to the Bhahavara in N.L. 13° 
30, four miles north of Upi, where it is succeeded by 
the Konkani, The Grerman missionaries at Mangalore 
preach to the upper classes in Canarese, but to the 
lower in Tulu. 



English. 


Kodagn. 


Tnln. 


Man 


manus 


al 


Head 


mande 


tare 


Hair 


oiama 


kodala 



206 



THE KODUGU, OR CURGl. 



English. 


Kodugu 


Tooth 


paU 


Eye 


ane 


Ear 


kemi 


Mouth 


bayi 


Hand 




Foot 




Blood 


chore 


Bone 




Day 


pagil 


Sun 




Moon 




Star 




Fire 




Water 


nir 


Earth 




Mountain 




River 


pole 


Stone 




Tree 


mara 


Bird 


pakki 


Egg 




Fish 




Flower 




Horn 




Snake 


pamb 


I 


nan 


Thou - 




He 





She 




Jt 




We 




Ye 




They 





Mine 




There 




His 




Ours 




Yours 




Theirs 





One 




Two 




Three 





Fowr 




Five 




Six 




Seven 





Tulii. 

kuli 

ane 

kebi 

bayi 

kai 

bajji 

nettar 

elu 



polutu 

tingalu 

daraya 

tu 

nir 

nela 

gudde 

tude 

kalla 

mara 

pakki 

mutte 

tetti 

min 

pu 

kombu 

parapunu 

en 

i 

aye 

aval 

av 

enklia 

inukulu 

akulu 

ennow 

innow 

ay anew 

enkulanow 

inkulanow 

akulunow 

onji 

erad 

muji 

nala 

ayinu 

aji 

el 



THE KODUGU, OR CURGI. 



207 



English. 
Eight 
Nine 
Ten 



Kodngn. 



ename 

orambo 

patto. 



The following are, according to CaldweU, the writer 
from whose Dravirian Grammar the preceding details 
are exclusively taken, the statistics of the above-men- 
tioned languages ; one of which, apparently, includes 
the Curgi. 



1. 


Tamul is spoken by 


. 10,000,000 


2. 


Telinga 


. 14,000,000 


3. 


Canarese „ 


5,000,000 


4. 


Malay alim „ 


2,500,000 


5. 


Tulu 


150,000 



31,650,000 
The previous forms of speech constitute a natural 
group — a natural group, and not a very large one. 
They all belong to the Dekhan. They are all spoken 
by populations more or less Hindu. They are all the 
languages of the civilized Indian. Their area is con- 
tinuous ; in other words, they are all in contact with 
each other, and their frontiei-s join. There is nothing 
between the Telinga and the Tamul, the Tamul and the 
Canarese, the Tamul and the Malayalim. Their area is 
continuous. 

The following are from the. Nilgherry Hills. They are 
all rude dialects of the Canarese ; of the Canarese rather 
than the Tamul ; though not without Tamul elements. 

1. 



English. 


Tuda. 


Man 


al 


Wovftan 


knch 


ITead 


madd 


Eye 


kann 


Ear 


kewi 


Tooth 


parsh 


Mouth 


bor 


Blood 


bach 


Bone 


elf 



Engliib. 


Tnda. 


Foot 


kal 


Hand 


koi 


Day 


nal 


Sun 


birsh 


Moon 


teggal 


Star 




Fire 


nebb 


Water 


nir 


River 


pa. 



208 



THE BUDUGUR, ETC. 



English. 


Budngur. 


English. 


Budugiu'. 


Man 


manija 


Star 





Woman 


hennu 


Fire 


kichcliu 


Head 


mande 


Water 


niru 


Eye 


kannu 


River 


holla 


Ear 


kive 


One 


vondu 


Tooth 


hallu 


Two 


yeradu 


Mouth 


bai 


Three 


muru 


Blood 


netru 


Four 


nalku 


Bone 


yellu 


Five 


eidu 


Foot 


kalu 


Six 


am 


Hand 


kei 


Seven 


yellu 


Day 


dina 


Eight 


yettu 


Sun 


hottu 


Nine 


Tombattu 


Moon 


tiggalu 


Ten 


hattu. 


English. 


Irular. 


i. 

English. 


Irular. 


Man 


manisha 


Fii-e 


tu, tee 


Woman 


ponnu 


Water 


dani 


Head 


tele 


River 


palla 


Eye 


kannu 


One 


vondu 


Ear 


kadu 


Two 


emdu 


Tooth 


pallu 


Three 


muru 


Mouth 


vai 


Four 


naku 


Blood 


latta 


Five 


eindu 


Bone 


yellambu 


Six 


aru 


Foot 


kalu 


Seven 


yettu 


Hand 


kei 


Eight 


yettu 


Hay 


nala 


Nine 


vombadu 


Sum 


poda 


Ten 


pattu. 


Moon 


nalavu 






English. 


Kohatar. 


English. 


Kohatar. 


Man 


ale, manija 


Moon 


tiggule 


Woman 


pemmage 


Water 


nire 


Head 


mande 


River 


pevi 


Eye 


kannu 


One 


vodde 


Ear 


kive 


Two 


yede 


Tooth 


palle 


Three 


munde 


Mouth 


vai 


Four 


nake 


Blood 


netra 


Five 


anje 


Bone 


yelave 


Six 


are 


Foot 


kalu 


Seven 


yeye 


Hand 


kei 


Eight 


yette 


Hay 


nale 


Nine 


Yorupade 


Sun 


potte 


Ten 


patte. 



THE CANARESE. 



209 



There is an old Literary, or High Canarese (as, 
indeed, there is an old Literary, or High Tamul, and (?) 
Malayalim), with a greater admixture of Sanskrit. It 
gives p rather than h, in which several of its modern 
congeners agree with it. 



English. 


Old Canarese. 


New Canarese. 




Day 


pagalu 


hagalu 


pagil — Tulu 


Flower 


PUTYU 


huwu 


puvTu — Tuda 


Horn 


pandi 


handi 


pandi — Kodugv. 


Name 


pesaru 


hesara 


pudar — Tula 


Rirer 


pole 


hole 


pole — Kodugv, 


Road 


pade 


hadi 


* 


Snake 


pavu 


hara 


pab — Tuda 


Tiger 


puli 


huU 


pivri — Tuda 


Tooth 


pallu 


halla 


pall — Kodugu. 



All the languages of this class may be grouped round 
the Canarese. This, says Mr. Reeve, is so like the Telugu 
that, in many cases, the change of an initial or inflection 
will make a complete correspondence. Still, if many 
initials or many inflections are changed, the difference 
will amount to a good deal. That the Tulu and Kodugu 
of Ctirg are mutually intelligible is beyond doubt, and it 
is not unlikely that, for short and simple sentences, the 
Tulu and Malayalim may be the same. The same is said 
to be the case with the Tamul and Malayalim. In this 
(the Malayalim) and the Telinga we have the two ex- 
tremes ; one for the north-east, one for the south-east. 



210 



THE BRAHUI. 



CHAPTEK XXXI. 



The Brahfii. 



The language "whicli now comes under notice lies no| 
only beyond the proper Tamul area but beyond the 
geographical boundaries of Hindostan. It is a language 
of Biluchistan — but not the Bilucli itself. That tli€ 
Brahui, Brahuihi, or Brahooi, differed from the lani 
guage of both the Biluches and the Afghans was knowi 
to both Elphinstone and Pottinger ; for both state th^ 
fact. Both, however, treat the Brahui as Biluches wit! 
certain differential characteristics ; neither asking hoT 
far some of these may be important enough to make 
them other than Biluch. This is because the politica 
term Biluchistan has concealed one of the most import 
ant and interesting affinities in ethnology. 

A short specimen of the Brahui language in Leach'a 
Vocabularies commanded the attention of Lassen, who| 
after enlarging upon its difference from the Persiar 
Biluch, and Pushtu, drew attention to some notabW 
similarities between the numerals and those of th^ 
South Indian dialects. Following up this suggestionj 
the present author satisfied himself that the Brahtii 
tongue was, in many resjiects, Tamul — an opinion which 
others have either recognized or been led to form from 
their own researches. 

In the country, however, which they now occupy, the 
Brahtii consider themselves aboriginal ; the Biluch, ad- 
mitting that they are, themselves, of foreign origin. The 
rugged and impracticable nature of the Brahtii moun- 
tains favours this view. 



THE BRAHUI. 



211 



It is from Leach's notice that the following para- 
digms are taken. They consist, however, solely of cer- 
tain Brahui forms and their English equivalents — 
grammatical terms, such as Case, Number, and the like, 
being avoided. They stand in the text of Leach — more, 
however, in deference to "old-established usage" than 
because the Brahui and Latin grammars are believed to 
give parallel forms. 

Extract. 

To denote abstraction &n is introdaced, as riatdn asit=one from tteo, and 
huUan ditar=blood from the hone; ugtat dud'^'icuhes from the heart. 

To denote donation, ne or e is added, as ddde ytte=gire to him. 

To make a noun the instrament of a circamstance, ene is added, as zagh- 
mene = vith a sicord, from zagkm = a sicord; latent =mth a ttict, from lat= 
a sticl: 

To make a nonn the canse of a circmnstance, dn is added, as tapdn=from 
a wound, the original case being tap=a Kound. 

To denote inclusion, ti is added to the noon, as sharti=in the city, from 
ihar=a city ; jangati laslime = died in battle, from jang=battU. 

Position is denoted by adding at to the nonn, as da Lasarat duzare= there 
M a thief OH that road, from L-asar = a road, speaking of a road as a whole, 
or by adding at as kasarai ptrd araghase= there is an old vm» ok the road, 
in the limited sense. 

To denote approach or direction, dt is added to the nonn, as T Haidrd- 
badai ia if d»«/ icill go to Hydrabad. 

Superposition is denoted by the addition of d/ as hvii d = on the horse / 
lata likhakh^put on the bed. 

Companionship is denoted by the addition of to, to the inflected case of the 
pronouns ; as neto bafar^I viU not go with thee, from nt=thou. 





A good Man, 




sharang^ 


narina 


sharang4 


narinagh^ 


sharangd 


narinaui 


nharangik 


narinaghala 


sharang^ 


narinaie 


aharangil 


narinaghate 


sharang^ 


narinaghin 


sharang^ 


nari nagh&tiyan. 


Di juwan e 




that ti good 




i)k juwanosite 




that is better 




D^ kulan juwanosite 


that is better than all 


Di edan juwan 


e 


this is belter than 


that 


D4 kul meetty§ 


n doolatmand e 


He is richer than all the Meers. 


I 


/ 


Nan 


«e 


Ean4 


my 


NanIL 


ours 


Kane 


me 


Kane 


us 


Eanyin 


from me. 


Nany^n 


from us 

P 2 



212 



THE BRAHUI. 



Nl thou 

Ka thy 

Ne thee 

Nyan from thee 

Dh, this 

Dan^ of this 

Dade to this 

Dad^n from this 

Od or that 

Ond, 0/ <Aa< 

Ode to that 

Od^n /rom that 

E or ed that 

En^ 0/ t]iat 

Ede <o <Aa^ 

Ed^n from that 

Tenat . 

Tend, 

Tene 

Teny&n 

Tenpaten 

Der 
Dinn^ 
Dere 
Deran 

I' asitut / am alone 
Ni asitus Thou art alone 
Od asite Se is alone 



r aret 


I am 


Ni ares 


Thou art 


Od are 


He is 


I' asut 


I was 


Ni asus 


Thou wast 


Od asak 


He was 



I' masasut I was heing 

Ni masusus Thou wast being 

Od masas He was being 

V masunut I had been 

Ni masunus Thow hadst been 

Od mas He had been 



Num 




ye 


Numifc 




yours 


Nume 




you 


Numyan 


from you 


Dafk 




these 


Dafta 




of these 


Dafte 




to these 


Daftya 


D 


from these 


Ofk 




those 


OfU 




of those 


Ofte 




to those 


Oftyn^ 




from those 


Efk 




those 


EM 




of those 


Efte 




to those 


Eftyan 




from those 


self 






of self 






to self 






from self 




among themselves (slpas = 


who? 






whose ? 






whom ? 






from whom ? 




Nan asitan 


We are one 


Num asiture 


We are one 


Dafk asitur 


They 


are one 


Nan aren 


TFe( 


ire 


Num areri 


You are 


Dafk arer 


Tliey 


are 


Nan asun 


We were 


Num asure 


You 


were 


Dafk asur 


They 


were 


Nan masasnn 


We were being 


Num masasure 


You 


were being 


Dafk masasfi 


Tliey 


were being 


Nan masunun 


We had bee^i 


Num masanure 


You had been 


Dafk masund 


They 


had been 



men) 




THE BRAHUI. 



213 



r marey 


I will now be 


Nan marsn 


We will now be 


Ki mares 


Thou wilt now be 


Num mareri 


Tou will now be 


Od marek 


He imll now be 


Dafk marer 


They will now, be 


I' marot 


I will hereafter be 


Nan maron 


We will hereafter be 


Ki maros 


Thou wilt hereafter be 


Num marode 


Tou will hereafter be 


Od maroi 


He will hereafter be 


Dafk maror 


They will hereafter be 


Ki mares 


Be thou 


Num marere 


Be you 


Od mare 


Let him be 


Dafk maror 


Let them be 




Preceded by agar=if. 




r masut 


If I might be 


Nan masnn 


If we might be 


Xi masns 


If thou migktest be Num masude 


If you might be 


Od masuk 


If he might be 


Dafk masnr 


If they might be 




Infnitire or verbal substantive, harrafing. 


riiarraffiva 


I ask 


Nan harraf on 


We ask 


Ni harraffisa 


Thou askest 


N\im harrafore 


Tou ask 


Odharraffik 


He asked 


Dafk harrafor 


They ask 


r harraffenut / asked 


Nan harraffenun 


We asked 


Ni harraffenus Thou agkedst 


Num harraffenure 


Tou asked 


Od harraffene He asked 


Dafk harraffenur 


They asked 


V harraffeta 


I was asking 


Nan harra£fena 


We were asking 


Ni harraffesa 


Thou wast asking 


Num harraffere 


Tou were asking 


Odharraifek 


He was asking 


Ofk harraffera 


They were asking 


I' harrafesasut 7 had asked 


Nan harrafesasun 


We had asked 


Ni harrafesasus Thou hadst asked 


Num harrafesasure Tou had asked 


Od harrafesas He had asked 


Dafk harrafesasd 


They will ask 


I harrafot 


I will ask 


Nan harrafenun 


We will oat 


Ni harrafos 


Thou wilt ask 


Num harrafenure 


Tou will ask 


Od harrafoji 


He wUl ask 


Dafk harrofenu 


They vnll ask 


Harraf 


Ask thou 


Harrafbo 


Ask you 




Preceded by agar = if. 






r harrafut 


If I might ask 




Ni harrafus 


If thou mightest ask 




Od harrafnk 


If he might ask 




Nan hurrafuna 


We might 


ask 




Num harrafude^ 


You might 


ask 




Difk harrafur 


They might ask 




r harrafiv 


I shall have asked 




Ni harrafos 


Thou shall have asked 




Od harrafoi 


He shall have asked 




Nan harafina 


We shall hare asked 




Num haiTafere 


Tou shall have asked 




D^fk harrafenure 


They shall have asked 



214 


THE 


BRAHUI. 






Ad^ 


;erbs. 




To-day 


amfi 


On this side 


Mudk 


To-morrow 


pagi 


Whence 


arak^ 


Day after to-morrow palme 


A bove 


burzd. 


Darj after that 


kfide 


Below 


shef 


Day after that 


kfidram^ 


Instead 


jagai 


Yesterday 


daro 


Every day 


harde 


Day before yesterday mulkhudti 


As far as 


iskd, 


Day before that 


ktimulkhudu 


Again 


pada 


Day before that 


kudirmulkhud 


u Wherever 


ar^ngl 


Formerly 


ewadai 


Opposite 


moni 


Midday 


manjan 


Enough 


bas 


Afternoon, 


dlgar (tire pare 


\ Instead 


parae 


Midnight 


nem shai 


Successively 


pahnS,d,pahn dati 


Now 


dka^ 


Near me 


knear, as kanek 


After 


gadk 


When 


chi wakt 


Here 


dade 


Yes 


hand on 


There 


ede 


No 


a ha 


Out 


peshan 


For sake 


mat 


In 


faliti 


At first 


awal 


Beyond 


mur 


Quickly 


zu 


As far as 


hanilnk 


In the evening 


begd 


Late 


madana 


Sometimes 


asi asi wakt 


Near 


musti 


Slowly 


mad^ 


On all sides 


ch^r m^n kundi TJiere 


hamengt 


On the left side 


chapa pd,ran 


On the right side 


rasta paran 


Also 


ham 


Even so 


ha mon 


But 


gudd. 


Besides 


baghair 


According to 


mfijibat 


Even so 


handoan 


Merely 


beera 


Without 


baghar 


Where 


ar^de 








Glossary. 




£nglish 


Brahtli. 


English 


Brahiii. 


Head 


katumb 


Face 


mon 


Hair 


pishkou 


Son 


mar 


Beard 


rish 


Daughter 


masid 


Mustache 


barot 


Wife 


arwat 


Lip 


ba 


Brother 


celum 


Eye 


khan 


Father 


bav 


Ear 


hhaff 


Mother 


lumma 


Tongue 


duri 


Sister 


id 


Tooth 


dan dan 


Woman 


zaif 


Nose 


bamlis 


Sun 


dey 


Foot 


nath 


Moon (new) nokh 


Nail 


zil 


Star 


istar .. 


Hand 


du 


Fire 


khakar 


Back 


baj 


Water 


dir 



THE BRAHUI. 



215 



Englis^h 

Tree 

Stone 

I 

We 

Thou 

Ye 

One 

Two 



Brahui. 

darahbt 

khaU 

I 

nan 

ni 

nnm 

asit 

irat 



EngUsh 


BraliuL 


Three 


musit 


Four 


tshar 


Five 


pandzh 


Six 


shasli 


Seven 


haft 


Eight 


hast 


Nine 


nu 


Ten 


dah 



Data, for the Brahtii, as for the Gundi, are pre-; 
eminently deficient. 



21 G LANGUAGES AKIN TO THE HINDI. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Languages akin to the Hindi.— Its Dialects.— The Punjabi. —The Hindostani. 
The Gujerathi.— The Marathi.— The Bengali, &c.— The Uriya. 

Of the foUowing languages all that need be said at pre- 
sent is, that they are akin to the (1 ) Hindi. They are — 

(2) The Gujerati, or Gujerathi, of Gujerat. 

(3) The Mahratta, or Marathi, of Aurungabad, &c. 

(4) Tlie Bengali of the lower Ganges, the valley of 
Asam, and parts of Sylhet and Chittagong. 

(5) The Uriya of Orissa. 

I give these divisions as I find them, adding that, 
though convenient, they are, by no means, unexception- 
able. In the first place, the difierence between a lan- 
guage and a dialect has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained : so that neither term has yet been defined. It | 
will be seen, ere long, that there are several other forms \ 
of Indian speech, of each of which, though we may say 
with truth that it is more Hindi, more Bengali, or more] 
Marathi than aught else, we cannot say that it is ai 
Marathi, a Bengali, or a Hindi dialect. For this reason! 
it is inexpedient to give the numbers of individuals by 
which each tongue is spoken. And it is also incon- 
venient to say whether such and such languages are 
mutually unintelligible. It is only certain, that whatever 
difference may exist between any two is exaggerated 
rather than softened down when they are written. This 
is due in a great degree to the difierence between the 
alphabets. Though they are all of Sanskrit origin they 
differ from each other in detail. 



LANGUAGES AKIN TO THE HIND . 217 

Of the languages under notice, the Cashmiri the 
Gujerati and the Uriya, are spoken not only over the 
smallest areas but by the fewest individuals ; the largest 
areas being those of the Marathi and Hindi ; the largest 
mass of speakers being those of the Bengali language. 
It is the BengaH which has the greatest tendency to ex- 
tend itself beyond the frontiers of India ; the Bengali of 
Asam and Chittagong being the form of speech which is 
more especially encroaching upon the Tibetan and Bur- 
mese areas. 

The languages that lie in the closest geographical con- 
tact with the members of the Tamul group are the Maratbi 
and Uriya. The affinities of the Cashmirian with the 
Dard tongues aie decided. 

I guard against the notion that the difference be- 
tween the six tongues of the foregoing list is greater 
than it really is. A little more Sanskrit or a little 
less ; a little more Persian or a little less ; a Telinga 
or a Canarese element more or less ; an alphabet of 
more or less detail — in these points and the like of 
them consist the chief differences of the languages akin 
to the HindL 

I guard, too, against the notion that the preceding 
list is exhaustive. Before Hindostan has been traversed 
we shall hear of such sectional and intermediate forms as 
the Jutki, the Sindi, the Punjabi, the Haruti, the Mar- 
wari, the Konkani, and others ; of all whereof thus much 
may be said — 

1. That they are allied to each other and to the 
Hindi. 

2. That they are not akin to the Sanskrit in the 
manifest and unequivocal way in which the Sanskrit, 
Pah, and Persepohtan are akin to each other. 

3. That they are not Tamul or Telinga in the way 
that the Canarese, the Khond, &c., are Canarese, Tamul, 
and Telinara. 



218 



THE PUNJABI. 



English. 


Hindi. 


English. 


Hindi. 


Man 


manas 


Water 


pani 


Woman 


nari 


Fiver 


nadi 


Head 


sar 


Stone 


pathar 


Eye 


ankh 


Tree 


rukh, &c 


Ear 


kan 


Wood 


lakri 


Nose 


nak 


One 


ek 


Moidh 


mukh 


Two 


do 


Tooth 


dant 


Three 


tin 


Hand 


hath 


Four 


chhar 


Foot 


pan 


Five 


paneh 


Blood 


lohu 


Six 


chah 


Sky 


nak 


Seven 


sat 


Sun 


suraj 


Eight 


ath 


Moon 


chand 


Nine 


nao 


Star 


tara 


Ten 


das. 


Fire 


ag 







In Kumaon and Gurwhal this dialect takes the name 
of Khas ; and in Nepaul, (where it is also spoken, eo 
nomine) there is another variety of it, the Purbutti. 

These are essentially the same with the following : 
with Gadi (akin to the Handuri) for the parts between 
Gurwhal and Cashmir. 



Englisl). 


Punjabi. 


Gadi. 


Man (homo) 




manas 


•- {vir) 


garwali 


zanana 


Head 




muna 


Hair 


akh 


akr 


Eye 


kan 


kan 


Ear 


nak 


nak 


Nose 




ma 


Mouth 


dand 


dand 


Tongue 


hath 


hath 


Tooth 


pao 


par 


Hand 




ragat 


Foot 




amr 


Sun 


suraj 


dera 


Moon 


chand 


chandar 


Star 


tara 


tara 


Fire 


a« 


a« 


Water 


pane 


pane 






nai 


Stone 


patthav 


nar 


Tree 


rnkh 


rukh 



THE 



English. 

Tree 

One 

Two 

Three 

Pour 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Xine 

Ten 



E PUNJABI. 




FunjabL 


GadL 


kath 


chiri 

ak 

do 




tare 
char 




panj 
chek 




sat 
ath 




nao 
da3. 



219 



The following, from Leach, gives a rough sketch of the 
grammatical character of the Punjabi, eo nomine. 



Ghoda 
Ghoded^ 
Ghodenii 
Ghodeton 


a horse 
of a horse 
a horse 
from a horse 


Ghode 
Ghodyindii 
Ghodyanii 
Ghodyinton 


horses 
of horses 
horses 
from horses 


Ghodi 
Ghodidi 
Ghudinu 
Ghoditon 


a mare 
of a mare 
a mare 
from a mare 


Ghodiyan 
Ghoniyandil 
Ghodiyanii 
Ghodiyanton 


mares 
of mares 
to mares 
frvmmareM 


Hach^ ghod4 
Hache ghodedil 
Hache ghodenii 
Hache ghodeton 


a good horse 
of a good horse 
a good horse 
from a good horse 


Hache ghode 
Hachyiln ghodjindA 
Hachyan ghodyanA 
Hachyiln ghodyanton 


goodhanea 
of good horse* 
good hone* 
fromgoodhor* 


Main or man / 
Med^ or mendsl my 
Men& or mainkii me 


Asi 


tee 
our 

MS 


Medeknlon \ t m^thon 

Medethon > or | maithin from me 

Mede pason ) ( mendekolon 




Asathonsathonl ,^^^ 
Sathi na-'Athin \ "' 




Tiin thou 
Ted A, tenda, tonda thy 
TenA, tunnu thee 
Tethon, tuthon from thee 


Tusi, tnsan you 
Tuh£ld4, tusad4 your 
Tnhannii, tus4nnii you 
Tohithon, tus^thon from you 


E 

IsdJl 
Isnu 
Iskolon, isthon 


(his 
of this 
tias 
from this 


E 

Inhindft 

Inhiknii 

Inh& knion, \vihk 


these 
of theae 
these 
^aoB. from then 



220 



THE PUNJABI. 






that 





those 


Usda 


of that 


Onhanda 


of thos 


Usnil 


that 


Onhanu, onhanii those 






Onakulon \ 




Usthon 


from that 


Onhathon ( 
Onha pason ) 


from thi 




A'pe 


self 






A'pna 


of self 






A'pni 


to self 






A'pthon 


from sei 


V 




Kouna 


who? 






Kisda 


whose ? 






Kisnii or kanii 








Kisthon 


from whom f 




Kya or kl 


what ? 






Kisda or kada 


of what ? 




Kisnii, kanu 


what ? 






Kisthon, kaithon 


from what ? 


Main h^n, an 


I am, 


Asi han, an 


we are 


Tun hen, en 


thou art 


Tusi ho, 


you are 


hen, en 


he is 


hain, ain 


they are 


Main haisan, san / was 


Asi haisan, ahe 


we were 


Tun haisen, saen thou wert 


Tusi haisao, ahe 


you were 


haist si, aha 


he was 


haisin, sin 


they were 


Main hund^ s^n / was being 


Asi hunde san 


we were being 


Tun hunda saen thou wert being 


Tusi hunde sa, o 


you were being 


hunda si 


he was being 


hunde san 


they were being 


Main hoyd, san 


I had been 


Asi hoye san 


we had been 


Tun hoya s^en 


thou hadst been 


Tusi hoye sa,o 


you had been 


hoya si 


he had been 


hoye san 


they had been 


Main howang^ 


I shall be 


Azi howange 


we shall be 


Tun howenga 


thou shall be 


Tusi hovoge 


you shall be 


hevega 


he shall be 


ho ange 


they shall be 


Tun ho, 


be thou 


Tusi hovo, vo 


be you 


Main howan 


I mxiy be 


Asi hoviye 


we may be 


Tiin hoven 


thou mayst be 


Tusi hovo 


you may be 


hove 


he may be 


howan 


they may be 


Main hund^n 


I had been 


Asi hunde 


we had been 


Tun hundon, hun- thou hadst been 


Tusi hunde 


you had been 


dfi 








hunda 


he had been 


hunde 


they had been 




THE PUNJABI. 



221 



Ism i mMifol hoj^ 
Ism i fill honewaI4 



been 

be 

tobe 



^[ain akhna 
Tun akhnain 
OaHdai 

Main akhj4 
Tun ^khyai 
TTsakhji 

Main SJeh^ s&n 
Tun ^2:Ad^ s£len 



I speak 
thou ^pedkeit 
hetpeaJa 

I spoke 
thou spokest 
he spoke 



Asi yrAnvan 
Tas£l £L{rAde,o 
OiU-Meii 

Asan akhya 
Tns^n akhjsl 
In^ ^khya 



/ was speaJang Asi a£-Me s^n 
thou watt speaking Tosi iUrMe s^,o 
he Kos speaking ^-Ade sin 



Main ^hdil si / had spoken As^ ^kliyi si 

Tun ^kha si thou hadM spoken Tosan akhj4 si 

Us ^khya si he had spoken InA akhj& si 



Main akkangil 
Tun akheng^ 
akh^ 



I win, speak 
thou wilt ^peak 
he wUl speak 



Tiln ^-A or akh speak thou 



Main akh ^n 
Tun akhen 
O&khe 



I may speak 
thou mayii speak 
he may speak 



Asi akMnge 
Tusi akhoge 
akhange 

Tusi akho 

Asi akhiye 
TusiiLkho 
jLkhan 



Main^Ad^^khd^ / might speak Asi &JtAde 
T&n iirAdo thou mightest speak Ton iJchA& 

ikhAk he might speak iU:Ade 



we speak 
you speak 
they speak 

we spoke 
you spoke 
they spoke 

tee were speaking 
you were speaking 
they were speaking 

wekad spoken 
yon had spoken 
they had spoken 

wewUl speak 
yon wiU speak 
they wiU speak 

speak you 

wemay speak 
yonwtay ^eak 
they may speak 

we might ^peak 
yon might speak 
they might speak 



Main kehni an / am telling 



Tiln kebni en 
kehni e 



Main ke,ai 
TAnkeai 
IJsne keai 



thou art telling 
she is telling 



I told 
thou toldst 
shetdd 



Asi kelini &n, we are telling 

kehndijan 
Tusi kehndiylno yon are telling 
kehndiyi en, they are telling 

kehndijan 



Asin keai 
Tusan ke,ai 
Un^ keai 



we told 
you told 
they told 



Main kehndi san / was telling Asi kehndiyjkn tee were tdUng 

Tdn kehndi s^n thou wast idling Tusi kehndiy^n yon were idling 
kehndi si she was idling kehndiyin sin Viey were idling 



222 


THE I 


'UNJABl. 




Main keLS. si 


I had told 


As^n kehS, si 


we had told 


Tun ken^ si 


thou hadst told 


Tusan keha si 


you had told 


Us keha si 


she had told 


Una keha si 


they had told 


Main kahangi 


I will tell 


Asi kahanginyan 


we will tell 


Tun kaliengi 


thou wilt tell 


Tusi kahogiyo 


you will tell 


kahegl 


she will tell 


kahanginyan 


they will tell 


Tiin koh 


tell thou 


Tusi koho 


tell you 


Main kah5,n 


I may tell 


Asi kahyye 


we mxiy tell 


Tun kahen 


thou mayst tell 


Tusi kaho 


you may tell 


kahe 


she may tell 


kehan 


they may tell 


Main kehandi 


I might tell 


Asi kehndiy^n 


we might tell 


Tun kehandi 


thou mifjhtest tell 


Tusi kehndiyo 


you might tell 


kehndl 


she might tell 


kehndiyan 


they might tell 



In Tirliufc the language is transitional to the Hindi 
and Bengali. 

Tlie Multani of Multan graduates from the Punjabi to 
the Yutki, or vice versa. 

The Hindi of the Mahratta frontier is called hy the 
Mahrattas, Rangri Basha ; a contemptuous term, such 
as barbarous would be in the mouth of a Greek, meaning 
a language other than Mahratta. Being a negative term 
we can attach no very definite import to it. 

The Marwari is the Hindi of Marwar — the chief 
dialect of Rajputana. The Bikan^r is another Hindi 
dialect ; i. e. it is a dialect of Northern India, which is 
not Gujerathi, not Marathi, not Bengali, and not Uriya ; 
and which is more Hindi, eo nomine, than aught else. 

In Rohilcund the blood is, more or less, Afghan ; so 
that Hindi, in its full purity, is not to be found there. 
This must be sought in Delhi and Oude. 

Bundelcund and Bahar are more Hindi than Bengali ; 
though, to some extent, Bengali also. In Bahar, how- 
ever, we are within the old Kooch area ; and in Bundel- 
cund on the Ghond, and Khond frontier. 

The Hindustani, which means the language of Hin-| 
dostan in general rather than that of any particular. 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



223 



population, and whicli differs from the Hindi, eo nomine, 
much as a King of the French differs from a King of 
France, is a language with a Persian, rather than an 
Indian, name. As such, it is a general, rather than a 
particular, term ; and it was originally applied not by 
the Hindus themselves, but by a population on the 
Hindu frontier. 

The Hindustani is a mixed tongue, scarcely, however, a 
Lingua Franca in the way of the Italian of Algiers and 
Anatolia. It is essentially Hindi, as may be seen from 
both the vocabulary and the paradigms. At the same 
time it contains much Persian, and some Arabic which 
is wanting in the true vernaculars. Above all, it is the 
language of the Mahometan rather than the Brahminic 
population of India ; so much so, that in the Grammar 
of Mr. Hadley, in which we find either the first or an 
early attempt to reduce it to rule, it is called the Moors, 
i. e. the Moorish. It is written in the Arabic alphabet, 
and not in any alphabet derived from the Sanskrit. 

The following details of its Accidence are from the 
Professor M. Williams' Grammar, in which the English 
alphabet, with certain modifications, is both used and 
recommended. The extreme simplicity of the declension 
should be noticed, as well as the postpositive character 
of the affixes by which the several relations which in 
Latin and Greek are rendered by true eases, are ex- 
pressed. In mar died, &c., there is no true case at all, 
but only an approximation to one : in other words, 
there is merely a noun with a preposition — the P/'cposi- 
tion itself being a Pos^-position. 



Nouns. 



Mard 


man 


Mardki 


man's 


ke 

kf 

Mardko 




man-to 


Mardse 


man- from 


Mardmen 


man-in 


Mardne 


man-by 



mard 


men 


mard-on-k^ 


mens' 


ke 




ki 




mard-on-ko 


men-to 


mard-on-se 


men- from 


mard-on-men 


men-on 


mard-on-ne 


men-bi/. 



224 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



The oblique cases (or 
pronouns are formed in 
the adjectives. 


rather their equivalents) of the 
the same way. So are those of 

Verbs. 


Main htin 
Tdhai 
Wuh hai 


T am 
thou art 
he she it is 


1. 

Ham hain 
Tum ho 
We hain 


we are 
ye are 
they are 


Main thS, 
Tfitha 
Wuh thg, 


I was 

thou wast 
he, or it was 


2. 
Masculine. 

Ham the 
Tum the 
We the 


we were 

ye ivere 
they were 


Main thi 
Tfi tbi 
Wuh thi 


I was 
thou toast 
she was 


3. 

Feminine. 

Ham thin 
Tum thin 
We thin 


we were 
ye were 
they were 


Main m&r-fin 
til mar-e 
wuh mare 


4. 

/ may strike Ham m&r-en 
thou mayest strike Tum mar-o 
he may strike We mar-en 

5. 
Masculine. 
I will strike Ham mS,r-en-ge 
thou wilt strike Tum mar-o-ge 
he will strike We mar-en -ge 


we may strike 
ye may strike 
they may strike 


Main mar-fin-gfi, 
Tu mdr-e-g^ 
Wuh mar-e-gS, 


we will strike 
ye loill strike 
they will strike 



Feminine. 

Main mar-un-gl Ham mar-en-gIn 

Tu mar-e-gi Tum mar-o-gin 

Wuh mar-e-gi We m^r-en-gln 

The participial character of these forms is apparent ;] 
the forms in -a and -i being as truly masculine and] 
feminine as amatus and amata, amaturus and amaturaA 
in Latin. Indeed, if a male, instead of ego amaturus sum, 
and a female, instead of ego aniatura sum, said ego ama-l 
turus, or ego amatura, we should have a participle with f 
the omission of the auxiliar taking the garb of a true 
tense. The same is the case with main mdr-td and 
mxtin mdrtt. 

The equivalent to the infinitive ends in -na ; as 
Tndrnd =. to strike zzferire zz rvirreiv. 



J 

i 



THE HLKDUSTANL 



225 



English. 


Hindustan-. 


Eng'isli. 


HindostanL 


Man {homo) 


admi 


Hand 


hath 


(nV) 


mard 


Foot 


panw 


Woman 


raiidl 


Sun 


Euraj 


Head 


sir 


Moon 


chand 


Hair 


\A\ 


Star 


tara 


Eyt 


ankh 


Day 


din 


Ear 


k&n 


Night 


rat 


Nose 


nak 


Fire 


ag 


Mouth 


manh 


Water 


pani 


Tongue 


jibh 


Tree 


per 


Tooth 


dant 


Stone 


patthar. 



The geographical boundaries of the Hindustani are 
indefinite ; inasmuch as it is the language of a creed 
rather than a locality. It has been placed, however, 
next to the Hindi Proper because it is the Hindi Proper 
which has the best claim to be looked upon as its 
groundwork — the Hindi Proper meaning the Hindi of 
Delhi and Oude. 

The affinities of the dialects that now come under 
notice are so thoroughly reticular (by which I mean 
that the connection between them resembles that of the 
meshes of a net rather than the links of a chain) that 
no arrangement of them can be strictly natural. In 
passing, then, from the Hindustani to the Gujer^ti I 
consult convenience rather than aught else. On the 
south the Gujerati is boimded by the Marathi ; and on 
the west by the Marwari dialect of the Hindi. It 
probably comes in contact with certain Bhil forms of 
speech, though the details upon this point are obscure. 
In Cutch it graduates into the Sindhi. 

Sir E. Perry expressly states that the Gujei-ati inter- 
preters of the Supreme Court can understand the natives 
both of Sind and Cutch. At the same time there are 
certain dialects of which they can make little or 
nothing. 



English. 


Gnjertti. 


English. 


Gnjeriti. 


Man {JioMo) 


jana 


Head 


mithum 


(rir) 


manas 


Hair 


nimalo 


Tr<Miiaa 


bayadi 


Eye 


ankh 

Q 



226 



THE HINDUSTANI. 



English. 


Gujerfiii. 


English. 


Gujer&ti. 


Ear 


kaa 


Moon 


chand 


Nose 


nah 


Star 


taro 


Mouth 


mohodum 


Bay 


din 


Tongue 


jubh 


Night 


rat 


Tooth 


dant 


Fire 


a? 


Hand 


Lath 


Water 


pani 


Foot 


pag 


Tree 


jbada 


Stm 


suraj 


Stone 


pattbar. 



In the Collectorate of Surat the passage from Gujer£ti 
to Marathi begins. In Durhampur and Bundsla, petty 
States to the south of the town itself, the Marathi shows 
itself. In Penth, still further to the south, though 
north of Damaun, the language is "Marathi with nu- 
merous Gujerathi words." South of Damaun the 
Marathi, eo nomine, and, in unequivocal forms, extends 
along the coast of Goa ; and, inland, as far as the Ghond, 
Telinga, and Canarese frontiers. 



English. 


Mahratta. 


Man (homo) 


maush 


(vir) 


purush 


Woman 


baiko 


Head 


doksheh 


Hair 


kes 


Eye 


doleh 


Ear 


kan 


Nose 


nakh 


Mouth 


I'hond 


Tongue 


jib 


Tooth 


dant 


Hand 


hat 



English. 

Foot 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Day 

Night 

Fire 

Water 

Tree 

Stone 



Mahratta. 

paie 

suria 

tshundr 

tshandani 

vuas 

vatr 

vistfi 

panni 

dzad 

bruksh 

duggud. 



The limits of the Marathi to the east are obscure. 
In Candeish it comes in contact with certain Bhil 
dialects, with their congeners. Aurungabad, Berar, 
and Poonah are pre-eminently Marathi. Nagpur is 
Marathi where it is not Ghond. About Berar the 
Marathi, the Canarese, the Telinga and Ghond meet. 
In Bejapur and Satpura, Canarese and Marathi villages 
alternate with each other. In the parts about Pandarpur 
lie the limits of the Canarese to the north. 




THE MARATHI. 227 

Koughly speaking, the Konkani, a well-marked dialect 
of the Marathi, stretches in a naiTOW strip, between the 
Ghauts and the sea, from Goa on the north to Mangalore 
on the south. The more minute details, as given, on 
sound authorities, by Sir Ei-skine, bring the Marathi a 
little lower down and caiTj the Tulu a little further 
up. At Carwar, about 5 5 miles south of Goa, Konkani 
is the vernacular ; but all the inhabitants can speak 
Marathi. The limit to the south is a village about 
four mUes from (Jdapi near Ctindapur, where the Tulu 
begins. 

In the Konkani there are differences ; though not 
(perhaps) local ones. It is the mother-tongue of the 
Shenvi Brahmins in Bombay who pronounce certain 
words more fully than others. Thus : — 

The Shenvi udah = water = the common udil: ; 

vrikih=^ tree = xrikh ; 

trin = grass = tan. 

For a, the sign of the masculine gender in Hindi and 
Marathi, the Konkani gives o — as do the Marwari and 
the Gujerati. 

The Konkani contains numerous Tulu and Canarese 
words. 

The Bengali, or the vernacular of Bengal as opposed 
to the Hindustani, is spoken by more individuals than 
any of its congeners — perhaps, by more than all of them 
put together. It is the Bengali, too, which more than 
any other dialect of India has encroached upon the area 
of the monosyllabic languages of the Bodo, Garo, and 
Kasia districts ; upon Asam, Sylhet, and Tipperah. 



English. 


Bengali. 


English. 


Bengali. 


Man 


manushya 




chnl 


Tooth 


danta 


Mouth 


mukh 


Head 


mastak 


Eye 


chhakhynh 


Hair 


kesh 


Ear 


karna 
Q 2 



228 



THE BENGALI. 



English. 


Bengali. 


English. 


Bengali 


Hand 


hat 


Moon 


Chandra 


Foot 


haa 


Star 


tara 


Blood 


rakta 


* Fire 


agni 


Bay 


din 


Water 


pani 


Nifjlit 


ratri 


Stone 


prastan 


Swn 


surjya 


Tree 


gachh. 


English. 


2. 
Asam. English. 


Asam. 


Man 


manuh 


Hay 


din 


Tooth 


dant 


NicjU 


rati 


Head 


mur 


Sun 


beli 


Hair 


suli 


Moon 


jun 


Mouth 


mukh 


Star 


tora 


Eye 


soku 


Fire 


jui 


Ear 


kan 


Water 


pani 


Hand 


hat 


Stone 


hil 


Foot 


hhori 


Tree 


gosh. 


Blood 


tez 







In Ai'akan the three following forms of speech are 
current ; all Indian. The Riiinga is used by the Mahome- 
tans ; the Rossawn by the Hindus. 



English. 


Eiiinga. 


Rossawn. 


Banga S. 


Man 


manush 


munusa 


manu 


Woman 


mialaw 


stri 


zaylan 


Head 


mata 


mustok 


tikgo 


Mouth 


gab 


bodon 


totohan 


Arm 


bahara 


baho 


palpoung 


Hand 


hat 


osto 


hatkan 


Leg 


ban 


podo 


torua 


Foot 


pan 


pata 


zamkan 


Sun 


bel 


suja 


baylli 


Moon 


sawn 


sundra 


satkan 


Star 


tara 


nokyotro 


tara 


Fire 


arari 


aagani 


zi 


Water 


pannse 


dzol 


panni 


Earth 


kul 


murtika 


mati 


Stme 


BhU 


shil 


ha 


Wind 


ban 


pawun 


bo 


Bain 


jorail 


bisti 


buun 


Bird 


paik 


pukyi 


pakya 


Fitk 


maws 


mutsae 


mas 


Good 


gum 


gum 


hoba 


Had 


gumnay 


gumnay 


hobanay 



I 





THE 


URIYA. 




English. 


RdiDga. 


Rossawu. 


Banga S. 


Great 


boddan 


danger 


domorgo 


Little 


thaddi 


tsato 


hurugu 


Long 


botdean 


dingol 


dignl 


Short 


baniek 


bati 


bate. 



229 



The Udiya, or Uriya, of Orissa is bounded on the 
north by the Bengali, on the south by the Telinga, and 
on the west by certain Ghond and Khond dialects. It 
is spoken by few individuals and over a small area. 



English. 


ITriya. 


English. 


Uriya. 


Man {homo) 


minipo 


Moon 


chando 






Star 


tail 


Woman 


maikiniya 


Fire 


niiiS 


Head 


motha 


Water 


pan! 


Pair 


baio 


Stone 


pothoro 


Eye 


akhi 


Tree 


gocbcho 


Nose 


nSko 


One 


eko 


Mouth 


moho 


Two 


dai 


Tooth 


dacto 


Three 


tini 


Tongue 


jibho 


Four 


chari 


Hand 


hato 


Five 


pancbo 


Foot 


goro 


Six 


. cbho 


Rlood 


lokto 


Seven 


shato 


Day 


dino 


Eight 


atho 


Night 


rati 


Nine 


noT 


Sun 


sorjiyo 


Ten 


dosho. 



With the Uriya we take leave of the languages of 
the eastern side of the Peninsula and the languages of 
the Khond and Kol frontiers, and pass to the other side 
of India. 

The Sindhi (of Sind) falls into dialects and sub- 
dialects ; the Kutch being treated as one of them. 
How this stands to the Gujei'athi has already been 
stated. The Siraiki is the dialect of Upper, the Lar of 
Lower, Sind : to which may be added a fourth, spoken 
in the Desert, as far east as Jessulmer. 



English. 


Siraiki. 


Lar. 


if an 


maru 






murs 




Woman 


zal 


mihri 


Head 


matho 


asi 


Hair 


war 


jhonto 



230 





THE SINDHI. 




English. 


Sii-aiki. 


Lar. 


Hair 


choti 




Eye 


ak 




Ear 


kan 




Hand 


hath 


kar 





chambu 




Foot 


per 




Mouth 


wat 




Tooth 


dand 


danda 


Tongue 


jhibh 




Day 


dink 




Night 


rat 




Sun 


sijj 


adit 


Moon 


chandr 




Star 


taro 




Fire 


bar 


jando 






jeru 


Water 


pani 






sandaro 





Tree 


wan-per 




Stone 


rah an 







khod 





On the south, and south-west, the Sindhi is bounded 
by the Biluch and Brahui. 

As the Cashmirian (of Cashmir) belongs geographi- 
cally to India, I place it in the present division : from 
which it leads to the next but one. 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eye 

Ear 

Nose 

Mouth 

Tooth 

Hand 

Foot 

Blood 

Sky 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 



Cashmir. 


English 


manyu 


Water 


zanana 




kalah 


Fiver 


ach 


Stone 


kan 


Tree 


nast 


Wood 


aso 


One 


dand 


Two 


atha 


Three 


kor 


Fowr 


rath 


Five 


nab 


Six 


aftab 


Seven 


tzandar 


Eight 


tarak 


Nine 


nar 


Ten 


agan 





Caslimii. 

ab 

pani 

kol 

kain 

kola 

znn 

ak 

zih 

trah 

tsor 

panz 

shah 

sat 

ath 

noh 

dah. 



THE CASHMIRIAN. 231 

Such is the vernacular CashmiriaHj or the Cashmirian 
of common life : the language of literature and polite 
society being Persian — Persian rather than either Cash- 
mirian Proper, or Hindi. As far, however, as the 
Cashmirian Proper is written at all, it is written by 
means of an alphabet of Sanskrit, rather than Arabic, 
origin. In creed the Cashmirians are more Mahometan 
than Hindu. 



232 



THE SINGALESE. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

The Singalese. — The Rodiya. — The Maldivian. 

The nearest representatives of the aboriginal language of 
Ceylon must be sought for in the dialects of the ana- 
logues of the Khonds, Ghonds, Kols, Tudas, and tlie 
like : and these we expect to find in a rude state in the 
more impracticable parts of the island. We expect, too, 
to find them in a broken and fragmentary condition. 

And such is the case. One population which, on the 
strength of its pagan, or semi-pagan barbarity, has eoni-i 
manded no little attention on the part of investigators, 
bears the name Vaddah, a name which is, more or less, 
general, and which is of Hindu origin. Whether, how- 
ever, it represents the aborigines of the island, is 
uncertain. I know of no monograpli that gives us 
the minute details of the Vaddah creed. I learn, how- 
ever, from Dr. Rost, who has kindly favoured me with 
more than one valuable fact relating to the population 
under notice, that their language varies but little fi'om 
the common Singalese. If so, however much they 
may represent the indigenous blood of Ceylon, they 
are no representatives of the aboriginal language, except 
so far as fragments of it may be preserved in their 
dialect. However, of the Vaddah, eo nomine, I have 
seen no specimens. 

Still, there is a representative of the primitive tongue 
in Ceylon ; and the Rodiyas, a broken and sporadic 
population, amounting to (perhaps) a thousand in all, 
give it. 



THE SINGALESE. 



233 



English. 


Rodiya. 


Enslish. 


Rodiya. 


Man {vir) 


gaw& 


Hand 


dagulu 


Woman 


gawl 


Blood 


tala 


Head 


keradiya 


Sun 


ilay at teriyaiig^ 


Hair 


kalawali 


Moon 


hapa teriyang^ 


Eye 


Uwate 


Star 


h^pangawal 


Ear 


irawuwS 


Fire 


dulumii 


Nose 


galla 


Water 


nilatu 


Mouth 


galagewimu 


Tree 


nhalla 


Tojiffue 


dagula 


Stone 


boralawa. 



The Singalese Proper is not only more Hindi than 
the Tamul, Malayalim, and their congeners, but more 
Hindi than most of the dialects of the preceding group. 
It is the language of a Buddhist as well as that of a 
Brahminic population — the sacred language of the Budd- 
hists being Pali rather than Sanskrit. 



English. 


Singalese. 


English. 


Singalese. 


Man {homo) 


manasb7ay& 


Blood 


rudhiraya 




TTimi n A 


Hay 
Night 


dawasa 
ratriya 


{vir) 


purshayA 





pirimayi 


Sun, 


ira 


Woman 


stri 


Moon 


handa 




gani 


Star 


tarawa 


Head 


oluda ? 




t&mwaka 




isa 


Fire 


ginna 


Hair 


isa kesas 




gindara 


Eye 


asa 


Water 


diya 




akhsiya 




diyara 




net 




watura 


Ear 


kana 


Tree 


gaha 


Nose 


nahe 


Stone 


gala 


Mouth 


kata 


One 


ek 


Tooth 


data 


Two 


de 


Tongue 


duva 


Three 


tan 


Hand 


ata 


Four 


hatara 




hastlaya 


Fire 


pas 


Foot 


patula 


Six 


ha 




pad&ya 


Seven 


hat 


Bone 


ashiya 


Eight 


ata 




atiya 


Nine 


nama 


Blood 


le 


Ten 


daba. 



The lancruacre of the Maldives and Laccadives is Sin- 
galese ; the alphabet Arabic. 



234 



THE MALDIVE. 



English. 


Maldive. 


Man (homo) 


mihung 


(mV) 


firihenung 


Woman 


ang-henung 


Head 


bo— ^oZ 


Hair 


istari 


Hand 


aitila 


Foot 


fiyolu 


Tongue 


du 


Tooth 


dai 


Nose 


nefai 



English. 

Mouth 

Eye 

Day 

Night 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Tree 



Maldive. 

aga 

lo 

duas 

re 

iru 

hadu 

tari 

alifang 

feug 



The following is a specimen of the language ; it is a 
copy of a letter written by the Maldive Malim of a 
boat at Columbo to his countrymen at Galle : — 

At Galle stopping of the Maldives all to the people, Arab boat the Malim. 
The chief's salam ; now at this port are boats Arab boat Finladu boat offering 
boat Fadiyaru's boat Ahainma didi's boat mandu house boat bitter-tree- 
corner-house boat ; now all people health in remain ; at your port you have 
news you must send ; at this port there is news I hereby send ; from Europe 
a new governor is come ; England's king is dead ; lacs many strings salams ; 
this port's fish we have sold Himiti fish seven tens seven dollars, Male atoZu 
fish five twelves seven, Fading fulu weighed fish forty seven ; thus having 
sold it stopping for the price ; lacs many strings salams ; this is written here 
Thursday on the day. If God permits in fourteen days sailed I shall be ; 
desire is to me. 

Galigaitibi Diwebing-ge em^me kalungna/7, Arabu od\ Malimi. Kal^gefanu 
salamen ; mifahara^jr mirarhugai hurhi odi faharhi Arabu-orfi Finladu od\ 
wedung orfi Farfiy&ru odi Aham,mS, dldl odi, mandu ge orfi hiti gas darhu ge 
od\ ; mifahai-a^r em,me kalung gada weeba tibuwewe ; tiya rarhugai hurhi 
kabareng fonuwS,ti ; mirarhugai hurhi kabaru mi fonuwie ; welatung au borfa 
sahibeng atuewe ; Wilatu rasge maruwej/jewe ; lanka gina farhu^ saldmen ; 
mirarhu mas vik,ki Himiti mas hang diha hai riy^laya^, M41e ato/u mas fas 
dofos hataka^f. Fading fu^u kirfi, mas sa^is hataka*/ ; mihidang vik,kaigeng 
tibi agimiwewe ; lanka gina farhung salamen ; miliyunl mitangwl bur^sfati 
duwahung. Mai kalageru^rsewiyai sauda duwahu aZugadw fur§,nemewe ; hitai 
hurbi mewe. 

In ordinary English, thus : — 

" The Malim of the Arab boat to all the people of the Maldives stopping 
at Galle. 
The chief's greeting : the boats now at this port are the Arab boat of 
Finladu, the offering boats * of Fadiyaru and Ahammadidi, and the boats of 



• These are the vessels which bring the annual presents to the Government 
of Ceylon. 



THE MALDIVK 235 

Manduge and Hiti-gas-darhn-ge ; all the people are in good health ; send 
what news yon have at your port ; I hereby send what news there is at this 
port. A new governor is come from Europe ; the king of Elngland is dead. 
Very many greetings. We have sold at this port Himiti fish for seventy -seven 
dollars, Maleatolu fish for sixty-seven, and Fadingfulu fish weighed (?) for 
forty-seven ; having sold the fish we are waiting for the price. Very many 
greetings. This is written on Thursday. If God permits, I shall sail in 
fourteen days ; such is my wish." 



23 G THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

The Paropamisan Group.— The Dard Branch.— The Shina. — The Deer and 
Tirhai. — The Arniya or Kashkari. — The Cohistani or Lughmani and 
Pashai. — The Siaposh. 

I NOW come to a class for wliich I propose the name 
Paropamisan ; its chief area being the parts between 
the southern slope of the Hindukush, and either the 
main stream of the Indus itself, or that of its feeder, the 
Caubul river. To these drainages, however, it is by no 
means limited. Some of its members are on the water 
systems of the Oxus, some on that of the Yarkend river, 
some (perhaps) on that of the Amur. They are all 
mountaineers, most of them being independent, and 
some being either act.ual Kafirs {i. e. infidels) or im- 
perfect converts to Mahometanism. Our knowledge of 
them is eminently imperfect. 

The language of a Paropamisan is Indian rather 
than Persian. If so, the class under notice is tran- 
sitionah I repeat, however, the statement, that it is 
one concerning which our details are of the scantiest. 

If the district over which the languages of this class 
are spoken be (as I hold that it is) the country from 
which the Hindi elements of the Hindi Proper and its 
congeners was introduced, scanty as the details are, they 
are important. They are important even if this be not 
the case : inasmuch as they belong to Persia rather than 
Hindostan in the ordinary geographical and poHtical 
sense of the word : and show how little the philological 
frontiers and the physical frontiers coincide. TJiis, how- 
ever, is no more than what we found to be the case with 
the Brahtii. 



1 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



237 



Again — Cashmir is quite as mucli Paropamisan as it 
is Indian in the strict sense of the term. 

The dialect spoken dae north of Cashmir, and in 
contact with the Bhot of Ladak and Little Tibet is the 
Shina, known through a Vocabulary of Captain Cun- 
ningham's ; closely akin to which are the Deer and 
Tirhai Vocabularies of Leech. These latter are spoken 
in, or about, the Valley of Swaut, and may (perhaps) 
be called the representatives of the Swauti form of 
speech. 



English. 


Shina- 




English. 


Shini. 


3Ian 


masha 




Fire 


pha 


Waman 


grin 




Water 


wahi 


Head 


sbis 




River 


sin 


Eye 


achhi 




Stone 


bat 


Ear 


kund 




Tree 


turn 


Nose 


noto 




Wood 


katho 


Mouth 


anzi 




One 


ek 


Tooth 


duni 




Two 


do 


Hand 


hath 




Three 


che 


Fool 


pa 




FofUT 


chhar 


Blood 


lohel 




Five 


push 


Shy 


agahi 




Six 


shah 


Sun 


snri 




Seven 


sat 


Moon 


yan 




Eight 


ast 


Star 


taro 




Nine 


no 


Fire 


agar 


2 
Deer. 


Ten 


dahi. 


English. 






Tiil»L 


Man 




mish 






Woman 




is 






Head 




shish 






Foot 




khor 






Eye 




achhi 




achha 


Nose 




nistru 




nasth 


Tongue 




jib 




zhibha 


Tooth 




dand 




danda 


Hand 




thoho 




hast 


Lip 




dadh 






Ear 




kan 




kan 


Bay 




dus 




das 


Water 




wahe 




va 


Milk 




shid 




dndh 


One 




yak 




ik 



238 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



Knglish. 


Deer. 


Tirhai 


Two 


do 


du 


Three 


Bhta 


tra 


Four 


chor 


tsor 


Five 


panch 


pants 


Six 


sho 


kao 


Seven 


shat 


sat 


Eight 


pasht 


akt 


Nine 


noh 


nao 


Ten 


das 


das. 



I would call the sub-section to which these belong 
the Darcl group. Captain Cunningham would include 
under this the Arniya of Chitral and Gilghit : which is 
nearly the Kashkari of Leech. I give, however, less 
generality to the word, and would simply call the group 
Kashkari. 



English. 


Amiya. 


Kashkari 


Man 


rag 


moashi 


Woman 


kamri 


kumedi 


Head 


sur 


sur 


Eye 
Ear 


ghach 
kad 


ghach ? 
kad 


Nose 


naskar 


naskar 


Mouth 


diran 




Tooth 


dond 


dond 


Hand 


hast 




Foot 
Blood 


pang 
le 


pong 


Sky 
Sun 


asman 




Moon 






Star 


satar 




Fire 

Water 

Fiver 


ingar 
augr 
> sin 


ingar 
ugh 


Stone 






Tree 


kan 




Wood 


jin 


- 


One 


i 


i 


Two 
Three 


triu 


trul 


Four 


chod 


chod 


Five 


punj 


punj 



THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 



239 



English. 


Amiya. 


Kashkari. 


Six 


chai 


chid 


Seven 


sat 


sat 


Bight 


ansh 


ansh 


Nine 


neahan 


nehan 


Ten 


ash 


jash. 



The south-western sub-section (which we may call 
the Coldstani) is represented by the Lughman and 
Pashai of the Cohistan of Caubul. 



Englisli. 


Logfaman 


Pkshai. 


Man 


adam 


panjai 


Woman 


masi 


zaif 


Head 


shir 


sir 


Nose 


matht 


nast 


Tongue 


jab 


jib 


Eye 


aneh 


anch 


Ear 


kad 


kad 


Hand 


atth 


ast 


Tooth 


dan 


dan 


Foot 




pae 


Sun 


thor 




Moon 


mae 


mae 


Day 


lae 


dawas 


Night 


TeU 


vyal 


Fire 


angar 


angar 


Water 


waig 


walk 


Tree 


kati 


kadi 


Stone 


wad 


wad 


Fith 


mach 


macch 


One 


I 


f 


Two 


do 


do 


Three 


te 


te 


Four 


char 


char 


Fire 


panj 


panj 


Six 


khe 


she 


Seren 


that 


sat 


Eight 


akht 


ash 


Nine 


BO 


no 


Ten 


de 


de. 



The populations hitherto mentioned are, one and all, 
Mahometan : though in different degrees. The nearer 
they are to Persia the more decided the creed. Some, 
however, are such imperfect converts that they are 



240 THE PAROPAMISAN LANGUAGES. 

denominated by tlieir purer neighbours Half Maho- 
metans. 

But the tribes which now come under notice are not 
even Half Mahometans. They are, in the eyes of the 
true believers, actual infidels ; so that Kafir is what they 
are called, and Kaferistan is their country. 

That the difference of creed exactly coincides with a 
difference of dialect is unlikely. Hence, the Kafirs 
Proper may graduate into the Cohistanis on one side 
and into the Kashkaris on the other. The particular 
division for which we have a specimen of the dialect 
calls itself Siaposh; its occupancy being the right bank 
of the Kuner and the watershed which divides it from 
the eastern feeders of the Oxus. According to Dr. 
Gardiner* the typical Kafirs, eo nomine, as opposed to 
the Half Mussulmen, are — 

The Kafirs of Esh, calculated at 15,000 
TJshah „ 12,000 



27,000 



Now, whether Kafir, or half Kafir, this, at least, is 
certain of the western tribes ; viz. that the fragments 
of their creed are Hindu. 

It is also certain that several legends point to India ; 
though not exclusively. They point to India on one 
side, and to Persia on another. 

That they are Franks is believed in some quar- 
ters. There is, however, a Cohistani population which 
calls itself Purauncheh. It is just on the cards 
that this may have given rise to the word Feringizz 
Frank. Upon their setting on stools and chairs in pre- 
ference to lying-down like the mass of orientals I lay 
but little stress. As little do I lay on the fact of their 
being notorious wine-bibbers. The grape grows in their 

• Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. xxii. 




LEGENDS. 241 

country, and they know how to convert it into wine. 
Under these conditions they may easily indulge in drink, 
without being, of necessity, Europeans in blood. 

There is a tradition that they are descended from 
Alexander the Great. 

A small pool, near a place called Door, to the east or 
north-east of Bamian, where there is an intrusive popu- 
lation of Kalzubi Turks, but where the aborigines are 
Therba and Shu Paropamisans, gives us the following 
legend. 

It is believed to be bottomless. The water is bitter and bituminous, 
bubbling up with sulphuretted hydrogen, and surrounded by incrustations of 
sulphur. Lambent flames are said to occasionally play over its surface. Near 
it is a dark cave, and in this cave are the remains of idols — more than one. 
The chief of these represent Moh and his wife, Mab(in, deities whom even 
the Mahometans of the district reverence. No one enters the cave with his 
shoes on. 

Two other caves are dedicated to Sheh, the Destroyer, and Zhei, the God of 
Fire. At each new moon the Therba (who reckon by months rather thaa 
years) make a fire-offering to Zhei. 

Two other caves are dedicated to Hersh and Maul. Small beads of gold 
and stone, found in these parts by natives who dig for them, are called Solo- 
mon's grains. 

Moh created the earth, and his wife Mab(in created the wilderness. From 
them sprang the first giant race. They slept alternately for 999 moons 
and reigned 450,000 moons. After this period, three sons rebelled, viz. 
Sheh, the life-destroyer, Zhei, the fire-god, and Maul, the earth-qnaker ; and, 
by their combined efioits, Moh was buried beneath the mountains. Confusion 
lasted 5000 moons, after which the three victors retired each to his own 
region for 10,000 moons, ilaul was lost in darkness of his own creating, 
Sheh fled with his family towards the sun, which so much enraged Zhei, that 
he caused fire to spread over the earth ; this was quenched by the spirit of 
Mabun, but not till the whole giant race was destroyed, and the earth re- 
mained a desert for 3000 moons. Then Hersh and Lethram, originally slaves 
of Moh, and great magicians, emerged from the north, and settled in these 
mountains. By some Lethram is considered as the incarnate spirit of Mabfin 
and the Queen to whom Hersh was vizier. Hersh had three sons, Uz, Muz, 
and Alk. These he left in charge of all their families, while with a lai^ 
»nny he travelled toward the sun in pursuit of Sheh, who was supposed to 
be still living. So the three sons of Hersh and their descendants reigned 
happily for 18,000 moons, till Khoor (Cyrus?) invaded and conquered the 
country, but, after many years' struggle, they expelled the invader, and re- 
tuned the name Koorskush (Cyrus killed), now Khirghiz. The descendants of 
Hersh continued to reign for 10,000 moona more, till Ehoondroo (Alexandtr ?) 

B 



242 LEGENDS. 

invaded the country ; after which no separate legend of them seems to be 
recollected. 

In the same district stands the fort of Khornushi, to which you ascend by a 
series of steep steps on hands and feet. Then comes a narrow ledge of rock, 
from which a ladder of skin ropes, or a basket and windlass, takes the ex- 
plorer upwards. At the top, a bason of bubbling brilliant water, hot in the 
winter and cold during the summer, always full, and never over-flowing, 
gives rise to the following legend — an echo of remarkable clearness, adding to 
the mysterious character of the spot. 

When Noah was at Mecca, Khor, the chief of the district, went to pay 
homage to him ; thereat Noah was well pleased, and promised to grant him 
any favour for which he should ask. So Khor asked for water, but the 
voice in which he spoke was rough and loud, and his manner coarse. At this 
the patriarch was offended. So that instead of blessing the land of Khor he 
cursed it, and condemned it to become solid rock, nevertheless he kept his 
promise in the matter of the water, and sent his grandson Shur to carry it into 
effect. The grandson cried Nu Shu. Echo answered Nu Shu. The sound 
Nu Shu reached Mecca. And now Nu Shu is the sound which the water 
murmurs, and which Echo still conveys to Mecca; the place retaining the name 
of the three parties concerned — Khor, the prince who spoke so rudely ; Noah, 
the patriarch who disliked Khor's manners ; and Shu, the grandson who did 
the work in opening the basin and calling out the words which Echo delighted 
in repeating. 

As far as this belief in Alexander goes, the Pare 
pamisans are simply in the position of the most westei 
of the Bhots ; inasmuch as the same belief prevails in-j 
Bultistan or Little Tibet. Indeed, I believe that, at on€ 
time, the Paropamisan area exteoded further to the east.| 
In the collection of ethnographical casts brought home h^ 
the brothers Schlagintweit, it was remarked by the col- 
lectors, and assented to by the present writer, that the™ 
faces from the extreme east, though the faces of Bhots, ^ 
were, to a great extent, Persian in form and feature. If 
so, there are good grounds for holding that the blood and 
the language do not, very closely, coincide ; and that 
there is Paropamisan blood in the veins of men and 
women whose language is Bhot, and whose creed (in 
some cases) is Buddhist. And this is borne out by Br. 
Gardner's tables — approximations as they are — wherein 
we find the following statistical catalogue, which is, evi- 
dently, to a very considerable extent, either inferential or 
conjectural. 



PAROPAMISANS, 



243 



Bu, or Bull, calculated at 
Kahuz, or Huhi „ 

Phah, or Phagi „ 

Aspah „ 

Kulis „ 

Muklu „ 

Maha „ 
Ka-lesh ^ 

Ma-lesh and > „ 
Lesh ) 



(2.) 
Chinese Subjects. 
Beh, or Bethel „ 

Plahi, or Piaaghii „ 
Bhoti (?) 



12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 

12,000 

84,000 



12,000 
12,000 
12,000 

36,000 



In respect to the wine it should be noticed that one 
of the poetical, or rhetorical, names of the Paropamisus 
points towards the fact of the grape growing there. It 
is called in Persia and Cashmir the "Wine-cellar of 
Afrasiab. 

It should also be added that on the western frontier 
"we have the venue of several of Rustam's exploits ; 
Rustam being the great hero of Persia. 

The Dangri (i. e. Dunger) of Vigne, is Paropamisan. 

There are numerous architectural and sculptured re- 
mains in the Paropamisan countrj'. 

English. Siah Pflsh.* Sanskrit.* 

Star tarah tara 

Sun sol stixya 



Moon 
Fire 



m&s 



agnis 



• From Prichard. 



R 2 



244 





PAROPAMISANS. 




English. 


Sialx P6ah. 


Sanskrit. 


Rain 


wash 


varsha 


Snow 


zuin 


himd 


Spi-ing 


vastink 


vassanta 


Hot 


tapi 


tap 


Man 


naursta 


nara 


Woman 


mashi 


mamischi 


Ear 


kar 


karna 


Eye 


achdn 


akschan 


Nose 


nisd 


nasa 


Teeth 


dint 


dante 


Finger 


agun 


anguli 


One 


ek 


eka 


Two 


du 


dui 


Three 


tre 


tri 


Fow 


chata 


cliatur 


Five 


pich 


pancha 


Eight 


asht 


ashtan 


Nine 


nu 


navan 


Ten 


dosh 


dasan. . 



The Puraunchehs are mentioned by Elphinstone, who 
only knows them as a class of carriers, called Hindki 
or Indians. He adds, however, that Baber gave them a 
separate language. I have been told that this is still 
spoken by a few families. 



I 




MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



245 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



The Languages of certain migratory Fopniations of India. 



There are numerous forms of speech in India, which, 
like the Hindustani, belong to certain classes of indi- 
viduals rather than to certain districts. They partake, 
more or less, of the nature of Cant or Slang. Of many 
of them a good account is given by Mr. Balfour. 
The following are the Thug numerals. 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 

Eleven 

Tvcelve 



Thug. 

ndanka 

sheloke 

ndana 

poku 

mola 

shely 

pavitm 

mungi 

tiosa 

arataru 

ekpuru 

habru 



Bagwan. 

ongad 

duke 

mk 

pboke 

bnt 

dag 

puyater 

mung 

kone 

sola 

ekia 

jewla. 



The Taremuki are wanderinsr tinkers. 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eye 

Nose 

Ear 



Taremuki. 

lokro 

chali 

mathoe 

dolo 

nak 

kan 



English. 

Hand 

Foot 

Water 

Stone 

Earth 

Tree 



TaremukL 
hath 

Png 

pani 

duggra 

mattri 

jhar. 



The Bhatui are jugglers, posture-makers, and exhibit- 



ors of feats of strencrth. 



246 



MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



English. 


Bhatui. 


Man 


mdns 


Woman 


jo 


Hmd 


mtindhi 


Eye 


akhoe 


Nose 


luk 


Ea/t 


kiinnu 


Hand 


hut 


le Korawi 


are mi 


English. 


Korawi. 


Man 


amlun 


Woman 


punjeri 


Fire 


nerpu 



English. 


Bhatdi. 


Foot 


pae 


Fire 


ugg 


Water 


paui 


Stone 


pathar 


Earth 


bhui 


Tree 


jhar. 



English. 


Korawi. 


Stone 


kellay 


Earth 


tirri 


Tree 


muru. 



The Ramusis are men of predatory habits in the 
Mahratta country, but Canarese or Telinga in origin. 

^English. Ranmsi. English. Ramusi. 



Eye 
Tooth 
Sun 
Moon 



kunnul 
punnul 
goanda 
phakut 



Fire 

Water 

Stone 



dhupa 

nidul 

ratul. 



So are the Mangs who also belong to the Mahratta coun- 
try. 

English. 



Eye 
Tooth 
Sun 
Moon 



Mang. 

kewrja 

chawur 



English. 
Fire 
Water 
Stone 



Maog. 
dhupa 
nir 
upalla. 



There are seven castes oiNuts* or Bazighurs, imperfect j 
Mahometans, who dance and juggle in Bengal. 



English. 


Hindostanee. 


Nut. 


Nut. 


Fire 


•ig 


ga 


kag 


Bamboo 


bans 


suban 


nans 


Oven 


chilum 


limchi 


nilum 


Breath 


dum 


mudu 


num 


Remembrance 


lad 


dai 


klml 


Beggar 


fuqir 


rlqlfu 


nuqir 


House 


ghur 


nighu 


rhur 


India 


Hindustan 


Dusftanuk 


Kindustan 


Here 


idhur 


dhuri 


bidhur 



Captain Richardson, in Asiatic Transactions, vol. viii. 




MIGRATORY TRIBES. 



247 



English. 


Hindoetanee. 


Nut. 


Not 


When 


jub 


buju 


nab 


Who 


kon 


onk 


ron 


Long 


himba 


balum 


kamba 


Mouth 


mas 


sama 


nas 


Sect of people 


nut 


tmnu 


kut 


Age 


omr 


mam 


komr 


Saint 


pir 


ripu 


cbir 


Fort 


qilla 


laqeh 


mlla 


Oppotite 


ruburu 


bururu 


kuburu 


Gold 


sona 


naso 


nona 


A search 


trdash 


lashtu 


nxila-sh 


Disagreement 


nmbunao 


nanbeh 


kunbanao 


Heir 


waris 


ruswa 


qnaris. 



The Katodi are catechu gatherers in the Mahratta 
country. 



EngUsk 


Katodi. 




English. 


KatodL 


Call 


akb 




Hawi 


mortal 


Boiled rice 


annj 




Tale 


11 


Hedgehog 


ahida 




Give 


wope 


Kite 


alav 




Turban 


8al& 


Crab 


kirlu 




Dog 


b6iis 


Fowl 


kukdai 




Boy 


son 


Iguana 


gohar 




Girl 


Bori 


Arrow 


chamboti 


Crow 


hadia 


Munjm 


nagolia 




Man 


hodos 


Crane 


bugad 




Woman 


hodi«. 


To these add the Bowrl s 


md GohuH. 




English. 




Bowri 




G«harL 


Man 




mank. 


loe 


.gohur 


Woman 




manoi 


sd 


gohami 


Head 




goddo 




maihoe 


Eye 




dolo 




ankhi 


Nose 




nak 




nak 


Ear 




kan 




kan 


Hand 




hatha 




hath 


Foot 








pae 


Water 




pani 




pani 


Stone 




bhatt 


a. 


bhatta 


Earth 




bhoe 




jami 


Tree 




jhar 




jharr. 



Of the characteristic elements in these forms of speech 
some are purely artificial like those in the Nut Vocabu- 
lary) ; others of Tamul origin — Tamul meaning, not 
only the Tamul proper, but its congeners. 



248 



THE GIPSY. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

The Gipsy. 

Wherever we find a Gipsy who retains any portion of 
his original language, no matter where we find him, that 
primitive element, be it much or little, is Indian. It 
is also Indian of the Hindi, rather than Indian of the 
Tamul type. The first of the following short vocabula- 
ries of the Gipsy language of different countries, is from 
Persia, the next from ^gypt, the last from Norway. 

The Gipsies of Persia are known under the names of 
Ghurbat (or Khurbat), Goabaz (probably the same word), 
Duman, and Kaoli. 





(1.) 




English. 


Khurbat. 


Uumau. 


Head 


sir 


murras 


Hair 


val 


khaUuf 


Ear 


kan 


priuk 


Eye 


akki 


jow 


Tooth 


daudeir 


ghi61u 


Hand 


kustum 


dast 


Sun 


gaham 


gahaui 


Moon 


heiuf 


heiuf 


Star 


astara 


astai-a 


Fire 


ag 


ar 


Water 


pani 


how 


I 


man 


man 


Thou 


to 


to 


Be 


hoi 


hui 


One 


ek 


ek 


Two 


di 


di 


Three 


turrun 


sih 


Four 


tshar 


tshar 


Five 


penj 


penj 


Six 


Bhesh 


shesh 


Seven 


heft 


heft 


Eight 


hest 


hest 


Nine 


na 


na 


Ten 


das 


deh. 



THE GIPSY. 



249 



In Egypt they are known as Ghagar, Helebi, and 
Ndwer ; the first being the least Arabic of the three. 



(•^•) 



English. 


Ghagar. 




HelebL 


Nawer. 


Head 


sir 
shirit 




ras 






kamokhli 








Hair 


bal 




shara 




Eye 


hanka 




hazara 




Ear 


kirkSwiyeh 


wudu 




Teeth 


dandi 




sinnan 






sinnam 




suvan 




Sun 


kam 




shemR 


shems 




karzi 











karieh 








Moon 


kano 




kamr 


mahtaweh 




kariz 








Star 


astra 




nejm 




Fire 


ag 




megtundara 


ag 


Stone 


path 




hajjar 




Tree 


kerian 


(3.) 


misbgareh 


kannin. 


English. 


Gipsy of Norway. 


Tater.« 


One 




gikk 




jek 


Two 




dy 




doi 


Three 




trin 




trin 


Four 




schtar 




schtaar 


Fire 




pansch 




pantsch 


Six 




sink 




schoov 


Seven 




schuh 




efta 


Eight 




okto 




ochto 


Nine 




engya 




enja 


Ten 




ty 




desh. 



To which add astro zz star, bal :=. hair; si = heart; 
sap zz snake ; Romnuino = Gripsy.f 

With these specimens for the two extremes we may 
easily beHeve that the Gipsy of the interjacent countries 
is truly Indian in its basis. 

• A variety of the ordinary Gripsy, which, in Norway, is called Fante. 
f Sundt. Beretning om Fante elhr Langstrygerfolket. 



250 



THE KAJUNAH. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

The Kajunah. 

In Cunningham's Ladak is a specimen of the language 
of Hunz-Nagar, to the north and north-east of the 
Chitrali : and in contact with it ; with the Bhot ; with 
the Turk of Chinese Turkestan ; and, probably, with 
some Mongol form of speech. I cannot, like its collec- 
tor, connect it, off-hand, with the Shina and Amiya. 
The folio wins: table shows too much difference for this. 



English. 


Shina. 


Arniya. 


Kajunah. 


Man 


musliar 


rag 


hir, er 


Woman 


grin 


kanm 


gus 


Head 


shis 


sur 


yetis 


Eye 


achhi 


ghach 


ilchin 


Ear 


kund 


kad 


iltumal 


Nose 


noto 


naskar 


gomoposh 


Mouth 


anzi 


diran 


gokhat 


Tooth 


duni 


dond 


gume 


Hand 


hath 


hast 


gurengga 


Foot 


pa 


pang 


goting 


Blood 


lohel 


le 


multan 


Sky 


agahi 


asman 


ayesh 


Sun 


sun 




sa 


Moon 


yun 




halans 


Star 


taro 


satar 


asi 


Fire 


agar 


ingar 






phu 




phu 


Water 


wahi 


augr 


chil 


River 


sin 


sin 


sindha 


Stone 


bat 




dhan. 



Besides which, the numerals are not only different' 
from the Dard dialects, but from those of all other lan- 
guages known to me. 



THE KAJUNAH. 



251 



Om 




hin 


Seven, 




talo 


Turo 




ahas 


Eight 




altambo 


Three 




hasko 


Nine 




hnncho 


Four 




walto 


Ten 




tormo 


Five 




snndo 


Twenty 




altar 


Six 




mishando 








Jaba= 


/ aj». 




Horta bai= 


if€ are. 


Umba 


=tkou art 




Ma bau^yc 


are. 




Aiba = 


'he U. 




fXp^\ft baTi= 


ztliry 


are. 



Meanwhile, the following forms are from the Shina ; 
the fii-st being (apparently) Kajunah ; the second Indian ; 
the third Bi-ahui. 

1. 

Be=6c thou, being. 
Bilo=to be. 
Boje— being. 

2. 



Mo hos = /a»n. 
Tu hcLO=thou art. 
A'h liao= he it. 

Mo asulus = / tea*. 
Tn asaln=(^u vxut. 
Ah nsnln^^ vxu. 



3. 



Be hi3=tre are 
Tso hath=yc are. 
A'h Mi=they are. 

Be asilis=ire vere. 
Tso asilit=ye were. 
Ze A^h=ihei/ were. 



The Kajunah is just more Paropamisan than aught 
else. Still, i^rovisioiially (and only provisionally), I 
separate it. 



252 



THE AFGHAN. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 



The Pushtu, Patan, or Afghan. 



Afghan and Afghanistan are Persian names. The 
native name is Pukhtu in one, Pushtu in another dialect. 



English. 


Western Pushtu. 


Eastern Puklitu 


God 


khoda 




Heaven 


asman 




Father 


plar 




Mother 


mor 




Son 


zoe 




Daughter 


165r 




Brother 


wror 




Sister 


khor 




Husband 


mem 




Wife 


ourut 


khiza 


Girl 


peghlu 





Boy 


zunki 


huluk 


Man 


ineru 




Head 


sur 




Nose 


puzu 


pozu 


Nostril 


spuzhmgn 


spegme 


Hair 


veshtu 




Eyebrow 


w66 r(idz66e 


wrtize 


Eyelashes 


bana 




Eye 


sturgi 







lemu 




Forehead 


wuchwely 


wuchwoly 


Beard 


zhiru 


giru 


Neck 


tsut 


tsut 




mughzy 




Arm 


las 




Hand 


mungol 




Nail 


nook 




Bdly 


nos 


gera 


Back 


Bha 





THE AFGHAN. 



253 



En^ialL 


Western Pnshtn. 


East4sni Pokbtn. 


Pleth 


ghwushu 


ghwnkhe 


Bone 


hudHky 




Blood 


vtni 




Heart 


zira 




Ear 


gwuzh 


ghwng 


Mouth 


khooln 




Tongue 


zaba 


zhebn 


Tooth 


gash 


ghakh 


Foot 


psha 


khpu 


Day 


Twadz 




Night 


shpu 




Sun 


nmur 


nwnr 


Moon 


spozhmy 


Efpc^mi 


Star 


stori 




Fire 


or 




Water 


obu 




River 


rod 


seen 


Sea 


deria 




Tree 


wunu 




Stone 


kane 




I 


zu 




We 


TniizTi 


mimgii 


Thou 


tu 




Te 


tase 




One 


yo 




Two 


dwa 




Three 


dre 




Four 


tsulor 




Five 


pinza 




Six 


Bpuzh 




Seven 


own 




Eight 


nti 




Nine 


nu 




Ten 


Ins 





In India the word Pukhtu becomes Patan. 



2o4 THE PERSIAN. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

The Persian.— The Huzvaresh.— TheParsi. — The Modem Persian.— The 
Biluch.— The Kurd.- The Buruki. 

I BEGIN the notice of the languages of Persia and its 
congeners with the following extract from Prichard. 

The first appearance of the ancient Medes and Persians, during the sixth 
century before our era on the theatre of human affairs, was almost as sudden 
as that of the Huns, or Turks, or Mongoles, in a later age. Shortly before 
the period when they gained the masteiy of the world, their name seems to 
have been unknown to Europe and to Western Asia. The Greeks of the 
Homeric age, and while the kingdom of Lydia was growing up in Asia Minor, 
appear never to have heard of the Persians ; nor have we any proof that their 
existence was known except by the predictions of the Prophets to the ancient 
Hebrews. Even in the historical records referring to preceding times, which 
the Greeks afterwards found in the east, there is no trace of an ancient 
empire, or even of an independent nation, in the countries between the 
Tigris and the Indus, dating its existence many generations before Cyrus. 
The Assyrian kingdom of Ninus and Semiramis and their successors is said to 
have reached to the borders of India. Whence, then, came that great and 
powerful race, who suddenly overturned all the dynasties of Asia, subdued 
the civilized parts of Africa and of Europe ? Were they one, j)erhaps the 
first, of those great swarms, who, from the remote regions of High Asia, have 
poured themselves down in different ages to overrun the Eastern world ? or 
had they been, as it is generally supposed, the primeval inhabitants of some 
region in the vast extent of Iran, who, like the Arabs in later times, after 
remaining for ages in quiet obscurity, suddenly emerged, as if moved by some 
inward impulse, and like that people became almost universal conquerors ? 

Samples of the language of the Sassanian period have 
come down to us as inscriptions, as legends on coins, and 
as written compositions. As the dynasty reigned from 
the third to the seventh century, and as the reigns 
of both the earliest and the latest of the kings are illus- 
trated by memorials of some kind, the presumption is 
against uniformity. So is the fact. There are divisions, 
sub-divisions, and cross-divisions in the criticism of the 



I 



THE PERSIAN. 2o5 

Sassanian memorials. The older differ from the newer, 
both in respect to the language which they exhibit, and 
in respect to the alphabet in which they are embodied. 

The notice of the inscriptions comes first. The chief 
are from Nakhsi-Riistam, Persepolis, Kirmanshah, and 
Hajiabad. They have long commanded the attention 
of Orientalists. The chief of the earlier memoirs upon 
them was by De Sacy, and it is a memoir to which later 
investigatoi-s have added but little. The inscriptions are 
neither numerous nor long : neither ai-e they rich in 
forms and words. Titles, as in inscriptions in general, 
form a large part of them. Of verbs, there is no in- 
stance. The alphabet is Semitic ; and, like the other 
Semitic alphabets, with the exception of the Ethiopian, 
is read from right to left. The alphabet is Semitic, and 
lapidary, i. e. it is, comparatively speaking, rectilinear 
and angular rather than curvilinear and round. 

The older the coin, the more lapidary the character of 
the letters of its legend ; a fact upon which Mordtmann 
has suggested the following classification; a classification 
which gives (1) coins with their legends in the lapidary 
alphabet ; (2) coins with their legends in an alphabet 
more cursive than lapidary ; (3) coins with their legends 
in an alphabet actually (or nearly) cursive. The first 
class represents a period from Artaxerxes to Narses, when 
the tendency to transition begins. All, or almost all, of 
the bilingual inscriptions belong to this period. 

The second, of which the tj^ical representatives are 
the coins of Varames IV., reaches from Sapor II. to 
Chosroes II. : the third fi-om Chosroes II. to the end of 
the dynast}'^, and a little beyond it ; a little beyond it 
inasmuch as some of the early Caliphs used the Sassa- 
nian alphabet in their legends. A series of coins from 
Taberistan belongs to this period. That the three classes 
graduate into each other is plain. 

The same applies to the language, so far as our scanty 
data allow us to judge. Mordtmann suggests that the 



256 THE PERSIAN". 

earliest and the latest legends belong to different lan- 
guages ; or rather to the same language in stages suffi- 
ciently different to be treated as such. Spiegel, on the 
other hand, refers them all to one language. 

So much for the inscriptions and coins. It was ne- 
cessary to begin with them, because they give us dates, 
which the literary compositions, though much more valu- 
able as representatives of the language, do not. 

The particular dialect that the Sassanian memorials 
represent is that of south-western Persia. The extent to 
which it is mixed with Semitic elements is in favour of this. 
So are the localities of the chief inscriptions ; especially 
those of Persepolis and Nakhsi-Rustam. The dynasty I 
believe to have been other than Persian ; so that it would 
take the language of the capital as it found it. The Se- 
mitic alphabet, also, lay near at hand. It was current 
in Syria, and Mesopotamia ; not to mention the fact of 
its having extended itself to Caubul some generations 
before. The use, however, of it was, as far as we 
can judge from negative evidence, an innovation — the 
legends of the Arsacidan coins having been Greek. 

The common name for this form of speech, from the 
time of D'Anquetil du Perron until the last ten years, 
was Pehlevi. Spiegel, however, in the preface to his 
Parsi Grammar, a forerunner of his one upon that of the 
Sassanian compositions, has named it Huzvaresh ; and 
given fair reasons for doing so. At any rate, the name 
Pehlevi is inconvenient. 

What Spiegel calls the Parsi is treated by him as 
either the actual Huzvaresh, or a near congener of it, 
in a newer form, and, as a kind of Huzvaresh of the 
early Mahomedan period, i. e. of the time between the 
last of the Sassanians and Firdusi who wrote under 
Mahmud of Ghuzni. The Parsi compositions are, one 
and all, translations from the Huzvaresh. Their alpha- 
bet is Huzvaresh. They are without either dates or 
names. The translations, however, of two works, the 



i 



THE PERSIAN DIALECTS. 257 

Minokhired, and the Shikand-guTtidni, are held to be 
older than that of a third, the Patet Irani. Finally, 
the language is held to be transitional to the Huzvaresh 
and the modern Persian. 

A well-known statement fi-om the Ferheng-i-Jihdngiri 
tells us, that when that work was written there were 
seven dialects of the Persian language, of which four 
were obsolete, and three in use. These seem to have 
been literary forms of speech ; or, at any rate, forms 
of speech which had been subjected to a certain amount 
of cultivation. I imagine that there were written 
compositions in all of them, and that they were men- 
tioned by the writer just as the Sicilian, the Bolognese, 
or the Milanese might be mentioned by an Italian 
critic as dialects of the Italian Peninsula. If so, they 
were provincial or local forms of speech. If so, they 
were forms of speech which were scarcely dialects in 
the strictest sense of the word ; inasmuch as literary 
influence had, to some extent, acted upon them — such 
influences always having an assimilating tendency. 

Of these, the four obsolete dialects were the Herevi, 
the Segzi, the Zavuli, and the Sogdi, i. e. the dialects of 
Herat, Seistan, Zabulistan, and Bokhara — the ancient 
Sogdiana. The three in use were the Pehlevi, the 
Parsi, and the Deri. Of these names four are not only 
geographical, but are visibly so. Parsi is ambiguous. 
It may mean either the dialect of the province Fars, or 
the dialect of certain books belonging to the Parsis. 
Pehlevi is, perhaps, the Huzvaresh — though the iden- 
tification is not without its elements of uncertainty. 
Deri is a difficult term, being, apparently, word for 
word, the same as Deer, Tirhai, &c. If so, it is a 
geographical term. If so, however, is it geographical 
without being definite? — inasmuch as D-r means no 
particular place, but any place with certain phj^sical 
characters. It means no more than the word Highland, 

s 



258 THE PERSIAN DIALECTS. 

a word which may apply anywhere where the Lands 
are High. 

Simply from finding that the vocabularies headed 
Der, Tirye, &c., come from Caubul, and the Indian 
fi'ontier rather than from the western side of Persia, 
I am inclined to make the Deri an Eastern dialect. 
Whether it is that of Firdusi is another question ; indeed, 
the whole question concerning the seven dialects of the 
Ferheng-i-Jihangiri, is rather one of exegesis than one 
of proper philology. That a language like the Persian, 
which is spoken over a vast area, should fall into dia- 
lects and sub-dialects, is no more than what we expect 
a priori. We expect, too, a priori, that some of these 
should be of sufficient importance to command the 
attention of native commentators. That any such 
commentator should give us either the whole details, 
or an accurate classification, is unlikely. It is only 
likely that he will give some extreme or well-marked 
forms. 

Upon the actual details of the Persian dialects, as at 
present spoken, I can give nothing definite. The dialects 
of Ghilan, Mazenderan, and Aderbijan, are said to ex- 
hibit notable characteristics — indeed the statement may 
be found in good books, that Pehlevi is stUl spoken in 
certain parts of the last-named province. Whether this 
be the case or not, depends upon the meaning attached 
to the word. All that can safely be inferred from the 
assertion is the existence of some archaic dialect. Upon 
the dialects of the towns, and upon those of the country 
in general, the literary language, in its cultivated form, 
has had great influence ; in other words, the ordinary 
language of a great part of Persia approaches it in the 
way that the ordinary language of the towns of England 
approaches the English. 



I 





THE BILUCH. 




Engliah. 


Persian. 


English. 


Persian. 


Man (homo) 


admi 


Moon 


mail 


(Wr) 


mard 


Star 


sitara 


Woman 


zan 


Fire 


eatash 


Head 


sar 


Water 


ab 


Hair 


mu 


Stone 


sang 


Eye 


chashm 


Tree 


daiakht 


Nose 


bini 


One 


yak 


Mouth 


dahan 


TVDO 


do 


Tooth 


dandan 


Three 


sih 


Tongue 


zabaa 


Four 


chahar 


Hand 


dast 


Five 


panch 


Foot 


pa 


Six 


shash 


Blood 


khun 


Seven 


haft 


Day 


roz 


Eight 


ha;^t 


Night 


shab 


Nine 


nan 


Sun 


aftab 


Ten 


Hhh. 



259 



Of either the Persian eo luyniine, or a luDguage which 
diffei'S from the Persian in name i-ather than in structure, 
spoken beyond the boundaries of Persia, the most im- 
portant are — 

1 . The Persian of the Sai*ts of Bokhara, on the 
north-east. 



English. 


Bokhara. 


English. 


Bokhara. 


Head 


tser 


Sun 


aftab 


Hair 


mui 


Moon 


mah 


Hand 


dest 


St<ur 


sdtara 


Foot 


pai 


Water 


ab 


Eye 


tshesm 


Stone 


tsenk. 


Ear 


qush 






2. The BQuch of Biluchis 


,tAn, on the south-east. 


Euglish. 


Bilach. 


English. 


Bihich. 


Hair 


phut 


Thou 


than 


Eye 


tsham 


Ye 


shumiH 


Tongue 


zawan 


One 


yak 


Tooth 


dathan 


Two 


do 


Nose 


phonz 


Three 


shai 


Foot 


path 


Four 


tshyar 


Moon (new) 


nokh 


Fire 


pantsh 


Fire 


as 


Six 




Water 


aph 


Seven 


hapt 


Tree 


darashk 


Eight 


hast 


Stone 


sing 


Xint 


na 


I 


ma 


Ten 


dah. 


We 


m^ 







s 2 



260 



THE KURD. 



3. The Kurd of Kurdistan, falling into the Luristan, 
the Felleh, and other dialects. 



English. 


Kurd. 


Englisli. 


Kurd. 


Man 


piaou 


Foot 


peh 


Head 


ser 


Blood 


khum 


Eye 


tshav 


Stm 


hatava 


Nose 


kuppu 


Moon 


mahang 


Ewr 


glieh 


Star 


asteria 


Hair 


jakatani 


Hay 


ruzh 


Mouth 


zar 


Night 


show 


Tooth 


didan 


Fire 


aghir 


Tongue 


ziman 


Water 


aw 


Beard 


rudain 


Stone 


bird 


Hand 


dest 


Tree 


dar. 



In the following list (the Zaza is a Kurd dialect from 
the north-western frontier) observe the affiK min. It is 
the possessive pronoun, upon which more wiU be said 
when the American and Kelasnonesian languages come 
under notice. In a vocabulary which I took from a 
gipsy in England, I found the same incorporation. 



English. 


Zaza. 


English. 


Zaza. 


Head 


sere-mm 


Star 


sterrai 


Eyes 


tchime-min 


Mountain 


khoo 


Eyebrows 


hnine-min 


Sea 


abo 


Nose 


zinje-min 


Valley 


derei 


Moustache 


simile-min 


Eggs 


hoiki 


Beard 


ardishe-wizw 


A fmol 


kerghi 


Tongue 


zoane-min 


Welcome 


lebexairome 


Teeth 


dildone-mm 


Come 


beiri 


Ears 


gashe-min 


Stay 


roshd 


Fingers 


ingishte-mjm 


Bread 


noan 


Arm 


pazie-mzw 


Water 


awe 


Legs 


hinge-min 


Child 


katchimo 


Father 


pre -mm 


Virgin 


keinima 


Mother 


mai-min 


Orphan 


lajekima 


Sister 


wai-min 


Morning 


sbaurow 


Brother 


brai-mm 


Tree 


dori 


The bach 


pushtiai-mm 


Iron 


asin 


Hair 


pore-mm 


Hair 


aurish 


Cold 


serdo 


Greyhound 


taji 


Hot 


auroghermo 


Pig 


khooz 


Swn 


rojshwesho 


Earth 


ert 


Moon, 


hashmd 


Fire 


adir 







THE BARAKI. 


f 


English. 


Zaza. 




English. 


Zaza. 


Stone 


see 




Mare 


mahine 


Silver 


sem 




Grapes 


pshkijshi 


Strength 


kote 




A house 


k^ 


Sword 


shimshir 


Green 


kesk 


A fox 


krevesh 


Crimson 


soor 


Stag 


kive 




Blade 


siah 


Partridge 


zaraj 




White 


supeo 


Milk 


stnt 




Sleep 


lansTime 


Horse 


istor 




Go 


shoori. 



261 



4. In Affchanistan and elsewhere, there are certain 
populations which the Afghans, or whoever may be the 
predominant population, separate from themselves, some- 
times under the general name of Tadzhik, Deggaun, or 
Parsiwan, and sometimes under some specific or particular 
denomination. Most (perhaps all) of these use a form 
of speech which is essentially Persian. Such is that of 
the Barakis, of Afghanistan, a population of which there 
are two divisions, one in the province of Lohgad, who 
speak Persian eo nomine, and one of the town of Barak, 
" who speak," writes Leach, " the language caUed Baraki." 
But this is Persian also — i. e. the Persian of Barak, 
though not of the purest kind. Possibly it contains 
an artificial element ; at any rate, Leach's notice of it 
should be known. 

It makes the Baraki originally inhabitants of Yemen, 
whence they were brought by Mahmud of Ghuzni, when 
he invaded India ; the Sultan, pleased with their services, 
was " determined to recompense them by giving them in 
perpetual grant any part of the country they chose ; 
they fixed upon the district of Kanigm-am in the country 
of the Waziris, where they settled. There are 2000 
femilies of the Rajan Barakis, under Rasul Khan who 
receives 2000 rupees a year fi:om Dost Muhammed Khan. 
The contingents of both these chiefe amount to .50 
horsemen who are enrolled in the Ghulam Khana divi- 
sion of the Cabid army. There are also 2000 families 
of Barakis at Kaniguram under Shah Malak, who are 
independent. The Barakis of this place and of Barak 



262 



THE BARAKI. 



\ 



alone speak the Barakl language. We receive a warning, 
from the study of this vocabulary, not to be hasty in 
inferring the origin of a people merely from the construc- 
tion of their language ; for it is well known that the 
one now instanced was invented by Mir Yu'zu'f, who led 
the first Barakis from Yemen into Afghanisthan : his 
design was to conceal and separate his few followers from 
the mass of Afghans (called by them Kash), who would 
no doubt at first look upon the Barakts with jealousy as 
intruders. The muleteers of Cabiil, being led by their 
profession to traverse wild countries and unsafe roads, 
have also invented a vocabulary of passwords." 



English. 


Baraki. 


English. 


Baraki. 


Head 


sar 


Village 


gram 


Nose 


neni 


House 


ner 


Eye 


tsimi 


Egg 


wolih 


Ear 


goi 


Milk 


pikakh 


Tooth 


gishi 


Fish 


mahi 


Sun 


toavi 


One 


she 


Moon 


marwokh 


Two 


do 


Star 


stura 


Three 


ghe 


Bay 


rosh 


Four 


tshar 


Night 


gha 


Five 


penj 


Fire 


arong 


Six 


ksha 


Water 


wokh 


Seven 


wo 


Stone 


gap 


Eight 


antsli 


Tree 


darakt 


Nine 


noh 


City 


kshar 


Ten 


das. 



How far the dialects of Wokhan, Shugnan, and Roshan, 
are Persian rather than Paropamisan, or Paropamisan 
rather than Persian, or how far they are transitional to the 
two, is a point for which we want data. 



Note. 

At the risk of appearing unduly speculative and presumptuous, I venture 
on the following suggestion, viz. that the true name is Husvadesh rather than 
Iluzvaresh. The preliminary remarks of Spiegel (pp. 22-23) supply the 
bases of this conjecture. Qu<atremere gives the following translation of a 
passage in the Kitab-ul-fihrist — "ies Perses ont aussi un alj^habct Zcwaresh 
dont les lettres sciU tantdt li4es, tant6t isolees,'' &c. . This gets rid of the 



I 



THE BARAKI. 263 

initial syllable. It also renders it probable that the r is a derical error for d. 
If so, it is simply the language, or alphabet, of Siwdd. 

I also surest, on the strength of Mohl's conjecture, that the root of the 
yrord Pehlevi^boundari/ OT march, that the term, like the Grerman Marco- 
mannic, may be the language of any district which constituted a frontier, so 
that there may have been more Pehlens than one. One of these was the 
district named Fehleh, which comprised the fire towns of Rei, Ispahan, 
Hamadan, ilah-nehavend, and Aderbijan. The authority for this is Ibn 
Hauqal, who travelled in Persia in the fifth century of the Hejira. Other 
statements (which may be found in Spiegel) confirm this by connecting the 
Pehlevi with the vjrhilan dialect. 

Geographically, then, the Pehlevi was a dialect of the north-west, the Deri 
(which was spoken with great purity in Balkh) being one of the north-east 
But it was also used in a chronological sense, and meant (as Spinel remarks) 
Old Persian. 

The geographical Pehlevi, then, may be one dialect, the chronological or 
historical Pehlevi, another. It is this latter which is most especially con- 
nected with the Huzvaresh. 



264 



THE IRON, 



CHAPTER XL. 

The Iron. 



Iron is the native name for a population which is called 
by its neighbours Osset : its occupancy being the parts 
about the Vladikaukasus, where it is bounded by the 
Georgian on the south, and certain Lesgian and Tshetsh 
dialects on the north, east, and west. Of all the lan- 
guages of Caucasus, it is the one which nearest ap- 
proaches the Persian, and (through it) its real or sup- 
posed congeners of what is called the Indo-European 
class : for which reason it has commanded more than 
ordinary attention. It cannot, however, be separated 
from the other languages of the great mountain-range 
to which it belongs. 



English. 


Iron. 


English. 


Iron. 


Man 


moi 


Hand 


kukh 


Head 


ser 


Foot 


kakh 


Eye 


tsaste 


Blood 


thuh 


Nose 


findzh 


Sun 


khor 


Ear 


khuz 


Moon 


mai 


Hair 


dzikku 


Star 


stal 


Mouth 


dzug 


Fire 


sing 


Tooth 


dendag 


Water 


dun 


Tongue 


awsag 


Stone 


dor. 


Beard 


botso 







The nearest congeners of the Iron are the Persian on 
the one side and the Armenian on the other, the rela- 
tionships on each side being distant ; or, at any rate, less 
near than the geographical relations of the three lan- 
guages would lead us to expect. 



OR OSSET. 265 

Among the Persian forms of speech the Iron is nearest 
to the Kurd. 

Next to the Georgians, the Iron is the population of 
Caucasus which is most thoroughly brought under 
Russia. Hence, the language, so far as it is written at 
all, is written in Russian characters. Such is the case 
with the Dictionary of Sjogren ; in which the Russian 
alphabet, with the addition of several new signs, is the 
medium. 

Of Iron dialects there are, at least, two — the or- 
dinary Iron and the Dugorian. A third, quoted as 
the Tagaui^in, may be one of two things. It may 
be a real fresh dialect or it may be another form for 
Dugorian. 

Of the grammatical structure of the Iron, a short 
sketch (of which an abstract is given in the present 
writer's Varieties of Man) is published by Rosen. 

That the Iron are the descendants of the Alani, who 
were, themselves, the descendants of certain Medes, by 
whom a district of Caucasus was colonized in the time 
of the Achsemenidse, is a doctrine of Klaproth's, which 
has met with more approval than it deserves. It rests 
on a confusion between the name As {^Osset) as applied 
to the Iron by themselves, and the name -As {:=Osset) as 
applied to them by some one else. 

The similarity of form between Iron and Iran, the 
name of a province of Persia, as well as the Sassanian 
for Persia in general, is more important. The true ex- 
planation, however, of this has yet to be given. 

Upon the claims of the Iron to be placed in the same 
class with the Latin, Greek, German, Slavonic, and Li- 
thuanic, more will be said in the sequel. 



266 



THE ARMENIAN. 



CHAPTER XLI. 



The Armenian. 



The nearest congeners to the Armenian are the Iron on 
the one side, and the Georgian on the other : the rela- 
tionships on each side being distant ; or, at any rate, less 
near than the geographical relations of the three lan- 
guages would lead us to expect. 



English. 


Armenian. 


English. 


Armenian 


Man {homo) 


mart 


Tooth 


adamn 


{vir) 


air 


Hand 


dzyem 


Head 


klakh 


Foot 


wot 


Hair 


hyer 


Tongue 


tyesu 




lav 


Heart 


zird 




maa 


Sun 


aryev 


Eye 


agn 


Moon 


luzin 




atsk 


Star 


azdegh 


Nose 


untsh 


Fire 


hur 




kit 




grag 


Mouth 


pyeran 


Water 


tshur 


Ear 


ungn 


Snow 


ziun 




agantsh 


Stone 


khar 


Beard 


morusk 


Hill 


sar 






Fish 


tsugn. 


Blood 


ariyun 







There are Armenians beyond the limits of Arme- 
nia. There is a colony in Persia near Isfahan, founded 
by Shah Abbas, the founder of the Georgian colony in 
Khorasan. There are Armenians in India, and many 
thousands in Constantinople. In Uu7vpean Russia their 
census is as follows : — 



THE ARMENIAN. 267 

In the Government of Astrakan . . 5,272 

Bessarabia . . 2,353 

Ekaterinoslav . 14,931 

St. Petersburg . 170 

Stauropol. . . 9,000 

Tauris. . . . 3,960 

Kherson . . . 1,990 



Total . . . 37,676 

But the most important settlement is that of the Mechi- 
tarist monks on the Island of St. Lazarus, in Venice. 
Here is the centre of the Armenian literature ; with its 
library, rich in MSS., some published, some unpublished. 
Nine-tenths of the Armenian compositions that appear 
in print proceed from this Venetian press. The Arme- 
nian literature goes back to the fifth century, and the 
Armenian alphabet, which, as far as the relation of signs 
to sounds is concerned, is one of the completest in exist- 
ence, has, in the form of its letters, deviated from its 
prototype (whatever that was) to a great degree. It 
affects straight lines and angles, and exhibits a mini- 
mum of curves. In the order and names of its letters 
it is Greek. 

The languages that have more especially encroached 
on the Armenian are the Turk and the Persian. 



268 THE GEORGIAN. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

The Dioscurian Group. — Meaning of the Term. — Georgian Division. 

So much is said and written about the Caucasian di- 
vision of the human species, where the word is used in a 
general sense, that, when we come to the mountain-range 
of Caucasus itself, and find ourselves in the midst of 
details which are truly and strictlj^ Caucasian, we are 
constrained to either repudiate the current meaning of 
the word, or to use it with a circumlocution, and talk of 
Caucasus in the limited, or Caucasus in the geogra- 
phical, sense of the word. 

We may do this, or we may coin a new term. The 
term, here and elsewhere, proposed by the present writer, 
is Dioscurian J Dioscurias being the name of one of 
those towns of the Caucasian sea-coast which is not 
only mentioned by ancient writers, but mentioned with 
reference to one of the most remarkable characteristics of 
modem, as it also was of ancient, Caucasus. This is the 
multiphcity of languages and dialects. The business, 
says Pliny, of Dioscurias had to be transacted through 
the medium of thirty interpreters. Now, the number 
that would be requisite for a similar function in modem 
Caucasus, is undoubtedly less, the Turkish being pretty 
generally understood, and serving as a kind of lingua 
franca. Nevertheless, the actual number of separate 
substantive languages, dialects, and sub-dialects, is, still, 
considerable, as will be seen when we come to the de- 
tails. Meanwhile the leading groups are represented 



I 



THE GEORGIAN. 269 

by the following languages : (1 .) the Georgian ; (2.) the 
Lesgian ; (3.) the Tshetsh ; (4.) the Circassian. 

The most northern, and at the same time the rudest, 
of the Georgian populations, are the descendants of the 
Suani, lying inland, at the head- waters of the Zkhenist- 
zkhali, Eguri, and Egrisi, between Sukhumkaleh and the 
Phasis. They call 



Themselves 


. Suan. 


The Abkhas . 


Mibkhaz. 


— Kartuelians 


Mkaiis. 


— Mingrelians 


Mimrd: 


— Karatshai . 


0W8. 


— Iron . 


. Saiaiar. 



The Mingrelians face the Euxine, belonging to the 
drainage of the Phasis ; the upper portion of which is 

Iriierithi, the land of Imer, or Iber ; word for word, 
the ancient Iberia. To the east of Imerethi lies the 
watershed of the Phasis and Kui", the occupancy of the 

Kaiiuli, KaHueli, or KaHidinians, the Kartueh 
form of speech being the Georgian of Tiflis ; the Geor- 
gian of the literature and alphabet. 

Cruriel is connected, in the way of dialect, with Min- 
greha, being, probably, transitional to the speech of that 
principahty and 

Lazistan, or the country of the Lazi. This extends 
along the sea-coast, from the parts about Batum, at 
the mouth of the Tsorok, to Rizeh, east of Trebizond — 
perhaps further. Inland it extends over the country 
between Kars and the Black Sea. Its exact boundaries, 
however, are not known. 

The Lazi are subject to Turkey, and are Mahometan 
in creed. The other Georgians are Christians, accordincr 
to the church of Armenia, and subject to Russia. Like 
some of the Tsherkess, the Lazi were originally Christian ; 
their conversion having been effected about the seventh 



270 THE GEORGIAN. 

century. Even now, they abstain, to a great extent, 
from polygamy. 

The Georgian alphabet, which, as far as the relation of 
signs to sounds is concerned, is one of the corapletest in 
existence, affects, in the form of its letters, curves, and 
eschews straight lines and angles. This places it in 
strong contrast with the Armenian. Yet it is from the 
Armenian that it was, most probably, derived. Indeed, 
the ecclesiastical alphabet (for the preceding remarks 
apply to the vulgar alphabet only) is evidently of Arme- 
nian extraction 



J 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 271 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

The Dioscorian Group. — ^Lesgian Division. 

The Caucasians of the Koisu and Terek, rivers which 
fall into the Caspian, constitute the Lesgian group ; occu- 
pants of Eastern, rather than of Central or Western 
Caucasus ; occupants of parts of Daghestan and Tabas- 
seran, and conterminous with Shirvan, a province of 
Persia. The Georgians call the Lesgians Lekhi, which 
is the Greek Ai^ai. 

Daghestan, or Leghistan, the country of the Lesgi, is 
the ancient Albania ; the country conquered by Pompey. 

Lesgian, like Circassian, is no native name ; for the 
Lesgians, like the Circassians, have no term which is at 
once native and collective. Its details axe to be found 
in the hilly country out of which the rivers of Daghes- 
tan arise, the actual coast of the Caspian being Turk 
and Pereian rather than Lesgian. 

In the watershed between the Aksu and Koisu 
(Turkish terms) he the Avar and Marulat tribes. Word 
for word, Marulat, the plural of Marul, from Mehr a 
hUl, is the Gi-eek Mavpakoi. The Marulat tribes are — 
Khunsag, Kaseruk, Hidatle, Mukratle, Ansokul, Ka- 
rakhle, Gumbet, Arrakan, Burtuna, Anziikh, Tebel, 
Tumurga, Akhti, Rutul, Tshari, Belakan. 

The Andi and Kabutsh are outlying members of this 
group. So are the Dido and Uuso, whose districts lie 
as far south as the upper Samur. 

The Kasi-kumuk lie to the east of the Koisu, in the 
Kara-kaitak district, and in part of Tabasseran. 



272 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 



The Akush and Kubitsh lie between the Koisu, 
the upper Manas, and the Buam ; the Kura in South 
Daghestan. 

The Lesgians are called 





By the Circassians 


Hannoatslie. 




Tshetsh . 


Sueli. 




English. 


Avar. 


Antshukli. 


Tshari. 


Andi. 


Man {homo) 


bihardzh 


tehi 


tshi 




{vir) 


tshi 


babartsb 


bahartsh 


heka 


Head 


beter 


beter 


beker 


mier 


Hair 


sab 


sab 


sab 


zirgi 


Eye 


beer 




beer 


kharko 




een 


in 


een 


hanka 


Nose 


khomag 


khumug 


mushush 


mahar 


Mouth 


kaal 


kaal 


kaal 


kol 


Tooth 


sibi 


sibi 


sibi 


sol vol 


Tongue 


maats 


maats 


maats 


mits 


Foot 


POg 


POg 


POg 


tsheka 


Hand 


kwer 


kwer 


kwer 


kazhu 


Sun 


baak 


baak 


baak 


mitli 


Moon 


moots 


moots 


moots 


horts 


Star 


zoa 


zoa 


zabi 


za 


Fire 


tsa 


tsa 


tsa 


tsa 


Water 


htlim 


htlim 


khim 


tlen 


Stone 


itso 


teb 


khezo 


hinzo 


Tree 


guet 






tketur 


One 


zo 


zo 


hos 


zev 


Two 


kigo 


kigo 


kona 


tshego 


Three 


shabgo 


tavgo 


khabgo 


khlyobgu 


Four 


ukgo 


ukkgo 


ukhgo 


boogu 


Five 


sugo 


shogu 


shugo 


inshtuga 


Six 


antgo 


antlo 


ankhgo 


ointlgu 


Seven 


antelgo 


antelgo 


antelgo 


ot'khkhlugn 


Eight 


mitlgo 


mitlgo 


mikgo 


beitlgu 


Nine 


itshgo 


itsgo 


itshgo 


hogotshu 


Ten 


anntsgo 


antsgo 


anzgo 


khotsogu. 


English. 


Dido. 




Akush. 


Kasi Kuniuk. 


Man {homo) 




murgul 


viri 


(vir) tsekvi 




adim 


tshu 


Head 


tkin 




bek 


bek 


Hair 


kadi 




ash me 


tshara 


Eye 


o/orabi 


uhU 


ya 


Nose 


mali 




kank 


mai 



LESGIAN DIALECTS. 



273 



English. 


Dida 


Akush. 


Kasi Komuk. 


Moidh 


halra 


moll 


sum an 


Tooth 


kitsa 


tsolve 


kertshi 


Tongue 


mets 


limtsi 


Tnaz 


Foot 


rori 


kash 


dzan 


Hand 


retk 


kak 


koa 


Sun 


buk 


beri 


barkh 


Moon 


butai 


baz 


bars 


Star 


tsa 


suri 


tsuka 


Fire 


tsi 


tea 


tsha 


Water 


htU 


shin 


tshin 


Stone 


gal 


kaka 


tsheru 


Tree 


gurushed 


kaiki 


marsh. 


Eugtish. 


CnralL 


English. 


CnralL 


God 


Kysser 


Horse 


belgan 


Man 


adam 


Dog 


byz 


Beard 


szrall 


Sheep 


langat 


Hand 


kill 


Finger 


tapalar 


Belly 


sarar 


Cow 


slavra 


Fox 


ihi 


Wolf 


wiUi 


Foot 


kokar 


Mouth 


damm. 


I know 


of no gramma 


r of any 


Lesgian form 



speech 



274 THE TSHETSH, 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

The Diosciirian Group.— The Tehetsh Division.— Grammatical Structure of the 

Tushi. 

The tribes of the next group occupy the watershed 
between the Kuban and the Terek, being an inland and 
central population ; a population with affinities in the 
way of language which connect it with both its eastern 
and its western neighbours. 

This population is called by the Russians Tshetshents 
by the Turks, Tsherkes, and by the Andi Lesgians, Miz- 
dzhedzhi. One of their tribes is named Kisti, the Georgian 
name for their area being Kisteti. Guldenstadt has 
used this name as a general denomination for the whole 
group ; for which he is blamed by Klaproth. The word, 
however, has the merit of being pronounceable, which is 
scarcely the case with the name of Klaproth 's choice, 
Mizdzhedzhi. In the opinion of the present writer, 
Tshetsh, the Russian word divested of its non-radical 
elements, is the most eligible. 

The Galga, Halha, or Ingush tribes of the Tshetsh, 
in contact with the Circassians of the Little Kabarda, 
are the most western members of the group. They callj 
themselves Lamur, or HiUmen. 

The second section is called 

By themselves . . Arahte. 

— the Tshetshents . AHstoyai. 

— certain Turk tribes Kara-bulakh. 

Tliey occupy part of the valley of the Martan. 



THE TSHETSH. 



275 



The third section is that of the Tshetsh, or Tshet- 
shents Proper, in contact with and to the east of the 
Arshte. 



English. 



Tslietsh. 



Ingiisli. 



Man (homo) 


steg 


• stag 


(r/r) 


maile 


mairilk 


Head 


korte 


korte 


Hair 


kazheresh 


beshkenesh 


Eye 


berik 


berg 


Ear 


lerik 


lerk 


Nose 


mara 


mirha 


Mouih 


bagga 


yist 


Tooth 


tsarglsb 


tseigish 


Tongue 


mot 


motte 


Foot 


kok 


kog 


Hand 


knit 


knlg 


Sun 


malkh 


malkb 


Moon 


bot 


but 


Star 


seta 


seta 


Fin 


tze 


tie 


Water 


khi 


kbu 


Stone 


kera 


kera 


Tree 


khie 


keie 


One 


tza 


tza 


Two 


shi 


shi 


Three 


koe 


koe 


Four 


di 


di 


Fixe 


pkbi 


pkbi 


Six 


yalkb 


jKlkh 


Seven 


nor 


nor 


Eight 


bar 


bar 


Nine 


ish 


ish 


Ten 


itt 


itt. 



The Tushi lie on the upper Alasani, within, or on, the 
Greorgian frontier. They are the only members of the 
Tshetsh group of whose language we know the gram- 
matical structure ; of which the following is a sketch. 

The declension of the personal pronouns is as follows. 
With a slight modification it is that of the ordinary 
substantive as well. 

T 2 



276 



THE TSHETSH. 



Singular. 

Nominative 

Genitive 



I. 

so 
sai 







Dative 


son 


Instructive 


as 
asa 




Affective 
AUative 


BOX 

sogo 


Elative 


soxi 


Comitative 


soci 






Terminative 

Adessive 

AUative 


sogomci 

sogoh 

sogredah 



Thou. 

ho 

hai 



hon 

ah 
aha 

hex 
hogo 

hoxi 

hoci 



hogomci 

hogoh 

hogredah 



He. 



oxu 

oux 

oxuin 

oxun 

ouxna 

oxus 

oxuse 

ouxse 

oxux 

oxugo 

ouxgo 

ouxxi 

oxxi (?) 

oxuci 

ouxci 

oxci (?) 

ouxgomci 

ouxgoh 

ouxgore 

ouxgoredab. 



Plural. 



Wc. 



Ye. 



Thou. 



Nominative 


wai 


'txo 


su 


obi 


Genitive 


wai 


'txai 


sai 


oxri 


Dative 


wain 


'txon 


gan 

suna 

ais 

asi 

sux 


oxarn 


Instructive 


wai 


a 'txo 


oxar 


Affective 


waix 


'txoi 


oxarx 


AUative 


waigo 


'txogo 


BUgO 


oxargo 


Illative 


wailo 


'txolo 


sulo 


oxarlo 


Elative 


waixi 


'tzoxi 


soxi 


oxarxi 


Comitative 


waici 


'txoci 


suci 


oxarci 


Adessive 


walgoh 


'txogoh 


sugoh 


oxargoh 


Inessive (c) 


wailoh 


'txoloh 


suloh 


oxarloh 


Ablative (c) 


waigre 


'txogre 


Bugre 


oxargore 










oxardah 
oxarlore 


Elative (c) 


wailre 


'txolre 


sulre 


Convei'sive 


waigoih 


'txogoih 


sugoih 


oxargoih. 



That some of these forms are no true inflections, but 
appended prepositions, is speedily stated in the text 



d 





THE TSHETSH. 


2' 


Cardinal. 


Orrtinal. 


Cardinal. 


OrdinaJ. 


1. cha 


dnihre 


8. barl 


barloge 


2. m 


sUge 


9. iss 


issloge 


3. xo 


xalge 


10. itt 


ittloge 


i. ahew 


dhewloge 


11. cha itt 


cha-ittli^e 


5. pxi 


pxi]ge 


12. si-itt 


si-ittlo£e 


6. jetz 


jeixloga 


19. tqeexq 


iqeexdc^ 


7. worl 


worloge 


20. tqa 


tqalge. 



This last word the author of the gi-ammar connects 
with the word tqo = also, over again {audi, tvied, 
erani) ; as if it were 10 doubled, which it most likely 
is. In like manner tqeexc is one from twenty = uti- 
deviginti : — 

100= pxauztqa = 5x20. 
200 = icatatq = 1 X 20. 
300 = pxiiseatq = 15 X 20, 
400 = tquaziq = 20 X 20. 
500=tqaTmg pxauztqa = 20x20 +100. 
1000 =sac tqauziqa icaiqa = 2x400+200. 

The commonest signs of the plural number are -i and 
-si. The suflBxes -^le and -bi, the latter of which is 
found in Lesgian, is stated to be Georgian in origin. 
No i-eason, however, against its being native is given. 

In verbs, the simplest form is the imperative. Add to 
this -a, and you have the infinitive. The sign of the 
conditional is he or h ; that of the conjunctive le or I. 

The tenses are — 

(1.) Present, formed by adding -a or -u to the root : 
i, e. to the imperative fonn, and changing the vowel. 

(2.) Imperfect, by adding -r to the present. 

(3.) Aorist, formed by the addition of -/ to the 

(4.) Perfect ; the formation of which is not expressly 
given, but which is said to differ from the present in not 
changing the vowel. However, we have the forms acet 
=nnd, X£ti= found (perf.) ; xetin = found (siOTist). 
From the participle of the perfect is formed the 

(5.) Pluperfect by adding -r. 

(6.) The future is either the same as the present, or a 
modification of it. 



278 THE TSHET8H. 

I give the names of those moods and tenses as I find 
them. The language of the Latin grammar has, pro- 
bably, been too closely imitated. 

The first and second persons are formed by appending 
the pronouns either in the nominative or the instructive 
form. 

The participle of the present tense is formed in -in ; 
as dago = eat, dagu-in = eating. 

The participle of the preterite ends in -no ; as xace 
= hear, xac-no = heard. 

There are auxiliary verbs, and no small amount of 
euphonic changes, of which one, more especially, deserves 
notice. It is connected with the gender of nouns. When 
certain words (adjectives, or the so-called verb substan- 
tive,) follow certain substantives, they change their initial. 
Thus, hatxleen wa = the prophet is, hatxleensi 6a = 
the prophets are, waso wa> = the brother is, wasar 6a 
= the brothers are. 

The nearest congeners of the Tshetsh are the Lesgians, 
and, without unduly raising the value of the group, they 
could be thrown in the same division. The same is 
probably the case with the populations who use the next 
forms of speech. 



4 




THR CIRCASSIAN. 279 



CHAPTER XLV. 

The Dioscnrian Gronp. — The Tsherkess, or CircaBsian, Divldoiu 

The word Circassian is of Italian origin, and should be 
pronounced as if tbe initial C were Tsh — indeed, the 
word itself may be written (as it generally is written 
by foreign authors) Tsherkess. It is no native term ; 
but one applied by the Turks and Russians. The really 
native names are Adigd and Absnd ; each denoting a 
different division of the population — no name at once 
collective and indigenous being known. 

The Absnd occupy the sea-coast between Sukhum-kaleh 
and the Straits of Yenikale, along with the valleys of 
the rivers that descend fi-om the western slope of Cau- 
casus. The Georgians call them Mibkhaz, and Abkhazi, 
their country being Abkhazeti. This ending in -eti ap- 
pears and re-appears. It is the Georgian for -land; so 
that Abkhazeti is Abkhaziland. Word for word, Abkhazi 
is the Greek and Latin "A^turyoi and AbascL 

The Great Abaska-land, or Abkhazeti proper, extends 
from the frontier of the Adig^ to MingreUa and the Suan 
country — both Georgian. The six tribes of the Little 
Abaska-land call themselves Tepanta. 

Word for word, A-dig-e is Z^ot, the name under 
which the author of the Periplus of the Euxine, written 
in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, speaks of one of 
the tribes of the coast. In doing this, he places them 
east of their present locality ; which is more inland, and 
lies to the north of the axis of Mount Caucasus, on the 
drainage of the Kuban. 



280 



THE CIRCASSIAN 



The tribes of which the Adig^ are the representatives, 
although now exclusively mountaineers, were, probably, 
once spread, more or less, over the plains to the north 
of the Caucasus, as well as over the hills and valleys of 
the great range itself. No wonder. Both Turks and 
Russians have encroached on their area, once larger than 
it is at present. More than one map of the fourteenth 
century carries a Circassian population from the Straits 
of Yenikale to the mouth of the Don, along the whole 
eastern coast of the Sea of Azof; and Klaproth believes 
that the present Kosaks of these parts are, more or less, 
Circassian in blood. Equally strong is the evidence to 
a Circassian population in the Crimea. The upper part 
of the river Belbek, in the south of that peninsula, is 
called Tsherkestus, or the Circassian plain, to this day. 
On it stand the remains of the Tsherkes-kyerman, or 
Circassian fortress. But this may, possibly, represent 
an intrusion. 

The Adige dialects are (1.) the Circassian Proper; 
(2.) the Besleneyevtsi ; and (3.) the Kabardinian. 



English. 


Tsherkess. 


AbsnS. 


Man {homo) 


dzug 


agn 


{vir) 


tie 


katzha 


Head 


shha 


kah 


Hair 


shhats 


kuakokh 


Eye 


nne 


ullah 


Ear 


takumah 


lemha 


Nose 


peh 


pintsa 


Mouth 


dzhe 


utsha 


Tooth 


dzeh 


pitz 


Tongue 


bsa 


ibz 


Foot 


tie 


shepeh 


Hand 


ia 


meppe 


Sun 


dgeh 


marra 


Moon 


masah 


mis 


Star 


vhagoh 


yetshua 


Fire 


mapfa 


mza 


Water 


pseh 


dzeh 


Stone 


miweh 


kau 


Tree 


dzig 


adzh 



THE CIRCASSIAN. 281 



Engbsh. 


Tsherkesi. 


Ahsn6. 


Om 


ae 


seka 


Two 


ta 


nkh-ha 


Three 


shi 


khpa 


Four 


pUe 


pshil]* 


Five 


tkha 


khoba 


Six 


khi 


ziba 


Serea 


Me 


bishba 


Eight 


SK 


akhba 


Nine 


bgu 


ishba 


Ten 


pshe 


zheba. 



The languages of Caucasus have no near congeners ; 
or, rather, their nearest congeners are remote. This is 
the case both on the north and the south side of the 
range. The Tsherkess stands as much by itself as the 
Armenian ; the Armenian as the Tsherkess. No wonder. 
In the first place, the relations of the area are only bi- 
lateral ; i. e. there are no frontagers on the Euxine, and 
the intrusion has been inordinate. 

And it beofan betimes on its northern side. Centuries 
before the time of Herodotus the influx of Asiatic tribes 
into Europe had set in ; and the level plains to the 
north of the Caucasus lay in their way, either as roads 
or as halting-places. The result of these movements 
was the enormous displacement represented by the term 
European Sci/thia. Concurrent with this would be the 
obliteration of anything in the shape of a northern 
prolongation^of the Tsherkess and its congeners. Nor 
would any approach to the original situs be obtained 
until we reached the Mordvin frontier. Here we expect 
(and find) Caucasian affinities ; but they are (as we expect 
them to be) few and faint. 

Hence, the apex of the Dioscurian area is what a 
botanist would call tnincate; i. e. it terminates ab- 
ruptly along its whole northern boundary. 

On each side, too, it ends abruptly. This is because 
it has the Caspian to the east, and the Black Sea to the 
west. 



282 THE CIRCASSIAN. 

All the languages, however, are, there or thereabouts, 
in situ; a condition suggested by the mountainous cha- 
racter of the district. 

On the south, the Persian, by which the Dioscurian 
area is bounded, is an encroaching language. On the 
south-east there is the Turk of Asia Minor, and, before 
that, there was the Greek. Originally, both the Georgian 
and Armenian must have extended much further in this 
direction. The ethnographical archaeology, however, of 
Asia Minor is obscure. 

With such geographical conditions the Dioscurian 
tongues seem much more isolated than they really are. 
Ugrian elements, however, have long been recognized 
in them ; and lately Tibetan — this being what the sihis 
and the displacements suggest. 

On the other hand, the Persian affinities of the 
Iron have long been known ; and it is possible that 
they are closer than the present writer makes them. 
Bopp has written upon those with the Georgian — 
though the conclusion at which he arrives, viz. that the 
latter language is what is called Indo-European, is denied 
by the present writer. If the Georgian be Indo-Eu- 
ropean, so many other tongues must be in the same 
category, as to raise the value of the class indefinitely, 
and to make it no class at all. 

Upon the Persian and Armenian, more will be said 
in the sequel. 



THE MALAY. 



283 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

The Malay and its more immediate Congeners. — The Tsliampa. — Samang. — 
Nicobar. — Silong. — Malay of the Malayan Peninsula. — Of Sumatra. — 
The Rejang and Lampong. — Of the Malagas! of Madagascar. — Of the 
small Islands off Sumatra. — From Java to Timor. 



We now return to the frontier of the Mon of Pegu, the 
Kam of Kambojia, and the Thay of Siam. The con- 
tinuity, which once existed between the first two, has 
been broken by the intrusion of the third. Hence, 
the forms of speech belonging to the Malayan Penin- 
sula have no longer their nearest congeners with which 
they can be compared. This gives them the appearance 
of comparative isolation — but only the appearance. 

If we treat the Malayan Peninsula as an island, all 
the languages of the group now coming under notice are 
insular, or, at any rate. Oceanic : with the single excep- 
tion of the Tshampa, spoken along a strip of land on 
the coast of Kambojia. 



English. 

Man 

Head 

Eye 

Mouth 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 



Tshampa. 

orang 

ako 

mats 

chabui 

naharai 

bnlan 

bintang 



Engliah. 

Sky 

Fire 

Water 

River 

Sea 

Stone 



Tshampa. 

langi 

apoi 

aya 

sungai 

laut 

batao. 



Of the Peninsular forms of speech the most northern 
for which we have a specimen — Ls the Samang. It is 
also the rudest ; the men who speak it being so dark in 
respect to then- complexion as to have been classed 
among the Negritos. 



284 



NICOBAR. — SILONQ. 



English. 


Jurn Samang. 


Kedali Samang 


Man 


teunkal 


tumkal 


Woman 


mabei 


badon 


Head 


kala 


kay 


Eye 


med 


med 


Nose 


muk 


muk 


Mouth 


temut 


ban 


Tongue 


litig 




Tooth 


lemun 


yus 


Ear 


pol 


anting 


Hand 


tong 


chas 


Foot 


chau 




Blood 


koad 


cheong 


Bove 


gehe 


aieng 


Sky 




kael 


Sun 


mitkakok 


mitkakok 


Moon 


bulan 


kachik 


Star 




bintang 


Fire 


us 


us 


Water 


hoh 


bateac 


Tree 


kuing 


chuk. 



Then come the languages of the Nieobar Islands — 
Nicobar and Carnicobar ; of which all that can be said 
is, that they have Malay elements. Their place here is 
provisional. 



English. 


Carnicobar. 


Teressa. 


Nancowry. 


Man (homo) 




bayu 


dzhubayu 


Head 




goseh 




Hair 


kheui 


liebok 




Eye 


olmat 






Ear 




nang 




Nose 


^ ehelme 


nihang 


moah 


Mouth 


monoi 




meno 


Hand 






genas 


Foot 


gundron 






Blood 


mam 




vhoa 


Sun 




huik 




Moon 


tingset 


hahae 


khaset. 


jn those of the Mergui Archipelago ; e. g. that of Sik 


English. 


Silong. 


English. 


Silong. 


Man 


mesa 


Ear 


tengah 


Head 


atak 


Tongue 


klek 


Hair 


dutak 


Tooth 


lepadn 


Eye 


matat 


Hand 


langan 



I 



THE MALAY PROPER. 285 



Englsh. 


Silong. 


English. 


Silong. 


Foot 


kakai 


Fire 


apoi 


Sun 


matai-alai 


Water 


awaen 


Moon 


biilan 


Stone 


liatoe 


Star 


bitaek 


Tree 


ki. 



The Malay Proper, as far as several important points 
in its grammar go, is by no means very widely separated 
from the languages of the stock to which the Thay 
and its congeners belong. As far as the absence of de- 
clension and conjugation are concerned, both are in the 
same predicament. The Malay denotes gender by the 
addition of words meaning fnale or female ; number 
by that of terms signif3nng inany ; case by prepositions 
— many of which are themselves nouns. The degrees 
of adjectives are equally expressed by circumlocutions. 
Verbs exhibit, as the equivalent to the signs of tense 
and mood, numerous separable and inseparable particles. 
Sometimes a singular noun is made plural by simple 
reduplication, as orang orang—men. 

The phonesis, however, which gives so monosyllabic 
a character to the languages of the Continent, changes 
its character in the Archipelago. The vowel sounds are 
simple. Like those of the consonants, they are clean 
and clear as far as they go — which is not fer. The 
sounds of the so-called aspirates, /, v, th, dh, sh, zh, are 
wanting — though the latter exist as compound sibilants, 
tsh and dzh — a phenomenon found elsewhere. The 
semivowels and liquids are prominent. So is the nasal 
ng (as in king), and the Spanish n. The former is often 
initial — which it never is in English. A Malay, for 
instance, says ang ; but he can also say nga — the 
sound of the ng remaining the same in both cases. 

The concurrence of consonants, in the same syllable, 
when both are mutes, is avoided — just as it was in the Fin. 
The majority of the themes are dissyllabic, with the 
accent on the penultimate. All this gives the conditions 
of a soft and melodious language, with an easy intona- 
tion, and few harsh combinations. At the same time 
(as aforesaid) the inflection is at a minimum. 



286 



THE MALAY PROPER. 



I am unable to give the exact locality from which the 
Malay Proper was derived. It is believed to have 
spread from Menangkabaw in Sumatra ; but Mr. Crau- 
frird remarks that the Menangkabaw form of speech, 
though truly Malay, was somewhat less so than some of 
the dialects of the Peninsula. The difference, however, 
between the Malay of commerce spoken with a difference 
in a given locality and the true provincial dialects of the 
same, has not been sufficiently attended to. The Malay of 
commerce is certainly, in many senses, a lingua franca. 
In distinction to the proper languages of the islands, it 
is spoken in Java, in the Moluccas, in Borneo, in Celebes, 
and elsewhere. It does not seem to have altered much 
since the time of Pigafetta, who, as a companion of 
Magalhaens, collected a Malay vocabulary. Its literature 
is scanty, consisting of little more than songs, tales, 
and unimportant histories. The language, however, of 
all is the same ; and few archaic words occur. There 
are no inscriptions, no old manuscripts, no native al- 
phabet — the one in use being the Arabic. 

Of foreign elements, the Sanskrit, the Arabic, and the 
Telinga are the most important. Though rich in little 
songs and lyrics, the Malay metres are few and rude : 
the poetical element consisting in the idea rather than 
in the versification. The language boasts no classic. 



English. 


Malay. 


English. 


Malay. 


Man {homo) 


orang 


River 


kaU 


{vir) 


lake laki 




sungi 


Woman 


perampuan 


Hill 


gunung 


Head 


kax)kala 




bukit 


Eye 


matu 


Sun 


mata hari 


Nose 


idung 


Moon 


bulan 


Mouth 


mulut 


Star 


bintarg 


Tooth 


gigi 


Day 


hari 


Ear 


talinga 


Night 


malam 


Hair 


rambut 


I 


aku 


Hand 


tangan 


Thou 


angkau 


Foot 


kaki 


One 


satu 


Land 


tanali 


Ten 


sapulu. 


Sea 


laut 







I 



B ATT AS, ETC. 287 

But though not a literarj', the Malay is, as aforesaid, 
pre-eminently a commercial language. Hence, the de- 
tails of the provincial dialects, as spoken by the Orang 
Benua, or the Men of the Gounti'y, in the Peninsula, 
though very important, are nearly unknown. 

One of these is the Jakun. 



English. 


Jakun. 


English. 


Jakno. 


Head 


nlah 


Water 


yeho 


Hair 


bnlu-nlah 


Earth 


bnmi 


Hand 


kokot 


Shine 


sbongkor 


Hay 


trang 


Sun 


mata-hari 


Head 


mago 


Moon 


hantu-jaliat 


White 
Bleuk 


halhnt 
hedjeaow 


Star 


cheoDg. 



The gambler seekers, like the Katodi of India, have a 
sort of slang of their own. 

The occupants of the extreme North of Sumatra are 
the Orang Achi, or men of Achin ; a town once fe-mous 
and powerful, but now reduced, though still independent 
of the Dutch. The political limits of the State are un- 
known, or undefined. It is only certain that they have 
been contracted. The Dutch have encroached on the 
West ; whilst, on the East, small independent States have 
been formed — Langkat, Balu China, DUi Sirdang, Batu 
Bara, and Asahan. The nearer the town, the greater 
the population. Of all the Sumatrans, the Orang Achi, or 
Achinese, are the most Ai'ab. I do not mean by this 
that their Mahometanism is either purer, or more ex- 
elusive than that of the other Malays ; inasmuch as 
upon this point I have no accurate information. I 
only mean that Aiab manners and Arab modes of 
thought are more conspicuous in Achin than else- 
where. The amount of Arab blood, in the way of in- 
termixture, is probably in proportion to the other Arab 
elements. 

South of the Orang Achi he the Orang Batta, or 
Battas, a population which has commanded more of the 



288 



BATTAS, ETC. 



attention of ethnologists than any other occupants of 
Sumatra. This is because they are cannibals ; and can- 
nibals of a peculiar kind, under peculiar circumstances. 
They are cannibals and yet not Pagans. They are can- 
nibals, and yet not without an alphabet. They are 
cannibals with either the germ or the fragments of a 
literature. 

In respect to creed, the Battas are in the same class 
with some of the Orang Benua, who have adopted a 
certain amount of Hinduism without abandoning their 
original pagan creed. The exact proportion of the two 
superstitions is not easily ascertained. The Battas, how- 
ever, seem to be both more Indian, and more Pagan, 
than the Johore tribes. 



Englisli. 


Atshin. 


Singkal Batta. 


Pakpak Batta, 


Toba Batta. 


Banjak Batta. 


Man 


orang 


dyelma 


delma 


dyolma 


atha • 


Head 


uluy 


takal 


dagal 


ulu 


ulu 


Hair 


ook 


buk 


boe 


obuk 


bo 


Eye 


mata 


mata 


mata 


mata 


mata 


Nose 


idong 


igung 


ehgu 


igung 


igong 


Mouth bawa 


bawa 


baba 


baba 


baba 


Tooth 


gigoi 


eppen 


eppe 


mgiengi 


yeng 


Ear 


uluyung 


tshopping 


penggen 


prengol 


telinga 


Neck 


takui 


gaharong 


rau 


kukong 


lingau 


Breast 


dakda 


tandan 


tanden 


andora 


arop 


Ai-m 


dzharroe 


tangan 


tangan 


botohon 


gau 


Hand 


tappa dzharroe lappa tangan 






Leg 


kakie 


nehe 


paha 


ha6-haS 




Foot 


udzhung, kakie tappa nehe 


palan paha 


pat 




Blood 


darra 


darro 


daroh 


moedar 




Bird 


tshitshim 


manu 


pedo 


pidung 


mauo. 


Fish 


ilkait 


ekan 


ikan 


dekee 


ennas 


Dog 


assiu 


biezang 


pangeia 


bieyang 


assu 


Hog 


bui 


babie 


babie 


babie 




Ox 


lemau 


lembu 


lembong 


lomon 


dzhawie 


Sand 


annu 


grosiele 


grassie 


horsiek 





Stone 


batu 


batu 


batu 


batu 


batu 


Earth 


tano 


tano 


tano 


tano 


leppel 


Fire 


apui 


apie 


apie 


apie 


ahee 


Water 


yeyer 


leiy 


leiy 


oek 


oee 


Sky 


kilet 


kilat 


kilat 


porhas 


kilat 



I 







THE KORINCHI. 


289 


English 
Sun 


. Atshin. 
matoroi 


Singkal Batta. 
mato arie 


Pakpak Batta. Toba Batta. Banjak Batta. 
mata harie mata-ni-harie mata bolal 


Star 
Moon 


bintang 
boluan 


bintang 
bulan 


bintang 
bnlan 


battang 
bulan 


bintaa 
bawa 


I 


olon 


aka 


kam 


aho 


rehu 


Thou 


deku 


rona 


rene 


ho 


no 


He 
We 


dzhie 
nlnn alan 


iya 
rita 


kama 


yebana 
hamie 


dio 

memainam bane 


Thy 


dzhie dzhie 


adiaa 




nasieda 




One 


sa 


sada 


sara 


sada 


assa 


Two 


dawa 


duwa 


dna 


dua 


daa 


Three 


Ho 


telu 


telu 


telu 


telu 


Four 
Five 


puet 
liman 


ampet 
limai 


ompat 
liema 


opat 
liema 


ampe 
lima 


Six 


nam 


anam 


enam 


anam 


anam 


Seven 
Eight 


tadzhu 
lappan 


pitu 
walo 


pitu 
ualok 


pita 
oala 


fitu 
walu 


Nine 
Ten 


sekumng 
pulu 


siwa 
sapnia 


siwa 
sapula 


idea 
sappula 


siwa 
fulu. 



The Singkal, Pakpak, and Toba of the preceding 
tables are dialects of the Batta. The Banjak is spoken 
by the aborigines of a small island off the coast, who 
must be distinguished from a concurrent population of 
settlers from Atshin. 

The Malays of Menaiigkahaw occupy the most fa- 
voured parts of Sumatra ; viz. the drainage of the 
Indrajiri and Lake Sinkara. In one portion of their area 
the population is reckoned at 128 to the square mile; 
in another at 300, and even 400 ; an estimate which 
gives 385,000 for the whole Menangkabaw district. 

Continued southward the mountain range of the 
Menangkabaw Malays becomes more and more imprac- 
ticable ; so that the details of its population are 
unknown. It is only known that it is Malay ; and 
that it is thinly spread. Wilier makes a separate 
division of it, containing the Malays of Sapvlo Biixi 
Bandar, and the Malays of Gunong Sungu Pagu. 

South of these lies the country of the Koi^nchi, 
who differ from the Battas in being Mahometans, and 
from the Menangkabaw Malays in using an alphabet of 
Indian, rather than Arabic, origin — an alphabet not 

u 



290 



THE KORINCHI. 



identical with that of the Battas, though not unlike it 
in detail, and evidently of the same general character. 

Whether the following list represent a Malay ; a native 
Sumatran, dialect, pure and simple ; a native Sumatran 
dialect modified by Malay influences ; or, so much Malay 
modified in Sumatra, is uncertain. The want of data for 
the solution of this question has just been indicated. The 
difference of alphabet tends to disconnect it with the 
Malay proper. 



English. 


Korinchi. 


English. 


Koriuchi. 


Head 


kapala 


Fire 


apui 


Eyes 


mata 


Watei- 


aiyah 


Note 


idong 


Earth 


tana 


Teeth 


gigi 


Swine 


jukut 


Hand 


tangan 


Bird 


buhong 


Blood 


darah 


Egg 


tetur 


Day 


ari, hari 


Fish 


ikal 


Night 


mala 


Sun 


mata-awi 


Dead 


mati 


Moon 


bula 


White 


putih 


Star 


binta. 


Black 


ita 







The Southern Sumatran s, so far as they are of pure 
blood, are in the same category with the Korinchi ; i. e. 
they are Mahometans with alphabets different from 
that of the Koran, alphabets suggestive of a prior 
connection with India. Of these there are two ; the 
Rejang and the Lampong, allied in general character, 
yet different in detail ; allied, too, in general character to 
the Korinchi and Batta — different, however, in detail. 



(1) 



English. 


Rejang. 


English 


Bead 


ulau 


Sun 


Eyes 


matty 


Moon 


Nose 


iong 


Fire 


Haxr 


bu 


Water 


Teeth 


aypiri 


Earth 


Hand 


tangan 


White 


Day 


bili-beeng 


Black 


Night 


bili-kalemun 





Rejang. 

matti-bili 

bulun 

opoay 

beole 

pita 

putiah 

melu. 



m 



THE REJANG AND LAJIPONG. 



291 



(2.) 



English. 


Lampong. 


Head 


uluh 


Eyti 


mattah 


Nose 


iong 


Hair 


buho 


Tttth 


ipun 


Hand 


chuln 


Day 


ranni 



English. 

Sun 

Moon 

Fire 

Water 

Earth 

White 

Black 



Lampong. 

mata-ranni 

balan 

appay 

wye 

tanah 

mandak 

mallam. 



Night binghi 

The Rejang alphabet is used by the Orang Serawi, and 
the Orang Palembang ; the latter being only partially 
Sumatran. Javanese settlements now become numerous 
and important ; and it is Javanese blood with which the 
proper Palembang population is largely crossed. 

According to Zollinger the Lampong language is no 
original tongue, but a mixture of all the languages of its 
neighbourhood on a Malay basis. I doubt whether this 
be the exact explanation of the fact of its containing a 
notable proportion of Sunda, Javanese, and BugLs words, 
and but few peculiar ones. It is, probably, more or 
less, a transitional form of speech. It is strongly 
accented ; words which are totally different from each 
other in meaning being distinguished only by either 
the quantity of the syllables, or their tone. This makes 
it difficult to write in European letters. 

We now ask whether analogues of the rudest Orang 
Benua are to be found in Sumatra. The answer will be in 
the affirmative. That there is something older than the 
civilization of the Mahometan Malays is clear. There are 
the influences suggested by the Batta, Korinchi, Eejang, 
and Lampong alphabets. ACore than this, there are half- 
Pagan and half-Indian elements in the creeds of the Battas 
themselves. This, however, is scarcely the exact parallel 
to the true aboriginal condition of the rudest — the very 
rudest — Peninsular tribes. What is there that represents 
Sumatra before the advent of the Indians ? There are 
two wild populations, one in the northern, one in the 
southern parts of the island, unknown to each other, and 
probably speaking mutually unintelligible languages. 

U 2 



292 



LUBU AND ULU. 



The men of the northern division are known under 
the name, which the Battas give them, of Orang Lubu. 
They are found up the Mandau river above Siak. 

The southern aborigines are the Orang Kubu ; so- 
called by the people of Palembang, occupants of the 
jungle, rude and naked. 

For the former we have specimens in two dialects. 



English. 


Lubu. 


Ulu. 


Man 


obang 


orak 




lokiloki 


lokloki 


Woman 


paradusi 


pedjussi 


Head 


kapolo 


kopolo 


Eye 


moto 


motto 


Nose 


hedong 


idung 


Movih 


mnli 


montshong 


Tooth 


gigi 




Ear 


talingo 


leliengo 


Hair 


abok 


ebo 


Hand 


palakpak 


tangan 


Foot 


palakpak 


tapa 


Land 


tana 




Sea 


loi 




River 


batang ao 


aiyer 


Hill 


tandzhong 


gunung 


Sun 


motobi 


motori 


Moon 


bulen 


bulet 


Star 


bintang 


bientang 


Bay 


obi 


ari 


Night 


kalam 


mallem 


I 


oku 


oku 


You 


aka 


enko 


One 


satu 


esc 


Ten 


sapulu 


sepuln. 



Now follow, for the small islands off Sumatra, the 
Maruwi and Nias (closely allied), and the Poggi, or 
Mantawi, forms of speech. 



English. 

Mcun 

Head 

Bye 

Nose 

Hair 



Maruwi. 


Nias. 


Poggi. 


alia 


niha 


mantaow 


ulu 


huhguh 


ootai 


matta 


mata 


matah 


iahong' 


ighu 


assak 


ihong 






bu 


bu 


all 



Whence the name of the people and the islands. 



SMALL ISLANDS OFF SUMATRA. 



293 



Eaglish. 


Maniwi. 


NiM. 


P<«gL 


Teeth 


mhe^Xi 


ifoh 


chone 




ahin 






Hand 


anaka 


tanga 


kavaye 


Blood 




ndoh 


logow 


Day 


hallal 




mancheep 


Night 


tMUlgi 


bongi 


geb-geb 


White 


matti 


mate 


mataye 


Blade 


adiog 


afufii 


mablow 


Bead 


mntome 


aitah 


mapacha 


Fire 


aval 


alitah 


ovange 


Water 


wai 


idanaa 


jojar 


Earth 


•wa 










tanuh 


polack 


Swine 




bacha 


baka 






bavi 


babai 


Bird 


manno 


manok 


junah 






fohfoh 




Egg 


antil 


ajaloh 


agoloh 


Pish 


nass 


ia 


eibah 


Sun 


matta 


ballal 


mata-laoh-chalu 


Moon 


bowah 


bawa 


lago 


Star 


bantun 


onob u'dafi 


panyean. 



The last of these minor islands is that of Enganho, 
on the southern side of the eastern end of Sumatra. It 
stands more alone than any of the preceding ones. 



Enslish. 


Enganbo. 


English. 


r.nganho. 


Man 


taka 


Water 


lewo lewo 


Head 


oeloe 


Stone 


bakoebakoe 


Hair 


boeloe 


Sand 


hawo hawo 


Eye 


bakka 


Fish 


kwan 


Ear 


kaleha 


Bird 


w6o weo 


Nose 


fanoe 


I 


oe& 


Mouth 


hanre 


liou 


bare6 


Tooth 


kaa 


He 


bohej 


Hand 


a& 


One 


dahei 


Finger 


gaheho 


Tvoo 


adoea 


Belly 


koedei 


Three 


agoloe 


Foot 


afo 


Four 


aopa 


Sun 


kahaa 


Five 


alima 


MOOH 


moena 


Sis 


akiakia 


Day 


Uopo 


Seven 


alimei-adoea 


Night 


tikodo ilopo 


Eight 


agoloe 


Earth 


tehopo 


Nine 


aopa 


Sea 


parowa 


Ten 


tahapoeloe. 


Fire 


howi howi 







294 MADAGASGAR. 

Now comes an area which, as a phenomenon in the 
distribution and dispersion of languages, is the most re- 
markable of all on the earth's surface. As a general rule, 
the populations and languages of islands are represented 
by those of the nearest continent. With the exception of 
Japan, where a continental congener of the Japanese is 
wholly wanting, and Iceland, which has taken its language 
from Norway rather than from Greenland, this is always 
the case. Britain dates from Gaul : the Canaries from 
the opposite coast of Africa : Sumatra from the Malayan 
Peninsula : Newfoundland from North America. 

In conformance with this, Madagascar ought to have 
been peopled from Africa, and the Malagasi (or language 
of Madagascar) ought to find its nearest congeners on 
the coasts of Zanzibar and Mozambique. But it does 
not. The Malagasi is, essentially, a Malay language ; 
and that it is so has long been known. The learned 
Reland knew it two centuries ago. 

Whether it were the first language spoken on the 
island is another question. 

There is no lack of statements to the effect that a 
second population, with black skins, crisp hair, and 
African features, is to be found in the island. But this 
may be found, to some extent at least, in the true 
Malay islands of the Indian Archipelago : and, in many 
cases where it is not found, it has been invented. I 
lay, then, but little stress on it. 

Of African elements in the Malagasi none have been 
pointed out : though it should be added that few, witli 
adequate knowledge, have made a search for them. Of 
the language itself, I believe that the dialects and sub- 
dialects are few. If so, we have a fact in favour of its 
comparatively recent introduction. This, however, is a 
point upon which our data are deficient. 

The Malagasi grammar is much more complex and 
elaborate than the Malay, or (changing the expression) 
the Malay is much less elaborate and complex than the 
Malagasi. Humboldt has drawn attention to this, and 



i 



MADAGASCAR. 



295 



suggested that it is in the Philippine division of the 
Malay group that the origin of the Malagasi is to be 
sought. Mr. Craufurd has urged this as an argument 
against the reality of the affinity. It is, certainly, a 
fact which requires explanation — perhaps confirmation. 



English. 


Malagasi. 


English. 


HalagasL 


Man 


ulu 


Smne 


lambu 


Head 


luha 


Bird 


vurong 


Eye 


maso 


Sum 


aduli 


Nose 


urong 


Moon 


fia 


Hair 


vulu 




maaso-anru 


Teeth 


nifi 




vula 


Hand 


tango 


Star 


vinta 


Blood 


ra 


Ont 


issa 


Day 


anru 


TlBO 


me 


Night 


halem 


Three 


tela 


Dead 


matti 


Pour 


e&t 


White 


futi 


Five 


lime 


Black 


mainti 


Six 


ene 


Fire 


afu 


Seeen 


fita 


Watet- 


rann 


Eight 


▼ala 


Earth 


tane 


Nine 


siva 


Stone 


vatu 


Ten 


fahi. 



The western third of Java is the area of the Sunda 

language ; the language of the district which gives its 
name to the Sunda Straits. The little that is written 
in the Sunda is written in the Javanese alphabet : the 
language itself being less cultivated, less ceremonial, and 
less studied by Europeans than the Javanese. 

The Javanese, closely allied to the Malay Proper, is 
the most cultivated of all the tongues of the Archipelago. 
It has long been written ; and that in a native alphabet. 
At present the creed is Mahometan : yet the alphabet, 
along with the literary influences, is other than 
Arabic. 

The Ngoko, however, or natural vernacular, is used 
only between equals in rank. For the purposes of 
ceremony there is an artificial form of speech called the 
Bhasa Krama. This, with most especial caj*e, avoids 
such terms as are not merely vulgar in the ordinary 



296 



JAVANESE. 



acceptation of the word but current in common life; 
for which it substitutes paraphrases, archaisms, introduc- 
tions from the Kawi, the Malay, and the like. In 
epistolary correspondence the ceremonial language is used 
even by superiors addressing their inferiors. In books 
it is mixed up with the Ngoko. 



English. 


Sunda. 


Ordinary Javanese. 


Basd Krima 


Man (vir) 


mandsa 


manfisa 


jalmi 




lalaki 


lanang 


jaler 




pa-megat 








jalma 


uwong 


tiang 


Woman 


awewek 


wadon 


istri 


Head 


pulu 


andas 


sirah 




sirah 




mustaka 




mustaka 






Eye 


mata 


mata 


maripat 




panon 




tingal 


Ear 


cheuli 


knping 


talingan 








karba 


Nose 


irung 


chungua 


ru 




pangembu 


irung 


grana 


Tooth 


untu 


untu 


waja 


Tongue 


letah 


elat 


lidah 


Hand 


panangan 


tangan 


astah 


Foot 


suku 


sikil 


suka 


Sky 


langit 


langit 


akasa 


Sun 


raetapoek 


srengenge 


suria 


Moon 


bulan 


wulan 


sasi 






rembutan 




Star 


benteung 


lintang 




Earth 


taneu 


bumi 


buntala 


Stone 


batu 


watu 


sela 


Water 


chai 


banui 


toya 


Fire 


seuneu 


geni 


latu 








brama. 



The learned language of Java — the analogue of the 
Sanskrit in India and the Pali in Ava — is known under 
the name of Kawi; a language in which there are 
numerous inscriptions and, at least, one long poem — the 
Bratayuda founded on the Sanskrit Mahabarata. The 
opinion of Sir Stamford Raffles, who first gave pro- 
minence to this remarkable dialect, was that the Kawi 



JAVANESE. 



297 



language was Sanskrit modified by the vernacular Ja- 
vanese. The opinion of Wilhehn von Humboldt, an 
opinion in which Mr. Craufurd agrees, is exactly the 
reverse. It makes the Kawi neither more nor less than 
archaic Javanese with an inordinate intermixture of 
Sanskrit. 

The island Madura gives another variety : a variety 
felling into two divisions, the Madura Proper and the 
Suraenap. The language of Bali is closely allied to the 
Javanese. The alphabet is Javanese also. Bali, how- 
ever, differs both from Java, and all the other islands 
of the Archipelago, in being, at the present moment^ 
what it was before the extension of Mahometanism to 
Sumatra — Braminic and Hindu. The Kawi language in 
Bali is what the Arabic — the language of the Koran — 
is in Java. Nor is the native literature unimportant. 
It is partly Kawi, partly Balinese — just as, in the middle 
ages, the literature of Italy was partly Latin, partly 
Italian. 



English. 


Madura. 


Man (rtr) 


manoea 




laki 




oreng 


Woman 


bini 


Head 


chetak 


Eye 


mata 


Ear 


kopeng 


Note 


elong 


Tooth 


gigi 


Tongue 


jila 


Hand 


tanang 



Snmeoap. 

lalaki 

oreng 

bibini 

chet^ 
sirah 

mata 

socha 

kopeng 

kuna 

elong 

gnma 

Risi 

vaja 

jila 

elad 

tanang 



BalL 

mandsa 

lanang 

muani 

janma 

wong 

histri 

tanggak 

tandas 

sirah 

mata 

pening'alan 

kaping 

kama 

cbiuigali 

g»g> 

l&yah 

elat 

tanang 



298 



8 


» 


3UMBAWA. 




English. 


Madura. 


Sumennp. 


Bali. 


Fo^ 


soko 


soko 


suko 


Sky 


lang'it 


lang'e 


lang'it 








ankasa 


Sun 


ngaieh 


are 


mata-nai 








suria 


Moon 


bulan 


bulan 


bulan 








sasih 


Star 


bintang 


bintang 


bintang 


Earth 


tana 


tana 


gumi 




bumi 


bumi 




Stone 


bato 


batu 


batu 


Fire 


apoi 


apoi 


api 








geni 


Water 


aing 


aing 


yeh 
toya. 



The language of Lombok — the Sasak — belongs to 
the same group as the Bali. Lombok, however, is 
Mahometan. What the Sasak contains in the way 
of literature is unknown. 

Sumbawa contains two written and one unwritten form 
of speech. The Sionihawa Proper is written in the Bugis 
character. So is the Bima. This latter language, how- 
ever, has also an alphabet of its own — little known, 
embodying next to nothing of a literature and bearing 
a general resemblance to those of Celebes and Sumatra. 
In Sumbawa the decided Malay character undergoes a 
modification and Bugis elements become somewhat 
prominent. The Sumbawa, however, and the Bima are 
as little Bugis, as they are Malay or Javanese, dialects. 



English. 


Sasak. 


Bima. 


Sumbawa. 


Man (homo) 


kelepe 


dho 


tau 


(vir) 


mama 


dho-mone-mone 


lake-laki 


Woman 


nina 


dho-siwe 


perampuan 


Head 


6tali 


tlita 


ulu 


Eyes 


m&ta 


m&da 


mata 


Nose 


imng 


ilu 


ing 


Hair 


bulu 


honggo 


welui 


Teeth 


gigi 


woi 


isi 


BeUy 


tian 


loko 


baboa 


Hand 


ima 


rima 


umang 


Foot 


nai 


ede 


aje 







SUMBAWA. 




I^Dgbsh. 


Sasak. 


Bima. 


Snmbava. 


Blood 


geti 


rah 


dara 


Day 


kelelie 


mrai 


iso 


Sim 


mota-jel 


u liroh 


fdnghar 


Moon 


nian 


wnrah 


wnlan 


Star 


bintang 


ntara 


bintoing 


Fire 


api 


api 


api 


Water 


ai 


oi 


jerie 


Stone 


bata 


\rada 


bata 


One 


sata 


sabaa 


sata 


Two 


doa 


lua 


doa 


Three 


tela 


toin 


tiga 


Four 


mpat 


opat 


ampat 


Five 


lima 


lima 


lima 


Six 


nam 


ini 


anam 


Seren 


^ta 


pida 


tfiju 


Eight 


litfa 


w&nt 


delapan 


Nine 


siws 


chewi 


Rambelan 


Tenr 


sapuln 


fiampnlu 


sapuln. 



299 



The Tinibora (perhaps, the same word as Timor) 
known only through a short vocabulary, is one of the 
first of languages of the Indian Archipelago in which 
Kelaenonesian elements were detected ; several of its 
words being Australian. 



£nglUh. 


Timbora. 


English. 


Timbora. 


Man {homo) 


dob 


Star 


kingkong 


{rir) 


sia-in 


Fire 


inaing'ang 


Woman 


onayit 


Water 


Tiaino 


Head 


kokore 


Stone 


ilah 


Eyes 


saingfore 


One 


sina 


Note 


saisg kome 


Two 


kalae 


Hair 


bulu 


Three 


rub 


Teeth 


sontong 


.Four 


kude-in 


Belly 


Eomore 


Fire 


kuteliu 


Hand 


taintu 


Six 


bata-in 


Foot 


maimpo 


Seven 


knmba 


Blood 


kiro 


Eight 


koneho 


Day 


kongkong 


Nine 


lali 


Sun 


inkong 


Ten 


sarene. 


Moon 


mang'ong 







Flores, or Ende, gives, according to Craufiird, no less 
than six forms of speech — the Ende, the Mangarei, the 
Kio, the Roka, the Konga, and the Galeteng. I only 
know the first two through any vocabulary. Like the 



300 



FLORES. 



Timbora, the Mangarei has Australian elements. The 
Malay and Bugis words decrease. Neither is the lan- 
guage written. We are beyond the influences of Maho- 
metanism as a predominant religion. We are (in the 
present state of our knowledge) beyond the influences of 
India, and its literature. 



Englisk 


Ende. 


English. 


Ende. 


Man (homo) 


dau 


Star 


dala 


(vir) 


uli-dau 


Fire 


api 


Woman 


ana-dau 


Water 


wai 


Head 


ula 


Stone 


batu 


Eye 


ana-mata 


One 


sa 


Nose 


niju 


Two 


zua 


Hair 


fu 


Three 


telu 


Teeth 


nihi 


Four 


wutu 


Belly 


toka 


Five 


lima 


Hand 


lima 


Six 


lima-a 


Foot 


wahi 


Seven 


lima-zua 


Blood 


raha 


Fight 


ruabutu 


Day 


giah 


Nine 


trasa 


Swn 


reza 


Ten 


Babulu. 


Moon 





2-) 




English. 


Mangarei. 


English. 


Mangarei. 


Man 


amunu 


Swine 


bai 


Head 


jahe 


Bird 


olo 


Eye 


nana 


Egg 


asowa 




mate 


Fish 


appi 


Nose 


mini 


Moon 


uru 


Hair 


jahe 


Star 


ipi-berri 


Teah 


wasi 


One 


isaku 


Hwttd 


tana-raga 


Two 


lolai 


Day 


usa 


Three 


lotitu 


Night 


gamu 


Four 


lopah 




humu 


Five 


lima 


White 


buti 


Six 


daho 


Black 


metam 


Seven 


fitu 


Fire 


atta 


Eight 


apa 


Waiter 


ira 


Nine 


siwa 


EaHh 


tana 


Ten 


turu. 



The language of Omhay is known through a single 
vocabulary. It agrees with the Timbora and Mangarei 



SAVU. 



301 



in the fact of Australian words having been detected 
in it. 

Rotti, of which the language 
fectly, is more Timor than aught 
scarcely a dialect of that language 

The same applies to the Solor. 



is known but imper- 
else. It is, however, 



English. 

Hair 

Head 

Blood 

Neck 

Hand 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 



Solor. 

rata 

kotang 

me joe 

wulin 

liman 

rarak 

wulan 

etak 



English. 


Solor. 


Tree 


pokang 


Fire 


apeh 


Man {homo) 


atadiekan 


(vir) 


bailikej 


Eye 


matan 


Ear 


tiloDg 


Tooth 


iepang. 



The same to the Savu. 



English. 
Head 

Eye 

Nose 
Hand 

Blood 

Day 

Night 

Black 

Dead 

Fire 

Water 

Earth 

Swine 

Fish 

Bird 

Egg 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 



Sam. 0*t diaUet.) 
naka 

naka-fana 



n&h 

namanas 

mesinokan 

mnti 

matin 

hai 

owai 

&ta 

koloh 

tainoh 

ekan 

nainoh 

folnn 

fafinomi 



SaTn. (ind dimUet.) 

kata 

kata 

matta 

namata 

ingutTi 

wnlaba 

wolaba 



dupudee 

bulla 

aee 

ailei 

voorai 

woTadoo 

Tare 

doleelah 

manoo 

dolloo 

ika 

lodo 

lodo 

WIUTOO 

wera 
wetn 



302 



SAVU. 



En^h. 


Savu. {\tt dialect.) 


Savu. (2nd dialed.) 


One 


aisa 


usse 


Two 


nua 


Ihua 


Three 


tenn 


tuUoo 


Powr 


hah 


uppah 


Five 


lema 


lumme 


Six 


naen 


unna 


Seven 


petu 


pedu 


Eight 


panu 


ami 


Nine 


saioh 


saio 


Ten 


boaisa 


singooroo. 



For Timor itself, although we have an amount of 
specimens of the most prevalent language, we are greatly 
in want of details, in the way of dialects. Yet there 
are few countries in which such details are more needed. 
Timor is the most eastern island of its range — as its name 
(which means eastern) implies. This makes it the nearest 
point in the ordinary Asiatic world to Australia. If 
this fact stood alone, it would be important. Still more 
important is it when taken in conjunction with the 
Australian elements in the Timbora, the Mangarei, and 
the Ombay vocabularies. For every one of them in these, 
we may expect two in Timor, i. e. in the languages 
which are the analogues to the Jakun in the Malay 
Peninsula, or the Ulu and Lobo in Sumatra. Such, 
doubtless, exist. What they are has to be learned. 



English. 


Timur. 


Manatoto. 


Eotti. 


Man 


aima 

loh 

ulu 


etobu 


hahalohi 


Head 


ulu 


langa 




naka 










garain 




Eyes 


mata 


matak 


mata 


Nose 


enur 


enol 


pana 


Hair 


fuhk 


garerun 


langa-bulu 


Teeth 


nehan 


nihi 


nesi 




resiel 






Blood 


rahan 


rahan 


dah 


Day 


loron 


lailon 


laido-anok 


NigJU 


halan 


hainin 


makah-atuk 


Dead 


matai 


matai 


mati 


White 


mutin 


rabuti 


fulah 


Black 


maitan 


mamaitan 


mati 



TIMOR. 



303 



English. 




Timur. 




Manatoto. 


Rofti. 


Fire 




ahi 




amarin 


hai 


Water 




vehi 




vehi 


owai 


Earth 




rahi 




raia 


dahai 


Stone 




fatuk 




hahe 


batu 


Swine 




faM 




hati 


bafi 


Bird 




manoh 




manoh 


man 






foheli 






hoi 


^99 




tolon 




tailon 


tolon 


Fish 




nahan 


basi 


ehan 


ehak 


Sun 




loroh 




lairon 


lailoh 






neno 








Moon 




fulan 




ulun 


bulak 






funan 








Star 




fetoen 
k'fun 




atah 


dtt 


One 




eida 




nehi 


aisa 


Two 




ma 




erua 


dua 


Three 




tolo 




etellu 


tellu 


Fo^ir 




haat 




ehaat 


haa 


Five 




lema 




lema 


lema 


Six 




naen 




naen 


naen 


Seven 




lietu 




hetu 


hetu 


Eight 




walu 




walu 


falu 


Nine 




sioh 




sioh 


sioh 


Ten 




sapulu 




sapulu 


sapulu. 


With the following 


specimens from the 


small islands 


east of Timor, I conclude the notice of the 


languages of 


the present division. 








English. 


Kissa. 




Baha. 


Keh Doulan. 


Wokan. 


Man 


mohoni 




amenmeni 


bunran 


lesi 


Woman 


mavek 




wata 


wat-waat 


kodar 


Head 


ulu-wakhu 


otone 


uhu 


fuku 


Hair 


munikon 


murutne 


morun 


kuku 


Hand 


liman 




liman 


liman 


lima 


Foot 


ehin 




logami 


chaa 


ebahi 


Eyes 


makan 




makne 


matan 


mata 


Nose 


iruni 




irinne 


mirun 


juri 


Mouth 


miran 




norinne 


ngoen 


fafahi 


Ears 


kilin 




telinne 


arun 


tahari 


Stm 


leri 




leher 


leher 


larat 


Moon 


woUi 




voile 


huan 


fulan 


Star 


kaleor 




tiola 


nahr 


tawar 


Earth 


noha 




noha 


noho 


fafa 


Fire 


ai 










Water 


oira 




iera 


"wair 


waya. 



304 



KISSA AND MALAY. 



Of these, the Kissa has commanded attention from 
the character of its letter-changes when compared with 
the Malay. 



English. 


M.lay. 


Kissa. 


Stone 


batu 


wahku 


Sea 


teBft 


kahe 


Eye 


mata 


makan 


Dead 


mati 


maki 


Heart 


ati 


akin 


Heavy 


brat 


werek 


Broken 


patah 


pahki 


Ear 


telinga 


kilin 


East 


timur 


kimur 


Hog 


babi 


wawr 


Feather 


bubi 


wula 


Hot 


panas 


manah 


Wrong 


sala 


hala 


Hard 


kras 


kereh 


MUk 


susu 


huhu 


Wash 


baso 


baha 


New 


bharu 


wohru. 



In this prevalence of the sound of h we have a 
Polynesian characteristic. 



BORNEO. 305 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

Langnages of Borneo, &c, to Ceiam. 

In Timor (for reasons which will appear in the sequel) 
it is convenient to finish the present group ; having 
done which we go back to the longitude of Java, and 
move along the line of the Equator ; in other words, we 
begin with a series of languages and dialects, for which 
the great island of Borneo is our starting-point. 

In Borneo there is no native alphabet ; yet there 
are traces in the aboriginal creeds, not only of Indian 
influences, but of Mahometan as well. 

In Borneo there are numerous foreign elements, which 
vary with the district. As a rule, they attach them- 
selves to the coast ; but they differ with the different 
parts of it. On the west the Malays, on the south-east 
the Bugis, on the north the Sulu populations have made 
settlements. 

All that belongs to the natives is, roughly speaking, 
unlettered and pagan. Where they have contracted 
decided maritime habits, they are Biajuks, Biajns, or 
Bajows ; these tenns being (generally) equivalent to 
Orang Laut = the Men of tlve Sea. The rudest among 
them have been called Sea Gipsies. Where they are 
river boatmen or landsmen they are Dydks ; though 
neither term can be taken absolutely. The division, 
then, between the two denotes a difference of habits 
rather than of blood. 

X 



306 



BORNEO. 



The details for Borneo, until lately, were scanty. 
Since Labuan, however, has become English, they have 
increased. For the remainder of the island, the Dutch 
are our chief authorities ; and it is probable (indeed 
certain) that the knowledge of what is to be found in 
Holland is, on the part of the present writer, very 
imperfect. 

Dialects for the parts about Labuan from Sir J, 
Brooke. 



English. 




Sangouw. 


Biajuk. 


Murung. 


Kupuas. 


Man 




ulu 


ulu 


urun 


icho 


Head 






takulu 


kohong 


utok 


Eyes 






mata 


mata 


mata 


Nose 




Ingher 


urung 






Hair 




buk 


balau 


baru 


buru 


Teeth 




ifie 


kasingye 


kusing 


kusing 


Hand 




tesa 


lengye 


rongo 


renga 


Blood 






daha 


doho 


doho 


Day 






andan 


onong 


sunit 


Night 






malem 


homoram 


kaput 


Dead 




matty 


matei 


matoe 


motoe 


White 




pute 


bapute 


puticb 


mitu 






toete 


brea 






Black 




menaram 


babilem 


mahuk 


morim 






apy 


apui 


apoi 


bakok 






danom 


danum 


bea 


tuhasak 


Earth 




boenoe 


petak 


potak 


tanak 








IX 


botu 


botu 


Swim 




bawie 


DduU 

babui 


boui 


bowi 


Bird 







burong 


burong 


burong 


Egg 






tantelu 


tolu 


tolu 


Fish 




lauk 


lauk 


rouk 


uchin 


Sim 




mata-sou 


matan-andau 


matan-onong matan-onong 






tolan 


bulan 


buran 


pun-allah 






bientang 


bintong 

(2.) 


bintong 


bintong. 

\ 


English. 


Suntah 


Sow. 


Sibuow. Sakarran. Men. 


Millanow. Malo. 


Man 


dari 


dali 


orang orang 


idek 


tooli babaka 


Head 


ubok 


bok 


bok bok 


fok 


bok bok 


Hair 


obak 


bak 


pala pala 


uho 


ulow ulu 


Ear 


kagit 


kagit 


pundjn punde 


n telinga 


linga telinga 


Eye 


buttok button 


mata mata 


mata 


matta mata 



Nose undong indong idong idong singote udong ingar 









BORNEO. 




307 


Euglisb 


Suntah. 


Sow. 


Sibnow. 


Sakarran. Men. 


Millanow. 


Halo. 


Mouth 


bubbah 


bubbah 


mulut 


mulut munong 


bah 


baba 


Teeth 


jipuk 


jipun 


gigi 


gnali nipun 


nipun 


isi 


Tongm 


; jurah 


jurah 


dila 


dila jillah 


jullah 


lela 


Hand 


tangan 


tonga n 


lungan 


tangan tujoh 


agum 


tangan 


Sly 


rangit 


longit 


langit 


langit langit 


rangit 


suan 


$UH 


batandu battun unde mata'an 


mata'an mattadullow mattalow 


matasu 


Moon 


boran 


bnlan 


bulan 


bulan tukka 


bulan 


bulan 


Star 


betang 


betang 


api undow 


bintang futtak 


bintang 


bintong 


Hirer 


sungei 


sungee 


sungee 


sungei like 


sungei 


sungei 


Egg 


tnro 


tulo 


tiUo 


tuUo tujjoh 


tello 


telui 


^otie 


batu 


batu 


batu batu batow 


sanow 


batu 


Fowl 


siok 


ok 


manuk manuk aal 


siow 


manuk 


Bird 


manuk 


burong 


bukong burong manuk 


manuk 


burong. 




For the central parts of the island. 








£nglish. 




Kavan. 


English. 


Kayan. 






Man 




laki 


Foot 


kasa 






Woman 




doh 


Sea 


kala 






Head 




kohong 


Earth 


tana lim 






Hair 




bok 


Sh/ 


langit 






Beard 




bulo 


Sun 


matin -dow 




Eye 




mata 




bulan 






Ear 




apang 




kraning 






Nose 




urong 


Fire 


apoi 






Mouth 




ba 


Water 


atta 






Tongue 




jila 


Fish 


masik 






Teeth 




knipan 


Egg 


tilo. 






Hand 




kama 









Celebes, in respect to our knowledge of its philological 
details, is more like Sumatra than Borneo ; in other 
words, we have a fair amount of data for its numeroas 
dialects. 



English. 


Mandhar. 


Macassar. 


Bugis. 


Manijiomo) 


tan 


tau 


tawu 


(vir) 


chacho 


borani 


horoani 


Woman 
Head 


bahini 
ul 


bahini 
uluna 


makonrai 
ulu 


Eyes 


mata 


matana 


mata 


Nose 
Hair 
Teeth 


eng'a 
welua 
isi 


inga 
rambut 


ing'a 
welua 
isi 


Belly 
Hand 
Foot 
Blood 


porot 
lima 
aje 
dara 


batan 
liman 
banuge 
dara 


babua 
lima 
aji 
dara 



X 2 



308 





BORNEO. 




Maiidhur. 


Macassar. 


Bngis. 


raatahari 


singhar 


ma,tamo 


wulaD 


bulan 


wulan 


Mnoin 


bintoin 


bitoin 


api 


pepe 


api 


wai 


jene 


■wtd 


tana 


hntah 


tana 


batu 


batn 


batu 


manumanu jang'anjang'an 


manumann 


ndoh 


bayu 


iteloh 


bale 


juku 


baleh. 



English. 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Earth 

Stone 

Bird 

Fish 



The Bugis, like the Batta, the Korinchi, the Rejang, 
and the Lampong, has an alphabet, which, saving such 
exceptions as may be taken from the fact of its being 
common to five languages, is a native one, i. e. is neither 
decidedly Arabic like the Malay, nor decidedly Indian 
like the Javanese. It is Batta, &c. in its general 
character — not in its details. It embodies more of a 
literature than any of its congeners. I have before 
me a Bugis poem, on the hero of a recent war against 
the Dutch. 



English. 


Gunungtellu. 


Menadu. 


Man (homo) 


manusia 


to 


(vir) 


satulai 


toama 


Woman 


tabua 


wewone 


Head 


lunggongo' 


ulu 


Eyes 


mata 


waren 


Nose 


ulingo' 


nirung 


Hair 


woho 


wuhuk 


Teeth 


dang'eta 


wahang 


Belly 


mbong'a 


poot 


Hand 


otoho 


leng'an 


Blood 


duLu 


raha 


Sun 


mutuhari 


ndoh 


Moon 


ulano 


lelehon 


Star 


olipopo 


tototian 


Fire 


tolu 


api 


Water 


teloho 


rano 


Earth 


huta 


tana 


Stone 


batu 


watu 


Bi/rd 


bui-ung 


koko 


Eyg 


putitor 


atelu 


Fish 


tota 


pongkor. 



CELEBES. 



309 



The Menadu falls into numerous dialects, and sub-dia- 
lects ; though, probably, into no more than several of 
its congeners. Its mi nut ice, however, have been given 
in detail by A. J. F. Jansen, from whose paper the 
following short extract is taken as a specimen of the 
amount of variety which obtains in these parts. 

Sea Wind Sain 

laor reges naran 

tasik uran 

laur 



English 

Tonsea 

Klabat-atas 

Lil-upang 

Aris 

Negri jharu, 

Klabat-baKa 

Tondano 

Rembokeng 

Kakaa 

Langowan 

Saroinsoig 

Tmimshon 

Kakaslassing 

Touniaririj 

Sonder 

Romokon 

Tounbassian 

Touwasang 

Tovmpasso 

Kttxcanglcoan 

Ponosahan 

Pa^mng 

Ratahan 

Bantik 

Sangij 

Tagvlangdang 

Talaur 

Hotontalo 

Bctango 

Parigi 

Taheang 

Bolong-mongmido intau 

Bolong-itang-ota 

Kaidipang 

Bud tau 

Patos tona 



Man {homo) Man (vir) 
toaw tnama 



intouw 
tomata 



toumata 



kawenua 

tau 

momata 

tau 

tau 







nuran 


la-wanan 




naro 


lour 




uran 






nuran 


tasik 




uran 


lur 






tasik 






unner-untasik 







laur 






taasik 


reger 




laur 


reges 





salojon 
lur 



kakab tukam 
reges uran 



lolakij 

maiinij 

mouanij 

mahuanen 

eseh 



balangan 
wolangon 
wolangon 
rawdouw 
lauduk 



tololai 
rorach 
langai 

Dganemaini 

lolakij tlagat 
bolango 



auhu 
augu 
tampanao 



sompot ujan 
sonsam tihiti 
■wahe tahiti 
pipihi tahiteij 
anging tahiti 

angin uran 
dupoto didih 
hibuto huah 
uda 

tompot ujan 
dupota oha 



maane 
laitgai 



asih 



pom 



ulano 
udah. 



In Buton and Amboyna, the variation of dialect is 
but slight ; increasing in Sa2)arua, Teriiati, and Geram. 



310 






CELEBES. 






1 


. 




English. 


Biiton. 


English. 


Butou. 


Man (homo) 


tau 


Foot 


aje 


(vir) 


tau 


Blood 


dara 


Woman 


makonrai 


Bay 


aso 


Head 


iilu 


Sun 


matahari 


Eyes 


mata 


Moon 


wulah 


Nose 


ing'a 


Star 


bintoing 


Hair 


welu 


Fire 


api 


Teelh 


isi 


Water 


ayer 


Belly 


babrea 


Stone 


batu 


Hand 


liman 


Bird 


manuk. 




2. 




English. 


Saparua. 


English. 


Sapania. 


Man (homo) 


t6ma-tawu 


Star 


humane 


{vir) 


manawau 


Fire 


hahlilo 


Woman 


pipin&wa 


Water 


wa^lo 


Head 


uruni 


Stone 


hatao 


Eye 


maani 


One 


isahi 


Nose 


irini 


Two 


rua 


Hair 


rhuwon 


Three 


oru 


Tooth 


nioni 


Four 


haan 


Belly 


tehfini 


Five 


* rim a 


Hand 


rimani 


Six 


noho 


Foot 


ahini 


Seven 


hitu 


Blood 


lalani 


Eiffht 


vfkra 


Day 


kai 


Nine 


siwah 


Sun 


ria-ma-ano 


Ten 


dhutdhi. 


Moon 


hulano 

r 


\. 


1 


English. 


Ternati. 


English. 


Ternati 


Man (homo) 


manusia 


Star 


fina-binten 


(vir) 


nonau 


Fire 


ukut 


Woman 


fohekeh 


Water 


aki 


Head 


dop6Io 


Stone 


marih 


Eyes 


tako 


One 


rimoi 


Nose 


idung 


Two 


romo-didi 


Hair 


rambut 


Three 


ra-angi 


Teeth 


gigi 


Four 


raha 


Belly 


hoot 


Five 


roma-toha 


Hand 


tangan 


Six 


rara 


Foot 


kaki 


Seven 


tomdi 


Blood 


dara 


Eight 


tof-kangi 


Bay 


modiri 


Nine 


siyu 


Sun 


m&ta-h&ri 


Ten 


yagimoi. 


Moon 


bfilan 










TERNATI. 






4. 




Engliah. 


Cemn. 


English. 


Ceram. 


Man (Jiomo) 


tau-mata 


-Star* 


butlung 


— {vir) 


ese 


Fire 


putung 


Woman 


babini 


Water 


&ke 


Eyes 


mata 


Stone 


batu 


Nose 


irung 


One 


sembua 


Hair 


6ta 


Two 


darfia 


Teeth 


id 


Three 


titela 


Belly 


tiang 


Four 


ipa 


Hand 


ttkiar 


Five 


lima 


Foot 


lad 


Six 


n&ig 


Blood 


din 


Seven 


pfta 


Day 


doh 


Eight 


Vila 


Sun 


doh 


Nine 


doh 


Moon 


bdlaa 


Ten 


mapnm. 



311 



Here ends the north-eastern line, from the extremity 
of which we return to the parts due north of Borneo, i. e. 
the Sulu Archipelago. 



312 



THE SULU. 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 

The Languages of the Sulu Archipelago. — Philippines. — Formosa. 

Of the dialects of the long island of Palawan, I know 
no specimens. They are probably Sulu like the follow- 
ing. 



English. 


Sulu. 


English. 


Sulu. 


Man 


ossoog 


White 


mapote 


Bead 


00 


Black 


maitom 


Eye 


mata 


Fire 


kalaryu 


Ear 


taingah 


Water 


tubig 


Nose 


ilong 


Stone 


bato 


Hair 


bohoc 


Bird 


manok 


Teeth 


nipun 


Erjg 


iklug 


Hand 


kamot 


Fiih 


ista 


Blood 


dugu 


Sitn 


adalow 


Belly 


tian 


Moon 


bulon 


Bone 


bfikug 


Star 


bitohon 


Foot 


siki 


Earth 


leopah 


Day 


hadlaou 


Black 


maitum 


Night 


gabi 


Dead 


miatai nab 



In Mindanao the Bissayan falls into no less than five 
dialects. It changes again in lolo, in Bohol, and in 
Samar where it approaches the Tagala. The Capul or 
Bissayan of the island of Abac falls into the Inabacnura 
dialect of the north, the Inagta of the south, and the 
General Language in which our authority Garcia de 
Torres preached and administered the sacraments. 

The Bissayan of Panaz also falls into sub-dialects — 
one of which is the Hiligueina, the other the Haraya. 

The Camarinos of the next group is the most 



I 



THE PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES. 



313 



Bissayan of the class, and it is probably transitional. 
The Tagala is the language of the capital, Manilla. 
The Pampanga and the Iloco approach the Tagala. Of 
the Pangasinan I only know the name. The Zambali 
is a mountaineer, the Maitim a (so-caDed) Negrito, form 
of speech. 



Euglish. 


Bissayan. 


Iloco. 


Cayasran. 


Tagala. 


Man 


lalaqui 


lalaqai 


lalaqui 


tauo 


Hair 








boboc 


Head 








olo 


Tooth 








ngipin 


Tongue 








dilah 


Eye 








mata 


Ear 









tayinga 


Noge 








hilaga 


Hand 








Camay 


Blood 


dugu 


darat 


daga 


dugu 


Bay 


adlau 


adlau 


aggao 


arao 


Sun 


adlao 


init 


bilac 


arao 


Moon 


bulan 


bulan 


fnlan 


buan 


Star 









bitofn 


Fire 








apuy 


Wattr 


tubig 


danum 


danum 


tubig 


Bird 


mamuk 


tumatayab 


mamanu 


ibon 


Fish 


isda 


ikan 


sira 


isda 


Milk 


gatas 


tubigtisoso 


gatto 


gatas 


Tree 


X>onosacaha7 


kago 


kayu 


cahuy 


Stone 


bato 


bato 


battu 


bato 


One ' 


nsa 


meysa 


tadday 


ysa 


Two 


duha 


dna 


dua 


dalaua 


Three 


tulo 


tallo 


talu 


tatio 


Four 


apat 


eppat 


appa 


apat 


Five 


lima 


lima 


lima 


limo 


Six 


anum 


innem 


anam 


anim 


Seven 


pito 


pito 


pitu 


pito 


Eight 


ualo 


ualo 


ualn 


ualo 


Nine 


siam 


siam 


siam 


siyam 


Ten 


napulo 


sangapolo 


mafulu 


iangpono 



The following are said to be Negrito forms of speech. 

1. 



English. 
Man 
Woman 
Ear 



Umiray. 
laqui 
tuvanac 
taliuga 



St. Mignel. 
lacay 
bacDs 
talinga 



St. Matheo. 
lacay 
bacus 
talinga 



314< 



THE PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Umiray. 


St. Miguel. 


St. Matheo. 


Blood 


saquo 


dalaa 


galaa 


Hand 


cumot 


gumut 


gavat 


Foot 


siquii 


tecut 


daadaa 


Shy 


langot 






Moon 


panuodan 


bulan 


bulan 


Star 


butatalaa 


bitung 


bitung 


Fire 


gagavas 


nayan 


nayan 


Water 


urat 


vagut 


lau 


Stone 


batu 


batu 


batu 


Tree 


pamutingueo 


labat 


labat 


Bird 


manoc 


manoc 


manoc 


Fish 


ican 


ican 


isda 


I 


yaco 


tiyac 


heyaco 


Thou 


icamo 


hicamu 


hica 


That 


edu 


yiay 




We 


dicame 


hicami 




Ye 


dicamu 


decamu 


hicamu 


They 


ediya 

2 


sediya 


huya. 


English. 


Duma gat. 


English. 


Dumagat. 


Hair 


ipede 


Moon 


bilande 


Eye 


mataa(2e 


Star 


bitone 


Ear 


sagede 


NiglU 


alinde 


Beard 


baangcfe 


Sea 


dagat 


Hand 


alemacfe 


River 


sayogde 


Feet 


hitiade 


Earth 


limacc^e 


Knee 


bolongrf€ 


Tree 


hapoydc 


Neck 


liog 


Forest 


cabutanrfe 


Sun 


pigluntZc 







For the BasM islands, the following vocabulary is 
taken from E. Belcher's Voyage of the Samarang. 



English. 


Baahi. 


English. 


Bashi. 


Head 


ogho 


Moon 


bughan 


Hair 


buoc 


Earth 


madedah 


Eye 


mata 


Fire 


apui 


Ewr 


titiduan 


Water 


danom 


BeUy 


budek 


Egg 


ocloy 


Bone 


tughan 


Fish 


amon 


Foot 


cocon 


Black 


mabaghen 


Day 


arao 


Dead 


nadiman. 



In Formosa we reach the end of the long series of 
languages akin to the Malay in this direction ; for to the 



FORMOSAN. 315 

north of Formosa the Japanese dialects begin. That a 
Malay form of speech was spoken in Formosa was kIlo^^^l 
to Klaproth. That there were more forms of speech than 
one on the island was also known. Whether they 
were aU Malay was another question. 

Between 1624, and 1661, the Dutch occupied the 
island, and attempted not without a partial success, to 
introduce Christianity. The result was the data for 
what, until lately, was the only Formosan vocabulary 
known : one of the Sideia dialect. About twenty 
years ago, however, a Favorlang dictionary by Gilbert 
Happast, A.D. 1650, was discovered and published. 
This gave a second dialect— almost a second lan- 
guage. 

A MS. discovered at Utrecht, and published by Van- 
der Vlis, has supplied a sub-dialect of the Sideia^ 
which, inter alia, gives a regular letter change between 
r and s. 



EngUah. 


Klaproth's Formosan 


Vander Vlis. 


Father 


nuna 


sama 


Mother 


rena 


sena 


Water 


ralaum 


salong 


Thunder 


mngdimg 


smgding 


Tree 


parannali 


pesanach 


Foot 


rahpal 


sapal 


Greai 


iiaDg 


isang 


Two 


ranka 


(so) soa. 



It is reasonably suggested by Gabelentz that this is 
a specimen of a dialect, elsewhere called Sakam. 

The Tachais and Tiloes are apparently dialects, or 
sub-dialects of the Favorlang. 

Upon the Formosan languages, with the additions 
supplied to the original Sideia data by the Favorlang, 
we have a valuable monograph by Gabelentz ; the au- 
thority for everything contained in the preceding, 
notice, which is not found in Klaproth. Its main object 
is the fixation of the places of the Formosan in the 
Malay class. Gabelentz decides that its affinities are in- 



316 



FORMOSAF. 



definite and miscellaneous, i. e. that it is not so decidedly 
Philippine as its geographical relations suggest. From 
this work, I take the following tables, which give twenty- 
four words out of one hundred and twenty-six. In the 
present work they serve a secondary purpose, viz., the 
elucidation of the general characters of the affinities 
which bind the several languages of the present group 
together. With the exception of Guafuim, Chamori, 
Yap, Ulea, and Satawal, all the names have already 
been met with ; so that, if the reader will remember 
that these are names for certain dialects from the 
Ladrone and Caroline archipelagoes, he will be suffi- 
ciently master of the nomenclature. 



English. 


Man 


Head 


Hair 


Forehead 


Favorlang 


bahosa, sjam 


oeno 


t^u, ratta 


tees 


Sida 


paraigh 


vaungo 


vaukugh 




Tagala 


lalaqui 


olo 


bolo, bohoc 


noo 


Bissayan 


lalaqui 


olo 


bolbol, bohoc 


adtang 


Pampango 


lalaqui 


buntuc 


bulbul, icat 


canuan 


Iloco 


lallaqui 


olo 






Malay 


laki 


ulu, kepala 


rambut, bulu 


dahi, batuk 


Javanese 


tijang djaler 


sirah, kepolo 


rambot, woeloe 


bathok 


Bugis 


woroane 


ulu 


weluak 


linroh 


Dayah 


olo hatu& 


takolok 


bulu, balau 


lingkau 


Sunda 


laki, pamegat 


hoeloe, mastaka 


boe-oek 


taraug, taar 


Bali 


muwani, lanang 


tandas, sirah 







Lampong 


bakas 


hulu 


buho 




lialta 


morah 


ulu 


obu 




GtiaJiam 


lahe 


oulou 


gapoun oulou. 


hai 


CJiamori 


lahi 


ulu 


gapunulu 




Yap 


pimohn 


elingeng 


lalugel 




Ulea 


in&moan 


methackitim 


timui 


— - 


Satawal 


mal, mar 


roumai, simoie 


alerouma, tiraoe 


man lia'i 


Malagasi 


ahy 


loha 


volo 


handrina. 


English. 


Bye 


Nose 


Ear 


Mouth 


Favorlang 


macha 


not 


chiirrina 


ranied, sabbaclia 


Sida 


matta 


gongos 


tangira 


motaus 


Tagala 


mata 


ylong 


tayinga 


bibig 


Bissayan 


mata 


ylong 


talinga 


baba 


Pampangc 


) mata 


arung 


talinga 


asboc 


Iloco 


mata 


— 






Malay 


mata 


idung 


talinga 


mulut 



I 









FORMOSAN. 


317 


English. 


Eye 




Noge 


Ear 


Mouth 


Javanese 


moto 




grono, hiroeng 


taliengngan 


tjangkem, tjotjot 


Bwjis 


mata 




ingok 


dachuling 


tima 


Dayalc 


mata 






pinding 


njama 


Saruh, 


mata 




hiroeng 


tjeli, tjepil 


soengoet 


Bali 


mata 




knnguh 


k aping, kama 


bongnt, changkam 


Lampong 


mata 




egong, iong 


chiuping 




BaUa 


mahta 




igung 


suping 


bawa 


Gnaham 


mata 




goni inn 


talanha 


pashoad 


Chamori 


mata 




gnihin 


talanja 


pat j ad 


Tap 


eauteg 




bnsemon 


ilig 


langach 


Ulea 


matai 




wathel 


talengel 


eol 


Satawal 


metal, messai 


poiti, podi 


talinhe 


ewai 


Malaga^ 


maso 




oranft 


sofina 


vava. 


English. 


Tooth 




Tonffue 


Beard 


Neck 


Farorlang 


sjien 




tatsira 


ranob 


bokkir, arriborri- 
bon 


Sida 


waligh 




dadila 




taang 


Tagala 


ngipin 




dila 


gumi 


lyig 


Bissayan 


ngipun, 


salat 


dila 


sulang, bungnt 


liog 


Pampango 


ipan 




dila 


baba 


batal 


Hoco 










atingnged 


Malay 


gigi 




Udah 


janggut, ramoe 


leer, jangga 


Javanese 


wodjo, hoentoe 


Hlat 


djenggot 


djonggo, goeloe 


Bwjis 


isi 




Ula 


jangkok 


olong 


Dayah 


kasinga 




djela 


djanggut 


ujat 


Sunda 


hoentoe 


waos 


leetah, ilat 


djanggot 


beheng 


Bali 


gigi, untu 


lavah, hilat 




babong 


Lampong 


ipon 




ma 




galah 


Batta 


ningi 










Guaham 


nifin 




oola 




agaga 


Chamori 


nifin 




hnla 


atschai 


hagaga 


Yap 


mulech 




athaen 


nip 


lugunag 


Ulea 


nir 




luel 


els41 


uel 


Satawal 


ni, gni 




loae'i laouel 


alouzai, alissel 


faloai, ounoagai 


Malagasi 


nify 




tela 


YoIom-baTa 


tenda, vozona. 


English. 


Breast 




Belly 


Arm 


Hand 


Favorlang 


arrabis, 


zido 


chaan 


tea 


rima 


Sida 


avS,u 




vauyl 


pariaa 


rima 


Tagala 


dibdil., 


soso 


tiyan 


patay 


Camay 


Bisgayan 


dughati, 


soso 


tian 


butcon 


camot, Camay 


Pampangt 


salo, susu 


attian 


tacdai 


camat, camaao 


Iloco 


barucuE 


g, susu 






ima 


Malay 


clada, susu 


prut 


tangan 


asta, taugan 


Javanese 


djo<ljo, 


soesoe 


pedahaarran 


iaugngen 


hastho, tangngan 



English. 


Breast 


Belly 


Arm 


Hand 


Bugis 


aroh, susu 


babuwa 




lima 


Bayah 


usok, susu 


knai 


lenga 


lenga 


Sunda 


dada, soesoe 


betteng, lamboet 


lengen 


lengen, panangan 


Bali 


niu-niuh 


basang, watang 




lima, tangan 


Lampong 


susu-amah 


batong 




chiulok, chulu 


Batta 




boldok 


tangan 


tangan 


Ouaham 


ha ouf, soussou 


touiann 


hious 


kana'i 


Chamori 


hauf, susu 


tudjan 


kanei 


kanei 


Yap 


niierungoren, thi 
thi 


- thugunem 


pach 


karovinarine-pagh 


Ulea 


uwal, thithi 


siel 


bai 


humutel 


Satawal 


loupai, oupoual, 
ti, toussaga'i 


sega'i oubouoi 


rape lepei 


ga leima, pra 
nema 


Malagasi 


tratra 


iibo 


sandry 


t^nana. 


English. 


Finger 


Foot 


Heart 


Blood 


Favorlang 


apillo 


asiel 


totto, tutta 


tagga 


Sida 


kagamos 


rahpal, tiltil 


tintin 


amagh 


Tagala 


dali 


paa 


poso 


dugo 


Bissayan 


torlo 


teel, siqui 


posoposo 


dugo 


Pampango 


1 taliri 


bitis 


pusu, busal 


daya 


Iloco 






naquem 


dara 


Malay 


jari 


kaki, pada 


ati 


darah 


Javanese 


derridji 


soekoe, podo 


batos, hati 


rah 


Bugis 


jari 


ajeh 


ati 


dara 


Dayak 


tundjuk 


pai 


atei 


daha 


Sunda 


ramo 


soekoe, dampal 


djadjantoeng 


gettih 


Bali 


jariji, hanti 


chokor, suku 


jantung 


gateh, rah 


Lampong 


jari 


chiukot 


jautung 


rah 


Batta 


djidi muduk 






mutter 


Ouaham 


kalouloud 


adin 






Chamori 


kalulud 


adding 




haga 


Yap 


pugelipagh 


garovereven 




ratta 


Ulea 


kasthel 


petehl 




ta 


Satawal 


attili pai 


pera perai 




atchapon 


Malagasi 


rantsan-tslnana 


tongotra 


fo 


ra. 


English. 


Flesh 


Bone 


Milk 


Skin 


Favorlang 


U& 


oot 


tach zido 


maram 


Sida 


wat 


toural 


hakey 


yalidt 


Tagala 


laman 


bot-d 


gatas 


balat 


Bissayan 


onor, tayor 


tulan 


gatas 


anit, panit 


Pampango laman, bulbul 


butul 


gatas, sabad 


biilat, catal 


Iloco 


dumsira 








Malay 


daging 


lulaug 


susu, ayar-susu 


kulit 







FORMOSAN. 




31 


English. 


Flesh 


Bone 


MiXk 


SUn 


Javanese 


dhaging 


tosan, baloong 


tojo soesoe 


koeUt 


Bugis 


jaka 


buku 


susa 


nli 


Dayak 


isi 


tolang 


djohon-tosu 


Qpak 


Sunda 


laoek, daging 


toelang 


tji-soesoe 


koeUt 


Bali 


hisi, daging 


tulang, balung 


nyonyo 


kolet 


Lampong 


dagaing 


tnlaa 


wai-susu 


bawa 


Batta 










Guaham 




tolan 






Chamori 






tschngusTisu 




Yap 







lengiren 




Ulea 






fiU 




Satavxd 


fetougoul 


roulou pei 




poiuu 


Maiagasi 


nofo 


taolana 


ronono 


hoditra. 



Whether this be the language of the aborigines of 
Formosa is doubtful. All that can be said is, that no 
sample of any second language is known. 



320 



TOBI. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

Micronesia. — Tobi. — The Pelew islands. — The Caroline and Marianne (or 
Ladrone) Archipelagoes. — The Polynesia. 



By Micronesia is meant everything between Gilolo and 
the Philippines on one side, and the Navigator's Is- 
lands, or Samoan Archipelago, on the other. The first 
steps in the passage are long ones, and the group is, to 
some extent, artificial. 

For Tobi, or Lord North's Island, and the Pelew 
group ; important as these islands are foi' any investiga- 
tion which, like the present, derives Polynesia fi:om 
Micronesia, and Micronesia from either the Philippines 
or the parts about Tidore and Gilolo, we have but 
scanty data. 



English. 


Tobi. 


j!)ngIiB)i. 


Tobi. 


Man 


amare 


Moon 


mokum 


Woman 


vaivi 


Star 


uitsh 


Head 


metshemum 


Fire 


yaf 


Hair 


tshim 


Water (fresh) 


taru 


Beard 


kusum 


{salt) 


tat 


Hand 


kaimuk 


Stone 


vas 


Foot 


petchem 


Bird 


karum 


Bone 


tshil 


Fish 


ika. 


Sun 


yaro 







For the Pelew islands we have the following voca- 
bularies, the first of which is from ]\Iarsden, the second 
from Keate's account of the islands. 



English. 


Pelew (1.) 


Pelew (3.) 


Man 


arracat 


masaketh 


Head 


pudeluth 


botheluth 


Eye 


muddath 


colsule 


Nose 


koyum 


kiule 


Bca/i-d 


unwulel 


iingelcU 


Hand 


kurruel 


kemark 



THE PELEW ISLANDS. 



321 



English. 


Pelew a). 


Pelew (2). 


Blood 




arrasaack 


Day 


kno:ak 


cucuk 


Night 


kapisongi 


kaposingi 


Dead 


mathe 


niathee 


WhiU 


kalela 


keUelu 


Black 


kaletori 


catteftoa 


Fire 


ngaou 


karr 




miul 




Water 


rabn 


arral 


Earth 


kntnm 




Stone 




path 


Bird 


kochayu 


cockiyu 




malk 




^99 




niese 


Fish 


nikel 


neekel 


Sun 


kioss 


coyoss 


Moon 


pnyur 


pooyer 


Star 


bedak 


bethack 


0%e 


tang 


tong 


Two 


omng 


oroo 


Three 


othay 


othey 


Four 


awang 


oang 


Five 


aim 


aeem 


Six 


lollom 


malong 


Seven 


awitii 


oweth 


Eight 


ai 


tei 


Nine 


ettea 


etew 


Ten 


truyuk 


tricook 




magoth 


makoth. 



Few languages are more important than those of the 
small islands hereabouts. They should be compared not 
only with the Philippine, but the Formosan — with which 
the Pelew has some remarkable coincidences. 

The typical languages of Micronesia are the following. 



Eni^li. 


Gnaham. 


Chamari. 


Yap. 


Man 


lahe 


laM 


pimohn 


Woman 


Palawan 


palaoan 


wupin 




aga 






Head 


oulou 


ola 


elingeng 










Hair 


gapoun-oolu 


gaponnlu 


lalugel 



Ulea. 


Satawal. 


mamoan 


mal 


tabut 


raboat 





faifid 


methackitim ronniai 




simoie 


timiii 


aleroamai 




timoi 




Y 



322 



MICRONESIAN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Gunham. 


Chamori. 


Yap. 


Ulea. 


Satawal. 


Eye 


mata 


mata 


eauteg 


matai 


metal 


Nose 


gouiinn 


guihin 


busemun 


wathel 


poiti 


Tooth 


nifin 


nifin 


mulech 


nir 


ni, gni 


Tongue 


oula 


hula 


athaen 


luel 


laouel 


Beard 




atshai 


rap 


elsal 


alouzai 


Neeh 


agaga 


hagaga 


lugunag 


uel 


faloui 













ounougai 


Ear 


talanha 


talanja 


ilig 


talengel 


talinhe 


Mouth 


pashoud 


patjoud 


langach 


eol 


ewai 


Breast 


haouf 


hauf 


niierungoreng 


uwal 


loupai 


— 


susu 


susu 


thithi 


thithi 


ti 


Belly 


touiann 


tudjan 


thugunem 


siel 


segai oubonoi 


Arm 


hious 


kanei 


pach 


bai 


rape lepei 


Hand 


kanai 


kanei 


karovenarenepagh humutel 


galeima 












pranema 


Finger 


kalouloud 


kalulud 


pugehpagh 


kasthel 


attilipai 


Foot 


adin 


adding 


garovereven 


pethl 


peraperai 


Blood 




haga 


ratta 


ta 


achapon 


Sky 




langin 


lang 


lang 




Day 




haani 









Night 




poeni 


kainep 


ebong 


poum 


Sun 




addau 


al 


al 


ial, alet 


Moon 




pulan 


moram 


moram 


maram 













alig ouling 


Star 




putiun 


tuv 


fiss 


fiez 


amid 




mapagahes 


tharami 


tharami 


saronn 












ieng manileng 


Wind 




mangeu 


niveng 


aang 


ianhe 


Fain 




utjan 


nu 


uth 


oroo 


Water 


hanoum 


kanum 


munum 


eliimi 


ral 


Fiver 




saddug 


lull 


eath 





■ — - 






eatsh 








Sea 


tassi 


tahsi 


nao 


lao 


tati 
amourek 


Fire 


goifi 


quafi 




eaf 


iaf 


Smoke 


assu 


athanenevi 


aevi 


oath 





EaHh 




tahno 


■WTinau 


valli 


merolo 


Stone 


ashou 


atju 


malang 


vas 


fahou 


Tree 




uddunhadju 


pan 


duel 


pelagoullouk 


Great 




dankulu 


poga 


eolep 


etalai 


Little 




dikiki 


■watich 


edigit 


emourouraors 


Cold 







ollum 


isaleu 


J 


Warm 






eatho 


lass 


issa pouers 1 
elief 1 


I 





quaho 


igagk 


ngang 


Thou 






hago 





1 



MILLE AND TARAWAN. 



323 



The Marianne islands are continued into the Kingsmill 
(Tarawan) group, and the Radack and Ralik chains ; our 
scanty data for these being due to Mr. Hale, the phUologue 
under Captain Wilkes in the United States Exploring 
Expedition. 

(1.) 



English. 


Milk. 


Engjish. 




Ifille. 


Man 


momam 


S^oiu 




rnkkah 


Head 


borrum 


Bird 




pao 


Ear 


ladzhilligin 


Egg 




lip 


Eye 


middam 


Pish 




ik 


Hand 


ban 


I 




i 


Fool 


nen 


He 




ia 


Mouth 


langwen 


One 




dzhnon 


Nose 


bathart 


Two 




rua 


Teeth 


nin 


Three 




tila 


Nail 


agguk 


Fowr 




emen 


Sm 


al 


Five 




lailpm 


Moon 


allong 


Six 




dildzheno 


Star 


edzhn 


Seven 




adzheno 


Fire 


kddzhaik 


Eight 




dzhurigol 


Water (fresh) reniun 


Nine 




me dzhnon 


{salt) 


lajet 

(2 


Ten 

•) 




dzhnon. 


English. 


Tarawau. 


Eogliah. 




tarawaiL 


Man 


umane 


/ 




ngai 


Bead 


ata 


Thou 




nnggoe 


Beard 


buai 


He 




tena 


Ear 


taringa 


One 




te 


Eye 


mata 


Two 




OS 


Nose 


bairi 


Three 




teni 


Tongue 


newe 


Four 




ft 


Sun 


tai 


Five 




nima 


Moon 


Tnakainga 


Six 




one 


Fire 


ai 


Seven 




ltd 


Water (salt) taari 


Eight 




oanu 


Bird 


man 


Nine 




ma 


Fish 


ika 


Ten 




tegann 


Stme 


atip 










My house 


im 


■arh 






Thy house 


im 


-um 






His Konue 


im 


-en 






Ovrhouse 


im-erro 






Their house 


im 


-derh 






Whose house 


im-en-wen. 





Y 2 



324 



POLYNESIA. 



The following represent the dialect of De Peyster's 
Islands : — 



English. 


Fakaofo. 


English. 


Fakaofo. 


Man 


tangata 


Mov^th 


ngutu 


Woman 


fafine 


Nose 


isu 


Eye 


mata 


Tongue 


alelo 


Ear 


talinga 


Su/ii 


la 


Hair 


ulu 


Moon 


masina 


Beard 


kumikumi 


Fire 


afi 




talafa 


Bird 


manu 


Tooth 


nifo 


Fish 


ika 


Foot 


vae 


Stone 


fata 


Hand 


lima 


Tree 


lakau. 



With the Samoan Archipelago begins Polynesia Pro- 
per as opposed to Micronesia. 



English. 


Marquesas. 


Kanaka (of the Sandwich Islands) 


Man 


enama 


kanaka 


Head 


npoho 


poho 


Eyes 


mata 


maka 


Nose 


ilm 


ihu 


Mouth 


faia 


aha 


Ear 


puaina 


pepeiac 


Tooth 


niho 


nino 


Tongue 


eo 


lelo, leo 


Back 


taa 


kua 


Beard 


kiimikumi 


umiumi 


Blood 


toto 


koko 


Bone 


ivi 


iii 


Hand 


ima 


limo 


Foot 


vae 


vae 


Bay 


a 


la 


Night 


po 


po 


Swn 


aomati 


aomati 


Moon 


mahina 


mahina 


Star 


fetu, hetu 


hoku 


Earth 


henua 


henna 


Sea 


tai 


kai 


Fire 


ahi 


ahi 


Water 


Tai 


vai J 


Stone 


kea ' 


pohaku ifl 


Tree 


kaau 


laau fl 


Bird 


mana 


manu fl 


Fish 


ika 


1 


One 


tahi 


kahi M 





POLYNESIA. 


325 


English. 


Marquesas. 


Kanaka (of the Sandwich IslandsX 


Two 


ua 


laa 


Three 


ton, torn 


kola 


Four 


ha 


ha 


Five 


uma 


lima 


Six 


ono 


ono 


Seven 


hita 


hika 


Eight 


▼an 


vain 


Nine 


iva 


iva 


Ten 


onohna 


ninL 



c^). 



English. 


Maori (of New Zealand) 


Head 


upoho 




hnruhurie 




makawe 




mahunga 




whakahipa 


Betty 


kopu 





m^nawa 




rai 


Back 


tuara 


Body 


tinana 


Bone 


iwi 


Ear 


taringa 


Eye 


kanohi 




kara 


Mouth 


TTiangai 




waha 




mawhera 



English. Maori (of New Zealand). 



Nose 
Day 



Sun 

Moon 

Star 
Stone 



Bird 
Fiih 



iha 
ao 

mahana 

ta 
ra 

mamaru 

komaru 

marama 

whelu 

kamaka 

kohalii 

toka 

nganga 

mana 

ika 

ngohi 



USCKLLABSOVS TOCABITLABISS. 



(1.) 



English. 


Rotiuna. 


En^iah. 


Botuna. 


Woman 


hani 


Eye 


matho 


Head 


thUu 


Mouth 


nutsu 


Ear 


thalinga 


Blood 


toto 


Tooth 


ala 


Sun 


asa 


Tongue 


alele 


Day 


asa 


Foot 


afthia 


Moon 


Irak 


Nose 


isu 


Star 


hethu 


Beard 


kiimkam 


Fire 


nia. 


Hair 


ICTU 


Water 


Tai 



326 



5 




POLYNESIA. 




English. 




Botuma. 


EDgiish. 


Botnma. 


Water (salt) 


sias 


Three 




(fresh) 


tan 


Fov/r 


hake 


Stone 




hathu 


Five 


lima 


Bird 




manmanu 


Six 




Egg 




kalodhi 


Seven 


hithu 


Fish 




la 


Fight 


valu 


One 




esea 


Nine 








ta 


Ten 


IK)lie 


Two 








sanghulu 



(2.) 



English. 


Ticopia. 


English. 


Ticopia. 


Man 


tanhata 


Ear 


tarinha 


Woman 


fefinetapli 


Sun 


lera 


Beard 


tarafa 


Moon 


marama 


Mouth 


nhutu 


Star 


fetu 


Arm, 


lima 


Fire 


afi 


Head 


ula 


Water 


vai 


Hair 


raulu 


Sea 


moana 


Tooth 


nrfo 


Fish 


ika 


Flood 


kefo 


Milk 


vaiu 


Tongue 


lelo 


Egg 


fouai 


Nose 


issu 


Bird 


manu 


Eye 


mata 


Stone 


fatu. 



(3.) 



English. 


Cocos Island. 


English. 


Cocos Island. 


Eyes 


matta 


Moon 


massina 


Nose 


esou 


Star 


fittou 


Htm- 


urug 


One 


taei 


Teeth 


nifo 


TVBO 


loa 


Hand 


fatinga-lima 


Three 


tolou 


Fire 


umu 


Fowr 


fa 


Water 


waij 


Five 


lima 


Earth 


kiUe 


Six 


houno 


Stone 


fattou 


Seven 


filou 


Swine 


wacka 


Eight 


walo 


Bird 


ufa 


Nine 


ywou 


Fish 


ica 


Ten 


ongefoula. 


Sun 


la 







POLYNESIA. 



0*7 



327 



(4.) 



English. 


Wahitaho. 


English. 


Wahitaha 


Head 


houpoco 


Star 


ehani 


Eye ' 


matta 


One 


tahi 


Nose 


Mhoa 


Two 


houah 


Tongue 


houhoho 


Three 


tohoa 


Tooth 


niho 


Four 


fah 


Hand 


mana 


Five 


himah 


Dead 


matte 


Six 


bono 


Swine 


boaca 


Seven 


fetto 


Fish 


eaton 


Eight 


vaho 




ehika 


Nine 


hiva 


Sun 


eha 


Ten 


onohohon. 


Moon 


onmati 







(5.) 



English. 


Mayorga. 


English. 


Mayorga. 


Head 


hulu 


One 


tatM 


Eye 


mata 


Two 


hna 


Nose 


yhu 


Three 


tola 


Tongue 


loaln 


Four 


fa 


Tooth 


nifu 


Five 


nima 


Hand 


afi-nema 


Six 


ono 


Dead 


matte 


Seven 


fito 


Water 


bay 


Eight 


£ata 


Earth 


yuta 


Nine 


giba(?) 


Swine 


panca 


Ten 


tongoa-folo. 


Egg 


tomoa 







(6.) 



English. 


Fanmotn. 


English. 


Panmotii. 


Man 


hakoi 


Sea 


takarari 


Woman 


erire 


Fire 


neki 


Head 


penu 


Water 


komo 


Tongue 


mangee 


Wind 


rohaki 


Bone 


keingi 


Fish 


para 


Moon 


kawake 


Tree 


mohoki. 


Fain 


toite 







The practice of extending the tahu to words is 
Polynesian : e. g., when a chief dies the use of such 
terms as are either identical with, or similar to, his 
name is forbidden. There is also, in the larger islands, 



328 POLYNESIA. 

a kind of ceremonial language. That these are artificial 
elements is plain. They are elements, however, of whicli 
most languages show either the rudiments or the frag- 
ments. 

In Basque we have a ceremonial conjugation. In 
South America there is more than one language where 
the women use one word, the men another ; a fact 
which has been exaggerated into a pair of languages 
(one for each sex), with an explanatory hypothesis to 
match. 

Bating, however, the facts of this kind, the Polyne- 
sian dialects are those wherein the artificial element is 
at zero. It is but lately that they have been written at 
all : nor were they, before the introduction of the pre- 
sent missionary influences, in either direct or indirect 
contact with any languages more cultivated than them- 
selves. For the phenomena, then, of a thoroughly 
natural and spontaneous development they are materials 
of pre-eminent value. 




NEW GUINEA. 329 



CHAPTER L. 

The Papua Class.— Gnebe, &c. — New Guinea. — New Ireland, &c., to 
New Caledonia. 

In making the Malay division end at Cerarn, and the 
Papua begin at Guebe, I chiefly consult convenience ; 
inasmuch as, along the line of contact, there ai'e notable 
signs of transition. 

From the small Archipelago, at the north-western 
extremity of New Guinea, and from New Guinea itself 
the line of Papua languages runs south and south-east, 
via New Britaimia, New Hanover, New Ireland, the 
Solomon Islands, &c., MaUicollo, Erromango, Tana, Erro- 
nan, Annatom, to New Caledonia. The Louisiade Archi- 
pelago is also Papua ; as are the islands in Torres 
Straits — i. e. they are Papua rather than Australian. 
Twenty years ago, the languages of this class were all 
but unknown, not one of them having ever been re- 
duced to writing, or even learned by an educated Euro- 
pean. That no Hollander ever spoke any of the dialects 
of the north-western coast of New Guinea cannot in- 
deed be asserted unconditionally — though the doctrine 
de non appdrentihus, &c., suggests that such was the 
case. Nothing, however, of any importance concerning 
them was communicated to the world at large. Of the 
Tana language, a MS. grammar by Mr. Heath had 
been inspected by Dr. Prichai-d, who stated that 
the language which it represented differed entirely from 



330 



GUEBE Al^ WAIGIU. 



the Polynesian. It abounded with inflections, and had 
a peculiar form by which three persons were spoken 
of — a form distinct from the dual, and distinct from 
the plural, a form for which the term trinal was sug- 
gested. 

The little knowledge involved in these fragmentary 
facts, created a tendency to put a high ordinal value on 
the characteristics of the Papua grammar ; a value in 
which there is, probably, a certain amount of exaggera- 
tion. 

Beginning with the language of the small island oiGue- 
he, which lies somewhat nearer to Gilolo than to New 
Guinea, we find in the following vocabulary, at least, a 
notable difference between it and the Waigiu spoken 
immediately under the Equator and within sight of the 
mainland of New Guinea itself. 



English. 



Gneb6. 



Waigiu. 



Man 


syniat 




Woman 


pine 




Head 


kouto 


kagala 


Eye 


tarn 




'Eyes (?) 


tadji 


jadjiemouri 


Nose 


kassugnor 


soun 


Mouth 


kapiour 


ganganini 


Lips 


kapiondjais 




Teeth 


kapiondji 


onalini 


''Tongue 


mamalo 





Ear 


kassegna 




Cheek 


aifoiFo 




Beard 


ajangout 


gangafoni 


Hair 


kalignouni 




Neck 


kokor 




Belly 


siahoro 


synani 


Arm 


kamer 


kapiani 


Ha/nd 


fadlor 


konkafeni 


Back 




kouaneteni 


Foot 




kourgnai 


Shin 


kinot 


rip 


Sun 


astouol 




'Fire 


ap 




Sea 


tasfi 







PORT JDOREY 


English. 


Gaebd 


* Water (fresh) 


aer omiaai 


*Bird 


mani 


•Fish 


bin 


One 


pissa 


Tioo 


pilou 


Three 


pitoul 


Pour 


pifiat 


Five 


pileme 


Six 


pounnoan 


Seven 


piffit 


Eight 


ponal 


Nine 


pissioa 


Ten 


otsha 



331 



Waigin. 



The Papuan Proper is chiefly known fi-om the parts 
about Port Dorey ; where the first of the following vo- 
cabularies was collected by Forrest, as early as A.D. 
1774-1776. 



English. 
Man 


Papuan, 
sononman 


Aiago. 
snone 


Woman 


binn 


biene 


Head 




vrouri 


Eye 




tadeni 


Mouth 




graronr 
soidon 


Tooth 




nacoere 


Tcmgue 

Ear 

Hand 





ramare 

kanik 

konef 


Am 





bramine 


Leg 

Foot 




oizof 
oibahene 


Blood 




liki 


Day 
Sun 


raas 


aii 

rias 


Moon 

Sar 

Fire 


hyck 
mak 
for 


afor 


Water 


war 


ooar 


{saU) 


warmassm 




{sweet) 

River 


warimassin 
warbike 





Sea 




sorene 


Rain 




meker 


Pish 


een 


iene 



332 



PORT DOflEY, ETC. 



English. 


Papuan. 


Arago. 


Bird 


moorsankeen 


man (?) 






bourore 


Hog 


ben 


baine 


Tree 


kaibus 




House 


rome 


rouma 


^99 




bolor 







samoure 


Hill 


bon 




Sand 


yean 


iene 


White 


pepoper 




Black 


pyssin 




One 


oser 


ossa 


Two 


serou 


serou 


Three 


keor 


keor 


Fowr 


tiak 


tiak, fial 


Five 


rim 


rime 


Six 


onim 


oneme 


Seven 


tik 


sik, fik 


Eight 


war 


ouar 


Nine 


siore 


siore 


Ten 


samfoor 


samefouj 



Taking the numerals as a test, tlie Archipelago and 
the neighbourhood of Port Dorey give a multiplicity 
of sub-dialects. 

(1.) 



English. 


Axopin. 


Taudia. 


Dasen. 


One 


wosio 


nai 


joser 


Two 


woroe-o 


roesi 


socroe 


Three 


woro 


toeroesi 


toroe 


Four 


woako 


attesi 


ati 


Five 


rimo 


marasi 


rembi 


Six 


rimo-wosie 


marasimge 


rimbi-oser 


Ten 


sagoero 

(2.) 


oetin 


ansa. 


English. 


Jowei. 


Wandamin. 


Axfak. 


One 


re-be 


siri 


woam 


Two 


re-doe 


mondo 


jan 


Three 


re-oe 


toro 


kar 


Four 


re-a 


at 


tar 


Five 


brai-a-re 


rim 


maswar 


Six 


brai-a-rebe 


rimmasiri 


kaswar 


Ten 


brai-a-redoe 


rimmafloerat 


marswar. 



NEW GUINEA. 



333 



(3.) 



Engtiah. 


Omar. 




Insam. 






One 


kotim 




keteh 




toe 


Two 


redis 




roesi 




ker 


Three 


etirom 




kori^ 




iHier 


Four 


eat 




aka 




boat 


Five 


mstia 




rima 




mer 


Six 


kolim 




keteh 




ebetoe 


Ten 


maptides 


boeki, roesi 




onger. 


English. Karom. 




(4.) 
Pome. 






Mow. 


One dik 




korii 


bo-iri 




tata 


Two we 




koiroe 


bo-roe 




roeroe 


Three gre 




toro 


bo-toro 




oro 


Four at 




at 


bo-ah 




ao 


Fire mik 




rim 


rim 




rimo 


Sijc mak 




ona 


boiri-kori 


rimo-tata 


Saren fret 




itoe 


bor-kori 




rferoe 


Eig?U ongo 




waro 


botd-kori 


oro 


Nine maaiwo 




isioe 


boa-kori 




ao 


Ten mesoe 




awrah 
(5.) 


soerat 




tOYeiah. 


nnimm, to the West 
of Amsterdam, and 
English. Middlebnrgh. 


Ron. 


Beak&Meftir. 


Ome 


mele 




joaer 




sai 


Tvo 


aU 




noeroe 




doei 


Three 


told 




'ngo-kor 




kior 


Four 


fak 




&k 




fiak 


Five 


mafoek 




lim 




lim 


Six 


Tnafleoene 


onim 




onim 


Seven 


ane mele 


onemema<»roe 


liek 


eigit 


all 




onem^nokor 


war 


Nine 


tolo 




onenfak 




aew 


Ten 


feh 


(6.) 


onemerim 




samfor. 


EneBah. 




Ansoea. 


SalawattL 


One 




koiri 




sa 




Two 




korisi 




ItE 




Three 




todoe 




tor 




Four 




moano 




fot 




Five 




di 




rim 




Six 




wona 




onim 




Setm 




itoe 




fiet 




Eight 




India toro 


war 




Nine 




India ato 




si 




Ten 




hoera 




lafa. 





334 



NEW GUINEA. 



The following vocabularies are from the south and 
west, being chiefly spoken on the coast. 



-English. 




Lobo. 


TJtatanata. 


Man 




marrowane 


marrowane 


Woman 




mawinna 




Cheeks 




wafiwiriongo 


awanu 


Eyes 




matatongo 


mame 


Hand 




nimangouta 


toemare 


Head 




umun 


oepauw 


Arms 




nimango 


too 


Bach 




rasukongo 


urimi 


Belly 




kamborongo 


imau 


Foot 




kaingo 


moaw 


Hair 




monongfuru 


oeirie 


Mouth 




oriengo 


irie 


Nose 




sikacongo 


birimboe 


NeA 




garang 


ema 


Tongue 




kariongo 


mare 


Teeth 




riwotongo 


titi 


Sun 




orak 




Water 




malar 


warini 


Rain 




komak 


komak • 


River 




walar nabetik 


warari napettiki 


Bird 




manoe 




Hog 




b6i 


oe 


Island 




nusu 




Tree 




akajuakar 


kai 


Bow 






amtir6. 


Englisli. 


Triton Bay 


Mairassis. 


Onim. 


Man 


marowana 


iohanouw 




Head 


monongo 


nangoewoe 


onimpatin 


Hair 


monongfoero nangoekatoe 


ampoewa 


Eye 


matatongc 


• namboetoe 


matapatin 


Nose 


sikaiongo 


nambi 


wirin 


Mouth 


oriengo 


naros 


soeman 


Tooth 


roewatongo sifa 


nifin 


Hand 


nimangoeta okorwita 





Foot 






nimin kaki 


Sum 


orah 


ongoerah 


rera 


Moon 


foeran 


foeran 


poenono 


Earth 


ena 


gengena 


gai 


Fire 


iworo 


api 




Water 


walar 


wata 


weari. 



For the islands of Torres Straits, viz. : the Darnly 



THE LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO. 



335 



Islands (Erroob and Maer) and the Murray Islands, 
vocabularies in the appendix to Juke's Voyage of the 
Fly give somewhat full specimens. The tables in which 
they appear show the difference between the South 
Papua and the North Australian. It is a difference, 
however, which is easily exaggerated; as in the first 
seventeen words we find the foUowing coincidences. 



English. 


Papua. 


AuBtralian. 


Cheek 
Eye 
Eyelid 
Eyelash 


bag 

illcap 

illcamush 


bag 
danacap 

dammuche 


Ear 
Nose 


gereep 
peet 


coora 
peechi. 



The collective name for the Erroob, Maer, and Massied 
forms of speech is ^Miriam. 

The Redscar Bay, Dufaure Island, and Brumer Island 
dialects are known through the vocabularies of the 
Rattlesnake, collected by Macgillivray. They are allied 
to each other — the latter being very closely allied to 
the Duchateau Island of the Calvados, and the Brierly 



English. 


Erroob. 


Sedscar Bay 


Man 


kaimeer 


taa 




lammar 




Woman 


koskeer 






mada 


ahine 


Child 


kabeUi 


mero 


Head 


kerim 


kwara 


Eye 


irkeep 


mata 


Ear 


laip 


taiya 




peU 






gereep 




Nose 


peet 


nda 


MoiUh 


nuga 


mao 


1 


tae 




Lips 


meet 


pipina 


Teeth 


tirreg 


isi 


Tonyue 


werrut 


mala 



336 



NEW IRELAND. 



English. 




Erroob. 


Redscar Bay. 


Hair 




moos 


hui 


Neck 




perreg 




Hwnd 




tag 


ima 


Foot, or 


Leg 


taei-tar 
gab 




Blood 




mam 




Sky 




baz 


garewa 


Sum 




gegger 


mahana 


Moon 




maeb 


nowarai 


Star 




waer 




Fire 




lira 


kaiwa 


Water {fresh) 


nea 


goila 


{salt) 


goor 


arita 


Stone 




bakeer 


weu 


Wind 




wag 




Sea 




carrem 




Samd 




wae 


geragera 


Tree 




igger 




I 




cai 




Mine 




cara 




Thou 




ma 





Tov/r 




mara 




One 




netat 


ta 


Two 




naes 


rua 


' Three 




naesa netat 


toi 


Four 






hani 


Five 






ima. 



Here we leave the southern, and returning to the 
parts about Waigiti, follow the northern, eastern, or 
north-eastern line. 



English. 


New Ireland. 


Port Praslin. 


Head 


ptiklfik 




Ear 


pralenhek 


palalignai 


Eye 


matak 


mata 


Hair 


iuk 


epiu 


Beard 


kambissek 


katissende 


Nose 


kambussuk 


mbussu 


Mouth 


lok 


mlo 


Tooth 


insek 


ninissai 


Tongue 


karmea 


kermea 


Arm 


limak 




Finger 


oulima 


lima 


Neck 


kondaruak 


kindurua 


Back 


taruk 


plaru 



THE SOLOMON ISLES. 



337 



English. 


New Ireland. 


Port Praalin. 


Foot 


balankeke 


pekendi 


Sun 


kamiss 




Moon 




kalan 


Fire 




bia 


Water 


maluiQ 


molum 


Sea 




bun 


Bird 


TTianuk 




Fish 


siss 


sis. 



Bauro, or San Christoval, along with Guadalcanar, 
belonsrs to the Solomon Islands. The Rev. J. Fatteson's 
First Attempt in the Bauro Language gives us our ma- 
terials, which consist of the Lord's Prayer, two short 
prayers, and a catechism concerning the Fall of Man 
and his B^demption. 



English. 


Baura 


English. 


Baura 


Man (homo) 


inone 


Sly 


aro 


(Wr) 


sai 


Moon 


hura 


Woman 


trrao 


Water 


wai 


Hand 


rima 


House 


oma 


Day 


dangi 


Tree 


hadai. 


English. 


Guadalcanal. 


English. 


Guadalcanar 


Man {homo) 


inoni 


Sit 


toom 


(riV) 


mane 


I 


inan 


Woman 


kene 


Thou 


io 


Father 


amma 


He 


ia 


Son 


gare 


Thine 


ama 


Child 


mare 


Hilt 


ana 


Good 


siene 


One 


tai 


Bad 


tos 


Tvo 


ama 


Die 


mai 


Three 


oru. 


Hear 


noro 







In Vanikoro, three languages are spoken. 



English. 


Vanikoro. 


TanenuL 


Taneamu. 


Man 


lamoka 


ranoka 


amoaligo 


Woman 


venune 


ranime 


vignivi 


Beard 


fingfime 


kole 


vingumia 


Arm 


me 


menini 


main! 


Tooth 


ugne 


kole 


indzhe 
Z 



338 



THE NEW HEBRIDES. 



English. 


Vanikoro. 






Tanema. 


Taneamu. 


Mouth 


ngrenili 








Tongue 


mea 




mia 


mimiae 


Hair 


•wennbadzha 


valanbadzha valanbadzha 


Back 


dienhane 




delenana 


diene 


Leg 


kelenili 




alenini 


aeleda 


Moon 


mele 








Fire 


nebie 




gnava 


iaua 


Water 


■wire 




nira 


ero. 


The next 


two vocabularies are 


from the Ne\ 


Hebrides. 




(!■) 






Euglisb. 


MallicoUo. 






English. 


MallicoUo. 


Man Qiomo) 


nebok 






Bird 


inoero 


(vir) 


bauemink 






Fish 


heika 


Woman 


rambaiuk 






One 


sikai 




rabin 






Two 


e-ua 


Father 


aramomau 






Three 


e-roi 


Child 


urare 






Four 


e-vatz 


Head 


basaine 






Five 


e-rima 


Eye 


maitang 






Six 


su-kai 


Far 


talingan 






Seven 


whi-a 


Tooth 


rebohn 






Eight 


oroi 




warrewuk 






Nine 


whi-vatz 


Nose 


noossun 






Ten 


singeap. 


Hair 


membnin baitang 












(2-) 






English. 


Tana. 






English. 


Tana. 


Man 


aremana 






Sea 


tasi 


Woman 


peran 






Good 


masan 


Fatlier 


rumune 








aumasan 


Son 


mati 








ratntakat 


Body 


nupuran 






Bad 


ellaba 


Heart 


reren 






Holy 


ekenan 


Sun 


mere 






Great 


asori 


Moon 


maukua 






Many 


repuk 


Bird 


mann 






Eat 


ani 


Fish 


namu 






Speai 


mani 


Tree 


nei 








mankeari 


Fire 


nap 






Hear 


matareg. 


Earth 


tana 











The Gospel of St. Luke in Annatom was published 
in 1852, by the .Kev. J. Geddie ; and in 1853, that 
of St, Mark in Sydney. These, along with other 
external confluences, have introduced — 





ANNATOM. 


3: 


From (he Greek. 








Agelo 


angel 


Aprofeta 


prophet 


Areto 


bread 


Site 


wheat 


Apeitome 


circumcision 


Baptizo 


baptize. 


From, the English. 








Sup 


sheep 


Pigad 


Pe9 


Flaur 


Jlour 


Leven 


leaven 


Jlint 


mint 


Eu 


rue 


Waina 


wine 


Kot 


coat 


Mune 


money 


Apalse 


palsy. 


Wik 


wed: 






English. 


Annatom. 


English. 


Annatom. 


Man 


atiini 


Day 


adiat 


Husband 


atnmnja 


Sun 


nages^a 


Wife 


ehgai 


Moon 


mahoc 


Woman 


takata 


Star 


moijeuw 


Head 


nepek 


God 


Atna 


Hair 


umri idjini 


Wind 


nimtinjop 


Eye 


esganimtai 


Rain 


incopda 


Ear 


intikgan 


Fire 


caup 


Nose 


ingedje 


Water 


wai 


Mouth 


nipjineucse 


Sea 


nnjop 


Tongue 


namai 


Stone 


hat 


Tooth 


nijia 


Land 


ol)ohtan 


Hand 


ikma 


RocJc 


elcau 


Finger 


nupsikma 


HiU 


lo-la eduon 


Foot 


eduon 


Dog 


kuri 


Blood 


nnja 


Bird 


man 


Sty 


nohatag 


Fish 


mn. 



With the Polynesian and Malayan languages in gene- 
ral, the Annatom has, at least, the following words in 
common — 



English. 


Annatom. 




Water 


wai 


wai — Ende 


Fire 


caup 


api — Gu^ 


Bird 


man 


mani — Guebi 


Tooth 


nijin 


niM — Endi 


Foot 


eduai 


Idi — Bima 


Die 


mas 


mati — Malay 


House 


eom 


nmah — Javanese 


One 


ethi 


aida — Timor 


Two 


ero 


erua — Manaioto, <tc. 


God 


Atua 


AtuA—Polynesian, d-c. 

z 2 



ANNATOM. 




ADnatom. 




eduon 


wotang — Sailor 


hat 


fatu — Timor 


atimi 


atoni — Timor 


jaa 


jangjang — Macassar 


kuri 


kuri — Ticopia 


kava 


kava — Polynesia. 



340 



English. 

mil 

Stone 

Man 

Hen 

Dog 

Kava 

Words like aktaktai, epto, eropse, esvi, inwai, inpas, 
inridjai, imtak, uctyi, imiisjis, intas, eucjeucjaig, injop, 
&c., show that the Annatom phonesis is less vocalic than 
that of the other islands. 

In Erromango there are, at least, two dialects ; 
apparently three — the third the common language of 
the island at large, or its central districts. 





English. 




Northern Dialect. 


Southern Dialect. 




Man (homo) 


neteme 


yirima 




Woman 




nasivin 


yarevin 




Sh, 




unpokop 


nimpokop 




Earth 




nemap 


dena 




Sun 




nipminen 


umangkam 




Moon 




itiis 


iriis 




Star 




mose 


umse 




Sea 




t&k 


de 




HiU 




numpur 


nnmbawa 




Bush 




tebutui 


undumburui 




Plant 




denuok 


dokmus 




God 




nobu 


uboh 




Chief 




natd,monok 


yarumne 




Father 




itemin 


rimin 




Mother 




dinemi 


ihnin 




Word 




nam 


novul 




Fire 




nom 


nampevang 




Breadfruit 


nimara 


nimal 




House 




nimo 


nima 




Fruit 




nobuwan-ne 


nimil. 


English. 




Erromango. 


English. 


Erromango 


Man 




etemetallam 


Younger 


brother abmissai 






neteme 




Son 


niteni 


Woman 




wasiven 




Head 


numpu 






nahivin 




Eye 


nimmint 


Father 




etemen 




God 


Nobu 






itemin 




Sky 


pokop 


Mother 




dineme 




Sun 


nitminen 


Wife 




retopon 




Moon 


tais 


Brother 




avongsai 




Star 


masi 



THE LOYALTY ISLEa 



341 



English. 


Erromango. 


English. 


Erromango. 


Wind 


mankep 


Hill 


numpua 


Fire 


nom 


Stone 


inerat 


Day 


kwaras 


Bird 


menok 




dan 


Fish 


noma 


Night 


romerok 


Tree 


nei 


Earth 


maap 


Fruit 


nobowane 


Sea 


tak 


Leaf 


ankalon 


Water 


nu 


House 


nimoa. 



For the language of Lifu, a language of the Loyalty 
group, we have but few data — viz., A Book for Boys 
and Girls ; The Lord's Prayer ; the Creed, Prayers, a 
Primer (?), A Book for showing the Rule of God ; a few 
words ; and the numerals. 



English. 


Lifu. 


English. 


Lifo. 


One 


chas 


Six 


chagemen 


Two 


luete 


Seven 


luegemen 


Three 


konite 


Eight 


konigemen 


Four 


eketse 


Nine 


ekegemen 


Five 


tipi 


Ten 


laepL 


It is closely allied to the 


Mare. 




English. 


Mare. 


English. 


Mare. 


Man {homo) 


ngome 


Foot 


wata 


{nr} 


chatnhani 




mate 


Woman 


bmenewe 


Blood 


dra 


Father 


chacha 


God 


Mackaze 


Mother 


ma 


Sky 


dwe 




mani 


Swn 


da 


Son 


tei 


Moon 


jekole 




tene 


Day 


rane 


Boy 


maichamhane 


Night 


bane 


Child 


wakuku 


Wind 


iengo 


Daughter 


mochenewe 


Fire 


iei 


Brother 


cheluaie 


Water 


wi 


Elder brother 


mama 


Earth 


lawa 


Younger brother 


achelua 


HiU 


▼eche 


Eye 


•waegogo 


Stone 


ete 


Mouth {lip) 


tnbenen-gocho 


Tree 


iene. 


Hand 


aranine 







In New Caledonia, the language of Cape Queen 
Charlotte is known under the name of Baladea; for 



342 



NEW CALEDONIA. 



which Gabelentz would substitute the native name 
Duaura. A small tract published in Rarotonga, in 
1847, gives us the main materials for this dialect; it 
consists of passages from the Bible, and either represents 
the language imperfectly or the language is inadequate 
to the translation. The sounds of /, I, h, and s, are 
wanting. Many of the roots are monosyllabic ; many, 
apparently, dissyllabic, the concurrence of consonants 
being rare. Its proper inflection is of the scantiest. It 
uses prefixes as well as suffixes ; suffixes as well as 
prefixes. 



English. 


Baladea. 


Man 


ngauere 




unie 


Woman 


vio 


Father 


chicha 


Mother 


nia 


Child 


vanikore 


Son 


niao 


Daughter 


vanivio 


Hair 


ngo 


Face 


kaua'e 


Eye 


eme 




neme 


Eaa- 


uanea 


Mouth 


uange 


Tongue 


nekune 


Neck 


gouka 


Hand 


imi 


Foot 


ve 


Blood 


inte 


Z!ompare( 


i with the other 


English. 


Baladea. 


Moon 


moe 


NigJU 


pune 


Earth 


nu 


Land 


nonte 


Sea 


injo 


Sheep 


mamoe 


Man 


unie 


Eye 


neme 


Hand 


imi 



English. 


Baladea. 


God 


Intu 


Sky 


okua 


Sun 


ni 


Bay 


ni 


Moon 


moe 


Star 


veo 


Night 


pune 


Fire 


dadi 


Water 


tei 


Sea 


injo 


Tree 


ngae 


Good 


ade 


Bad 


die 




puru 


Great 


aJ^ae 


Many (all) 


chapi 


Eat 


ki 


Speak 


ni. 



mahoc — A nnatom 
bune — Mare 
ano — Bauro 
nonte — Maro 
injop — Annaiom 
mamoe — Mare 
inoni — Bauro 
name — Tana 
lima — Malay, kc. &c. 



NEW CALEDONIA, 



343 



English. 


Baladea. 




Blood 
Name 
Heart 
Kingdara 


inte 
vane 
nue 
toka 


iinja — Annatom 
attaTanim — Erromarnjo 
mori — Mare 
dokn — Mare 


House 

Clothing 

High 


uma 

kui 

toana 


oma — Bauro 
kukui — Mare 
toane — Mare 


Live 


omoro 


amorep — Erromango. 



The following numerals are from the southern portion 
of the area under notice : — 





One 


Two 


Three 


Four 


Five 


Tupua 


toao 


booiou 


bogo 


mabeo 


kaveri 


Fenua 
Galaio 


tchika 


ioa 


too 


djiva 


djini 


Indeni* 


t«dja 


all 


adi 


abooai 


naroone 


Fonofono nenqui 


lelou 


eve 


ouve 


idi 


Mami 


tat 


looa 


tolou 


£a - 


]ima 




Six 


Seren 


Eight 


Nine 


Ten 


Tupua 


{ kaveri [ 
\ ajouo ; , 


vio 


viro 


reve 


anharoa 


Fenua 
Galaio 


1 tchoao 


timbi 


ta 


tondjo 


nhavi 


Indeni 


teiamooa 


edonma ebonema 


napon 


ekatoa 


Fonofono poolenqm 


polelou 


I pole 


polohone 


nokoloa 


Mami 


ono 


fitou 


paroa 


iva 


kadoua. 




V.ngliah, 




Isleof Pinea. 


Yengen. 






One 




ta 


beta 






Two 




vo 


heluk 






Three 




veti 


heyen 






Four 




ben 


pobits 






Fire 




tahue 


nim 






Six 




nota 


pimwet 






Seven 




nobo 


nimweluk 




Eight 




nobeti 


nimweyen 




Nine 




nobea 


nimpobit 




Ten 




nokaa 


jwinduk. 



Uea, though one of the Loyalty Islands, is not 
altogether like the rest of the Papuan districts. Its 
name, even, is foreign ; Uea being the native term for 
Wallis's Island. From this, one of its three languages is 

• Or Nitendi. 



344 



UEA, ETC. 



stated to have been introduced ; the present speakers 
of it being the descendants of settlers of uncertain date. 
Of the two other forms of speech, one is from New 
Caledonia the other (that of the following specimen) 
native. 



EngUsb. 


Uea. 


English. 


Uea. 


One 


pacha 


Six 


lo-acha, 


Two 


lo 


Seven 


Zo-ala 


Three 


kun 


Eight 


fo-kunn 


Four 


thak 


Nine 


lo-th&k 


Five 


thabumb 


Ten 


fe-bennete 



In like manner Fotuna, though belonging to the New 
Hebrides, is Polynesian, rather than Papuan, in speech ; 
the language being more especially akin to that of 
Karotonga. Again — in some parts of Fate, or Sand- 
wich Island, a Polynesian dialect is spoken. Thirdly, 
in Mau, to the north-east of Fate, the people speak the 
Maori, i. e. the language of New Zealand. 



THE FIJI. 345 



CHAPTER LI. 

The Viti, or Fiji, Group. — Its Belations to the Polynesian and the Papua. 

For reasons which will appear in the sequel, the Fiji or 
Viti is given in a chapter by itself. 

The Fiji or Viti Archipelago extends from 16° to 2* 
S. L. and from l77° to 182° W. L. The islands them- 
selves amount to more than 200 : of whicli not less 
than 100 are inhabited. Vanua Levu and Viti Levu 
are supposed to contain 40,000 individuals each. The 
remaining population, spread over the smaller islands, 
may amount to 90,000 more. The language, however, 
is the same throughout : though dialects and sub-dia- 
lects are to be expected. Tlie chief of these are those of 
Lakemba, or the Windward Islands, Somosomo, Vewa, 
Inbau, and Rewa. 

The following list, from Gabelentz, shows the extent 
to which its vocabulaiy agrees with the Malay and Poly- 
nesian. 

English. 

Sly 

Moon 

Clouds 

Rain 

Storm 

Wind 

East Wind 

Lightning 

Flame 

Night 



RjL 


Malay and Polynesian 


lagi 


p. langi, m. langit 


vola 


m. bulan 





p. ao, m. awan 


uca 


p. asa, m. njan 


cava 


p. afa, awa 


cagi 


p. angi, m. an^ 


tokalaa 


p. tokelau 


liva 


p. uila 


udre 


p. ura 


bogi 


p. pongi 



346 



THE FIJI. 



English. 

Shade 

Earth 

Land 

Stone 

Hill 

Bank 

Reef 

Way 

Ashes 

Bust 

Water 

Fresh water 

Sea 

Man {homo) 

(vir) 

Father 

Mother 

Elder brother 

Tounyer brother 

Son-in-law 

King 

Lord 

Head 

Ear 

Eye 

Nose 

M&uih 

Beard 

Hand 

Breast 

Belly 

Leg 

Knee 

Heart 

Vein 

Bone 

Blood 

Dog 

Bat 

Bird 

Pigeon 

Snake 

Fish 

Lobster 

Bvitterfy 

Ant 

Fly 



Fiji. 

malumalu 

vanua 

qele 

vatu 

bukebuke 

taba 

cakau 

sala 

dravu 

umea 

wai 

dranu 

wasa 

tamata 

tagane 

tama 

tina 

tuaka 

taci 

vugo 

sau 

tui 

ulu 

daliga 

mata 

ucu 

gusu 

kumi 

liga 

sucu 

kete 

yava 

dura 

loma 

ua 

sui 

dra 

koU 

beka 

manumanu 

ruve 

gata 

ika 

urau 

bebe 

lo 



Ian 



Mala; or Polynesian. 

p. malu 

p. fanua, m. benua 

p. kele 

p. fatu, m. batu 

p. puke, m. bukit 

p. tafa, tapa, m. tepi 

p. hakau 

p. hala, ara, m. djal 

p. lefu 

p. umea 

p. wai 

p. lanu 

p. vasa 

p. tangata 

p. tane 

p. tama 

p. tina 

p. tuakana 

p. tasi 

p. hungoni 

p. hau 

p. tui 

p. ulu, m. ulu 

p. talinga, m. telinga 

p. m. mata 

p. isu, m. idong 

p. ngutu 

p. kumikumi, m. kumis 

p. lima 

p. m. susu 

p. kete 

p. avae, wawae 

p. tuli, turi 

p. uma 

p. uaua 

p. sivi 

m. darah 

p. kuli 

p. peka 

p. manu, m. manuk 

p. lupe 

p. ngata 

p. ika, m. ikaa 

p. kura, ula, m. udang 

p. pepe 

p. lo 

p. laugo, m. laugau 





THE FIJI. 




Engtiah. 


1^ 


Malay or Poljneaan. 


Midije 


nana 


p. naonao 


Lome 


kntu 


p. m. kutu 


Tree 


kau 


p. kan^ m. kaju 


Root 


waka 


p. aka, m. akar 


Bark 


knU 


p. kill, m. kulit 


Leaf 


drau 


p. lau, m. daxm 


Fruit 


vua 


p. fua, t». buah 


Banana 


Tudi 


p. futi 


Cocoanut 


niu 


p. niu, m, nior 


mUk 


lolo 


p. lolo 




bola 


p. pnlu, bola 


Yam 


uvi 


p. ufi, m. ubi 


Cane 


gasau 


p. kaso, kaho 


Sugar-cane 


dOTU 


p. to, toln, m. tabba 


Hedge 


ba 


p. pa, m. pagar 


Canoe 


waqa 


p. vaka 


Mast 


vana 


p. fana 


Rudder 


voce 


p. fose 


SaU 


laca 


p. la, m. layer 




kie 


p. kie 


Nail 


vako 


p. fao, m. paka 


Comb 


sera 


p. selo, hero, m. afdr 


Bag 


taga 


p. tanga 


Basket 


kato 


p. kato 


Girdle 


van 


p. fau 


Holy 


tabu 


p. tabu 


Soft, 


nialn^ 


p. malve 


Tame 


lasa 


|>. lata 


Right 


dona 


p. tonu 


Ready 


oti 


j>. oti 


Ripe 


matoa 


J), matoa 


Easy 


mamada 


p. mama 


Empty . 


maca 


p. maha 


Weak 


malumu 


p. malu 


Little 


lailai 


J). Uhilabi 


New 


vou 


J), foa 


Hot 


katakata 


p. kasa 


Red 


kulakola 


^. kula, kura 


Hear 


rogo 


p. rongo, longo, m. it 


See 


sarasan 


p. araara 


Cry 


tagi 


p. tanp, m. tangis 


Eat 


kana 


p. kaina, kainga 


Drink 


unnma 


p. inn, m. minom 


Bite 


kati 


j>. kati 


Spit 


loa 


p. loa 


Tade 


toToIea 


p. tofo 


Stand 


tu 


p. ta 



348 





THE FIJI. 


English. 


Fiji. 


Lie 


koto 


Come 


coa 


Go 


se 


Enter 


curu 


Creep 


dolo 


Sleep 


moce 


Orow 


tubu 


Die 


mate 


Know 


kila 


Enjoy 


reki 


Possess 


rawa 


Hold 


kiika 


Bring 


kau 


Loose 


talu 


Bore 


coka 


Shoot 


vana 


Turn 


wiri 


Enclose 


bunu 


Rub 


solo 


Sweep 


tavi 


Cut 


sele 




koti 




tava 




vaci 


Divide 


wase 


Dig 


kelia 


Fall 


ta 


Peel 


voci 


Wash 


Tuluvulu 


One 


dua 


Two 


rua 


Three 


tolu 


Four 


va 


Five 


lima 


Six 


ono 


Seven 


vitu 


Eight 


walu 


Nine 


ciwa 


Ten 


tin! 


Himd/red 


drau 



Ini 



Malay or Polynesiau. 

p. takoto 

p. tau 

f. se 

p. uru, sulu 

p. tolo 

p. mose, mohe 

p. tupu, m. tumbuh 

p. mate, m, mati 

p. ilo 

p. reka 

p. rauka, rawa 

p. kuku 

f. kau 

p. tala 

p. hoka 

p. fana 

p. Tiri, vili, m. pili 

p. puni 

p. holo 

p. tafi 

p. sele 

p. koti 

p. tafa, m. 

p. fasi 

p. vase 

p. keli, m. gali 

p. ta 

p. fohe 

p. fulu, pulu 

p. taha, tai 

p, lua, rua, m. dua 

p. tolu, toru 

2). fa, wa 

p. lima, rima, m. lima 

p. ono, m. anam 

p. fitu, witu 

^. valu, warn 

p. iva, hiva 

p. tini 

p. lau, rau. 



. tabang 



With the Annatom it has the following amount of 
likeness. 





THE FIJI. 




English. 


Eoi 


Annatom. 


Sun 


oga 


nagesega 


Night 


bogi 


epeg 


Water 


■wai 


wai 


Stone 


vatn 


hat 


Man (homo) 


tamata 


atimi 


(nV) 


atagane 


atamaig 


Father 


tama 


etmai 


Tongue 


yame 


namai 


Name 


yadha 


idai 


Bird 


TnaTiumana 


man 


Dme 


rape 


nalaapa 


Dog 


koU 


kuri 


Bag 


kato 


cat 


Ale 


kedhega 


asega 


Iktrh 


buto 


aupat 


Narrow 


warowaro 


ehroehro 


Right 


matau 


matai 


Left 


mawi 


mooi 


Dry 


madha 


mese 


Deep 


nnba, tltoba 


oboa 




bukete 


opouc 


Hide 


tabo-naka 


adahpoi 


Turn 


saomaka 


adnmoij 


Open 


salia 


asalage 


Sit 


tdko 


ateac 


Week 


tagi 


taig 


Sleep 


modke 


nmj^ 


Drink 


Tmnma 


Tunni 


Die 


mate 


mas 


Two 


ma 


ero 


Who 


dkei 


di 


They 


era 


an 


To. 


vei 


vai. 



349 



Upon the grammatical relations of this important 
language more will be said in the sequel. 



350 AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER LII. 

The Australian Group. 

The isolation of the Australian languages has often been 
insisted on. Yet they have not only miscellaneous 
affinities but three vocabularies (1.) the Ombay ; (2.) 
the Mangarei ; and (3.) the Timbora, have, for some 
years, been pointed* out as vocabularies from the Malay 
area with decided Australian affinities. 

The definite line of demarcation which is drawn be- 
tween them and the Papuan of New Guinea is im- 
peached by the Erroob and Darnly Island vocabularies of 
Jukes ; not to mention those of Macgillivray from the 
Louisiade Archipelago. 

The fact that, notwithstanding the mutual unintelli- 
gibility of the majority of the forms of speech of which 
we have specimens, combined with the fact of these 
being numerous, the languages for the whole of Austra- 
lia form but one class, has been urged by Grey, Thred- 
keld, the present writer, and others — by all upon inde- 
pendent researches. Upon the value, however, of the class, 
but little criticism has been expended. 

Affinities, especially in respect to grammatical struc- 
ture, with the Tamul languages have been indicated by 
Norriss. I doubt, however, whether they are the near- 
est — indeed, I think that indirect relationship and a 

* Appendix to Jukes's Voyage of the Fly by the present writer. 



AUSTRALIA. 



351 



real or apparent partial coincidence in respect to the 
stage of their development is all that the comparisons 
warrant. 

The numerals are on the low level of those of South 
America — rarely reaching jive; generally stopping at 
three. 

Beginning with the north, and more particularly with 
the parts about the Gulf of Carpentaria, we have — 







(1.) 






English. 


Cape York. 


Massied. 


Gudang. 


Kowiaregm. 


Bead 






pada 


quiku 


Eye 


dana 


dana 


dana 


dana 


Ear 


carusa 


c<ira 


ewunya 


kowra 


Nose 


pichi 


pechi 


eye 


piti 


Mvuth 


aiica 


anca 


angka 


guda 


Teeth 


dang 


danga 


ampo 


danga 


Tongue 


nay 


nay 


nntara 


nai 


Hair 


muchi 








{of head) yal 


eeal 


odye 


yal 


Neck 


korka 


kercnk 


yuro 


mndnl 


Hand 


geta 


geta 


arta 


geta 


Sun 






inga 


gariga 


Moon 






aikana 


kissnri 


Star 






onbi 


titnre 


Fish 


wapi 


wapi 


■wawpi 


wawpi. 


Then, 


for the eastern coast — 










(2.) 






English. 


MoretonBay. 


Sidney. 


Jervis Bay. 


MnruTa. 


Man 




kure 


mika 


yuen 


Woman 




dyin 


kala 


wangen 


Head 




kabara 


hollo 


kapan 


Hair 


cnbboaeu 


kitong 


tirar 


tiaur 


Eye 


mil 


mebarai 


ierinn 


mabara 


Nose 


moral 


nokoro 


nokoro 




Mouth 




karka 


kame 


ta 


Teeth 


dear 


yira 


ira 


yira 


Tongue 


dalan 


dalan 


talen 


talang 


Ear 


bidne 


knre 


kouri 


guri 


Hand 


morrah 


damora 


maramale 


mana 


Foot 






tona 


dana 


Sun 


baga 


gan 


ore 


bogorin 


Moon 


galan 


gibak 


tahouawan 


dawara. 



52 




AUSTRALIA 


• 




Inland- 


— 


(3.) 






English. 


Peel River. 


Bathurst. 


Wellington. 


Mudjt 


Man 


iure 


mauung 


gibir 


kolir 


Woman 


inor 


balan 


inur 




Head 


biira 


balang 


budyang 


ga 


Hair 


taikul 


gian 


uran 




Eye 


mil 


mekalait 


mil 


mir 


Nose 


muru 




murung 




Mouth 


ngankai 


nandarge 


ngan 




Teeth 


yira 


irang 


irang 


yira 


Tongue 


tale 




talan 


talai 


Ear , 


bina 


benangarei 


uta 


bina 


Hand 


ma 




miira 


mara 


Foot 


tina 


dina 


dinaDg 


dina 


Sun 


toni 


mamady 


irai 


murai 


Moon 


palu 


daidyu 




kilai. 



The Kamilaroi (of which the 
are dialects) is spoken over a 
and 500 miles, and 50 broad 
head-waters of the Hunter river. 



Wellington and Mudji 
district between 400 
: chiefly towards the 



(4.) 



English. 
Man 
Native 
Head 

Eye 
Nose 
Teeth 
Ear 
Tongue 
Chin 
Neck 
Foot 
Day 
Conterminous 

English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eyes 

Ewrs 

Nose 

Bone 



Kamilaroi. 

giwir 

mmri 

kaoga 

ga 

mil 

muro 

yira 

binna 

tulle 

tal 

nun 

dinna 

yarai 

with the 



English. 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Fire 

Water 

Fain 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 



Kamilaroi are the 



KamilaroL 

do 

gille 

mirri 

wi 

koUe 

yuro 

mal 

bularr 

guliba 

bularrbularr 

bulaguliba 

gulibaguliba. 



(5.) 

Wiradurei. 

gibir 

inar 

balang 

mil 

uta 

murung 

dabal 



Witouro. 

gole 

bagorook 

moomyook 

mirrook 

wingook 

kamyook 

gooroob 



WITOURO, ETC. 



353 





English. 


Wiradurei. 


Witouro. 




Blood 




kuaingi 


goortanyook 




Teeth 




irang 


leanyook 




Tongue 


talain 


tallanyook 




Hand 




miira 


munangin 




Foot 




dlnang 


tinnamook 




Sun 




irai 


mini 




Moon 






menyan 




Stan 






toortbaram 




Fire 




win 


wing 




Water 




kaling 


moabeet 




Earth 




takun 


dar 




Stone 




walang 


lar 




One 




wakol 


koen moet 




Two 




boloara 


bullait 




I 




ngatoa 


bangeek 




Tou 




nngintoa 

(6.) 


l>angen. 


English 




Lake Hindmarsh. 


Lake Mtrndy. 


Moloneln. 


Head 




boropepinack 




kotagong 


Hand 




mannyah 




mairoola 


Feet 




jinnerr 




jinygy 


Eyes 




mer 


meerrang 


magalite 


Note 




kar 


karbung 


noor 


Tooth 






tnngan 




Sun 




narwee 


thairerong 


enrroga 










buggarang 










mommait 


Moon 




yarrekudyeah 


bamboiirk 


cobboton 


Star 




toura 


yeeringminap 


ginaga 


Fire 




wheey 


wheein 


kanby 






wanyup 






WaUr 




gartyin 


barreet 


naijjon 






allangope 


(7.) 




Eugliah. 


/faongworoDg. 


Pinegorine. 


Gnnrellean. 


Head 




morromgnata 


poko 


tonggognena 


Eyes 




meringgnata 


ma 


mer^nena 


Nose 




kawinggnata 


kowo 


tandegnena 


Foot 




gnenonggnata 


gena 


genongbegnena 


Sun 




nowan 


yourugga 


nowwer 


Moon 




yambuk 


yonragknda 


torongi 


Star 




fort 


tatta 


tortok 


Fire 






peda 


wembe 


Water 








kordenok. 
A A 



354 



PARNKALLA, ETC. 







(8.) 




English. 


Woddowrong. 


Koligon. 


Dautgart- 


Head 


morrokgnetok 


morrokgrunok 


benianen 


Eye 


mergnetok 


mergnetok 


mergnanem 


Nose 


kanugnetok 


konggnetok 




Foot 


genongnetok 


kenonggnetok 




Sun 


mere 


na 


derug 


Moon 


yern 


bard bard 


barinannen 


Star 


fotbarun 


karartkarart 


bommaramorug 


Fire 


weang 


wean 




Water 


gnobet 


kan 

(9.) 


baret. 


English. 


Boraiper. 


Yakkumban. 


A iawong. 


Head 


poorpai 




petpoga 


Hand 


mannangy 




mannourko 


Foot 


tshinnangy 




dtun 


Eye 


merringy 




koUo 


Nose 


clieengi 





roonko 


Tooth 


leeangy 




Dgenko 


Sun 


nauwingy 


yuko 


ngankur 


Moon 


mityah 


paitchoway 


kakkirrah 


Star 


tootte 


poolle 


pille 


Fire 


■wannappe 


wheenje 


kabungo 




wolpool 


koonnea 





Water 


tarnar 


tinbomma 


ngookko 




konene 







I 


yetwa 




ngappo 


Thou 


ninwa 


nimba 


ngtirrti 


She 


niyala 




nin 


We 


yangewer 


innowa 


ngenno 


Te 






nguDO 


They 


wootto 




ngauo 


One 


keiarpe 


neetchar 


meiter 


Two 


poolette 


parkooloo 


tangkul 


Three 


jwoleckwia 


parkool-netcharii tangku-meiter. 






(10.) 




English, 


Parnkalla. 


Head of Bight. 


Western Australia. 


Head 


kakka 


karga 


katto 


Hand 


marra 


merrer 


myrea 


Feet 


idna 


jinna 


jeena 


Eye 


mena 


mail 


mail 


Nose 


mudla 


miillab 


moolya 


Tooth 


ira 


erai 


nelgo 


Svm 


yurno 


tshindu 


nganga 








batta 



PARNKALLA, ETC. 



355 



English. 


Pamkalla. 


Head of Bight. 


Western Anstialia. 


Moon 


perra 


perar 




meki 


Star 


purle 


kalga 




miljarm 


Fire 


gadia 


kalla 




kalla 


Water 


kapi 


gaippe 






kano 


kaawe 


kow\riii 


I 


ngai 


ajjo 




nganya 




ngatto 


janna 




bal 


Thou 


niima 






nginnee 


She 


paima 






ngangeel 


We 


ngarrinyalbo 






nganneel 










arlingol 


Ye 


nuralli 






narang 


They 


yardna 






balgoon 


One 


kuma 


gomera 


kain 


Two 


kuttara 


kooteia 


karclura 


TJtree 


kappo 


(11.) 




ngarril. 


English. 


Port PLUip. 






English. 


Port Philip. 


Man 


meio 






Foot 


tenna 


Woman 


ainmaik 






Sky 


poulle 


Tongue 


tatein 






Moon 


kaker 


Head 


iouk 






Star 


poulle 


Beard 


molda 






Sun 


tendo 


Mouth 


ta 






Tree 


ara 


Nose 


modla 






Fire 


alia 


Arm 


aondo 






Water 


kawi 


Eye 


mennha 






Sea 


kopool 


Hair 


iouko 






Bird 


pallo 


Ear 


ioare 






Stone 


poure 


Tooth 


ta 






Fish 


rouia 


Nail 


perre 






One 


mangorat 


Finger 


malta 






Two 


pollai. 


Hand 


malla 














(12.) 






English. 


King George's Sound. 






EsgUsh. 


King George's Sound 


Woman 


iok 






Tongue 


t.alin 


Head 


kat 








tarlin 


Hand 


mal 






Eye 


mehal 




mar 






Nail 


piak 


Beard 


annok 








perre 





narnak 






Foot 


kean 


Mouth 


taa 








dien 


Arm 


marok 









teal 


Hair 


kaat 








tchen 





tchao 






Blood 


oop 


Tooth 


oUog 






Sky 


marre 




orlok 






Moon 


meok 
AA 2 



356 



6 


KAMILAROI. 




English. 


King George's Sound. 


English. 


King George's Sounil 


^tar 


tcMndai 





pouai 


Sun 


kiat 


Bird 


kierd 


Fire 


kal 


Stone 


poie 




karl 




hoiel 


Water 


kepe 


One 


ken 


Sea 


mamorot 


Ttvo 


kadien 


Tree 


tarevelok 


Three 


taan. 


Egg 


kirkai 







Some (at least) of the Australian languages are named 
after the word meaning No ; so that the Kamilaroi, the 
Wolaroi, the Wailivun, the Wiralhei^e, and the Pikabul, 
take their designations from their negatives ; these being 
kamil, wol, wail, wira, and pika, respectively. If this 
nomenclature be native it is remarkable. In Italy and 
France the same principles prevailed in the twelfth 
century. In the early stages, however, of rude lan- 
guages it has yet to be discovered beyond the area now 
under notice. 

The following are paradigms for the Kamilaroi : — 



mute, an opossum. 
mutedu, an opossum (agent). 
mute-ngu, of an opossum. 
mute-go, to an opossum. 



mute-di, from an opossum. 
mtde-dd, in an opossum. 
mute-kunda, with an opossum. 



ngaia, I. 


ngulle, thou or you, and I 


ngeatiS, we. 


ngai, my. 


ngullina, he and I. 


ngeane-ngu, of us. 


ngaiago, to me. 


ngulle-ngu, belonging tc 


) ngeane-go, to us. 


ngaiadl, from me. 


you and me. 


ngeane-di, from us. 


ngaiada, in me. 


ngullina-ngu, belonging ngeane-da, in us. 


ngaiaJciinda, 


to him and me. 


ngeane-kunda, with us 


with me. 


ngulle-go, to you and me. 




ngununda, me. 


&c. &c. 




inda, thou. 


indaU, ye two. 


ngindai, ye. 


inda-ngu, "1 ^, 
or nginnu, J 


indale-ngu. 


ngindai-ngu, 
&c. 


inda-go, to thee, 


indale-go. 




&c. 


&c. 




nglrma, he, she, or that. 


ngdrma, they. 


numma or ngubbo, this. 


nguruma, that (iste). 


ngirma or J ^j^^^ (y,^^ 
ngutta i ^ ' 


andi? whol 


mlnnlmaf which? 


minna or minyal what 1 


ngaragedul or ngarage 


, another. 


kanungo, all. 



KAMILAROI. 357 

gir bumalnge, did beat to-day. 
gir bumalmien, did beat yesterday. 
gir hamallen, did beat some days ago. 

bumalda, is beating. humaUa, strike. 

bumalle, will beat. bumallawd, strike (emphatic and 

bumalngari, will beat to-morrow. earnest). 

bumalmia, strike (ironical — **ifyou 

dare "). 

buvfuildat, beat (as ydle inda bumaldendai, beating ; bunudngendai, 

bumaldai, if you beat). having beaten; bujtmlmiendai, 

bumaUago, to beat. having beaten yesterday ; bumal 

lendai, going to beat. 

In a systematic and general work like the present, 
wherein it is scarcely possible .for the writer to treat 
each part of the subject with the care demanded by a 
special monograph, I may be excused for giving some 
extracts from certain papers, of comparatively distant 
dates, bearing upon certain parts of the subject — papers 
written when our data were scantier than they are at 
present, and papers of which the object was less to prove 
certain points, than to prepare the way to the breaking- 
down of several arbitrary lines of separation and to draw 
attention to the over-valuation of certain isolated 
characters. 

And first in respect to the affinities between the Aus- 
trahan languages taken in mass among themselves. 

That the Australian languages are one (at least in the way that the Indo- 
European languages are one), is likely from henceforward to be admitted. 
Captain Grey's statement upon the subject is to be found in his work upon 
Australia. His special proof of the unity of the Australian languages is amongst 
the unprinted papers of the Geographical Society. The opinions of Threl- 
keld and Teichelmann go the same way. The author's own statements are as 
foUows : — 

(1.) For the whole round of coast there is, generally speaking, no vocaba- 
lary of sufficient length that, in some word or other, does not coincide with 
the vocabulary of the nearest point, the language of which is known to us. 
If it fail to do this it agrees with some of the remoter dialects. Flinder's 
Carpentarian, compared with the two vocabularies of the Endeavour River, 
has seventeen words in common. Of these, three (perhaps four) coincide. 
Eye, meal, C; meul, E. E.: hair, tnarra, C; morye, R R.: fingers, mingel, C. 
mungal bah, E. R. : breast, gummur, C. : coyor, E. E. 



358 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



\ 



Endeavour River. — Two vocabularies. — Compared with the vocabularies 
generally of Port Jackson, and the parts south and east of Port Jackson : — 
Eye, meul, E. R. ; milla, Limestone Creek : nose, emiorda, E. R,: morro, 
L. C. : ears, mulkah, E. R. ; tnoho, Port Macquarie : hair, morye, E. R. : 
mundah, Burra Burra : breast, coyor, E. R. : kowul, Port Jackson : fingers, 
munr/al hah, E. R. : maranga, B. B. : elbow, yeerwe, E. R. : yongra, Menero 
Downs : nails, holhe, E. R. ; karungion ? P. J. : beard, wollar, E. R. : walv, 
Jervis's Bay ; wollak, Port Macquarie, — The number of words submitted to 
comparison — twenty two. 

Menero Downs (Lhotsky), and Adelaide (G. W. Earl). — Thirteen words 
in common, whereof two coincide. 



English. 


Me aero Downs. 


Adelaide. 


Hand 


morangan 


murra 


Tongue 


talang 


taling. 



Adelaide (G. W. Earl) and Outf St. Vincent (Voyage de I'Astrolabe). 
English. Adelaide, Gulf St. Vincent. 

Beard mutta molda 

Ear iri ioure 



Foot 
Hair 
Hand 

Leg 

Nose 

Teeth 



tinna 
yuka 
murrah 
irako 

mula 

tial 



tenna 

iouka 

malla 

ierko 

mudla 

ta. 



Gulf St., Vincent (Voyage de I'Astrolabe) and King George's Sound (Nind 
and Voyage de I'Astrolabe) ; fifty words in common. 



English. 


Gulf St. Vincent. 


King George's Sound. 


Wood 


kalla 


kokol 


Mouth 


ta 


taa 


Hair 


iouka 


tchao 


Neck 


mannouolt 


wolt 


Finger 


malla 


mal 


Water 


kawe 


kepe 


Tongue 


talein 


talen 


Foot 


tenna 


tchen 


Stone 


poure 


pore 


Laugh 


kanghin 


kaoner. 


(2.) The vocabularies of distant points 


coincide ; out of sixty words in 


common we have 


eight coincident. 




English. 


Jervis'a Bay. 


Gulf St. Vincent. 


Forehead 


hole 


ioullo 


Man 


mika 


meio 


Milk 


awanham 


ammenhalo 


Tongue 


talen 


talein 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



359 



Jervis's Bay. 


Gulf St. Vincent 


maramale 


malla 


amgnaim 


amma 


monrak 


pouillonl 


berenou 


pere. 



English. 
Hand 
Nipple 
Black 
Nails 

(3.) The most isolated of the vocabularies, e. g. the Carpentarian, if com- 
pared with the remaining vocabularies, taken as a whole, has certain words to 
be found in different and distant parts of the island. 



EngUsh. 

Eye 
Nose 



The following is a notice of certain words coinciding, though taken from 
dialects far separated : — 



Carpentarian. 


Limestone Creek. 


mail 


milla 


hurroo 


morro. 



Lips 


tambana, 


Menero Downs 


tamande, G. S. V. 


Star 


jingi, 


ditto 


tchindai, K. G. S. 


Forehead 


uUo, 


ditto 


ioullo, G. S. V. 


Beard 


yemka, 


ditto 


;^^ i K. G. S. 
\nanga, S 


Bite 


paiandi. 


ditto 


badjeen, ditto 


Fire 


gaadla, 


ditto 


kaal, ditto 


Heart 


karlto, 


ditto 


koort, ditto 


Sun 


tindo, 


ditto 


djaat, ditto 


Tooth I 
Edge S 


tia, 


ditto 


dowal, ditto 


Water 


kanwe, 


ditto 


kowwin, ditto 


Stone 


pore, 


ditto 


boye, ditto. 



(4. ) The extent to which the numerals vary, the extent to which they agree, 
and the extent to which this variation and agreement are anything but coin- 
cident with geographical proximity or distance, may be seen in the following 
table :— 



English. 


One 


Tko 


Three 


Moreton Bay 


kamarah 


bulla 


mudyan 


• Island 


karawo 


poonlah 


madan 


Bijenelumbo 


warat 


ngargark 


2-fl 


L imbalarajia 


erat 


ngargark 


do. 


Terrutong 


roka 


oryalk 


do. 


lAmbaptfu 


immuta 


lawidperra 


2+1 


Koicrarega 


warapune 


qnassur 


do. 


Gudang 


epiamana 


elabaio 


do. 


Damley Island 


netat 


nes 


do. 


Raff.es Bay 


loca 


erica 


orongarie 


Lake Macquarie 


wakol 


buloara 


ngoro 


Peel Hirer 


peer 


pular 


purla 



360 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



English. 


One 


Two 


Three 


WelliTigton 


ngungbai 


bula 


bula-ngungbai 


Corio 


koimoil 






Jhongworong 


kap 






Pinegorine 


youa 







Onurellean 


lua 






King Oeorge^s Sound, 


keyen 


cuetrel 


murben 


Karaula 


mal 


bular 


culeba 


Lachlan, Regent Lake 


nyoonbi 


bulla 


bulongonbi 


WoUondilly River 


medung 


puUa 


coUuerr. 



(5.) In respect to the vocabtdaries, the extent to which the analysis which 
applies to the grammar applies to the vocables also may be seen in the fol- 
lowing instance. The word hand Bijenelumbo and Limbapyu is birgaJk. 
There is also in each language a second form — anbirgalk — wherein the an is 
non-radical. So, also, is the alk ; since we find that armpit=zingamb-alk, 
shoulder=^mundy-alk, and fingers^mong alk. This brings the Tooi=zhand 
to birg. Now this we can find elsewhere by looking for. In the Liverpool 
dialect, bir-il=ihand, and at King George's Sound, peer=:nails. The com- 
monest T00t=hand in the Australian dialects, is m-r, e.g. : — 



Moreton Bay murrah 



Karaula 


maiTa 


Sydney 


da-mora 


Mudje 


mara 


Wellington 


murra 


Liverpool 


ta-mura 



Corio 

Jhongworong 

Murrumbidje 

Molonglo 

Head of Bight 

Pamkalla 



far-onggnetok 
far-okgnata 
mur-rugan 
mar-rowla 



merrer 
marra. 



AU this differs from th e Port Essington terms. Elbow, however, in the 
dialects there spoken=waaj*e &ndforearm=am,'ma-woor; wier, too^palm, 
in Kowrarega. 



English. 
Terrutong 
Peel River 
Raffles^ Bay 

English. 

Moreton Island 

Peel River 

Mudje 

Wellington 

Liverpool 

Bathurat 

Boraipar 

Lake Hindmarsh 

MuiTumbidJe 

Molonglo 

Pinegorine 



Hand 
manawiye 
ma 
maneiya. 

Foot 

tenang 

tina 

dina 

dinnung 

dana 

dina 

tchin-nang-y 

jin-nerr 

tjin-nuk 

tjin-y-gy 

gena 



English, 

Onurellean 

Moreton Bay 

Karaula 

Lake Macquaric 

Jhongworong 

Corio 

Colack 

Bight Head 

Pamkalla 

Aiawong 

K. George's Sound 

Gould Island 



Foot 

gen-ong-begnen-a 

chidna 

tinna 

tina 

gnen- ong-gnat-a 

gen-ong-gnet-ok 

ken-ong-gnet-ok 

jinna 

idna 

dtun 

tian 

pinyun and pinkan. 



English. Hair, beard 

Moreton Island yerreng 
Bijenelumbo yirka 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 



361 



English. 


Hair, beard 


English. 


Tooth 


Regent's Lake 


00 ran 


Moreton Island 


tiya 


Lake Macquarie 


wnrong 


Moreton Bay 


deer 


Goold Island 


kiaram 


Lalce Macquarie 


tina 


Wellington 


uran 


Sydney 


yera 


Karaula 


yerry 


Wellington 


irang 


Sydney 


yaren 


Murrumbidje 


yeeran 


Peel River 


ierai 


Gould Island 


eera. 


Mvdje 


yarai. 










English. 


Tongue 


English. 


Eye 


Moreton Bay 


dalan 


Moreton Island 


mel 


Regent's Lake 


talleng 


Moreton Bay 


miU 


Karaula 


talley 


Gvdang 


emeri=eyebrow 


Gould Island 


taUt 


Bijenelumbo 


merde^eyelid 


Lake Macquarie 


talan 


Regent's Lalce 


mil 


Sydney 


dalan 


Karaula 


mil 


Peel River 


tale 


Mudje 


mir 


K. George's Sound talien. 


Corio 


mer-gnet-ok 






Colack 


mer-gnen-ok 


English. 


Ear 


Dautgart 


mer-gna-nen 


Kowrarega 


kowra * 


Jkongworong 


mer-ing-gna-ta 


Sydney 


kore 


Pinegorine 


ma 


Liverpool 


kure 


Gnurellean 


mer-e-gnen-a 


Lake Macquarie 


ngureong 


Boraipar 


mer-ring-y 


Moreton Bay 


bidna 


Lake Eindmarsh 


mer 


Karaula 


binna 


Lake Mundy 


meer-rang 


Peel River 


bine 


Murrumbidje 


mit 


Bathurst 


benang-arei 


K. George's Sound mial. 


Gould Island 


pinna. 



The main evidence, however, of the fundamental 
miity of the Australian languages lies in the wide 
diffusion of identical names for objects like foot, eye, 
tooth, fire, and the like. 



362 



TASMANIAN. 



CHAPTER LIII. 

Van Dieman's Land, or Tasmania. 

The earliest vocabulary we have for Van Dieman's 
Land is nine words in Cook. Then follows one by La 
Billardiere, then one by Allan Cunninghaii^, collected in 
1819, then one by Gaimard taken from the mouth of 
a Tasmanian woman with an Englishman as an inter- 
preter, at King George's Sound, then one by Mr. Geary, 
pubhshed by Dr. Lhotsky in the transactions of the 
Geographical Society (vol. ix.) ; and lastly one, procured 
by R. Brown, representing nearly the same dialect as 
that of La Billardiere. 

The following, however, from the Tasmanian Jour- 
nal of Natural History, contains more than all put to- 
gether, and, for practical purposes, all we have. For 
which reason it is given in extenso. 



English. 


East. 


West. 


South. 


North. 


Uncertain. 


Albatross 









tarrina 




Arm 




altree 






gouna howtna 


Bad 
Badger 


publedina 




carty _ : 
, peindriga 




4 probaluthin 
\ probylathany 


Bandicoot 


padina 






lennira 




Bark 











tolin^ 


Basket 











terri 


Beach 






minna 




quenitigna 


Beard 









( lomongui 


canguini 


Belly 


minlean 


cawereeny 




< tamongui 
( morangui 


> mackalenna 


Belonging to 








patourana 



TASMANIAN. 



363 



English. East. West. 

Bird • 

Blachman 

Blacken 

Bleed 

Blush wadebeweaima 

Boat luirapeny lallaby 

{native) 

Bone 

Boy plereiiny 

(««^e) { Jad^nna } 

Bread towereela 



South. 

palewaredia 
kenna teewa 



pokak 
Teewandrick 



Kwth. 



wagley 
pleragenana 



larrana 



bnngana 
badany 



Breast 

Brother 

BMoclcs 

Bum 

Bush or grass 

Cape Grimm 

Cat 

Cave 

Cheek 

Chief 

Child 

Children 

Chin camena 

Circidar) 

Head \ 

Cloud {white) 

(Mack) 

Coal 

Coal dust 

Cockatoo 

Cold 

Come tepera 

Corrohory {t) 

Country \ 
round \ 
Cottring 
Cow 
Crackle 
Crooked 
Crow 
Cry 
Crystal 
Day 



backalow 



pilree 
noperena 



martnla 



maianneck 



pootark 
nobittaka 

leewoon 



pona 
roona 



VneerUuM. 
movta-iMnUa 

langnoiri 



luiropay 
S luiropay 
i| picanini 



{workalenna 
lere-laidene 

wo my 



looweinna \ 
pickaninny ) 



ganemerara tarrabilyie 

( wallantanal- ) 
(inany ) 



legnnia 

cateena 

powena 

nanapalla 



lanena 



keeka 
loina 



Und 
targa 
heka 
loyowibba 



pagarat 



anaba haouba 



conora 
loira 



eribba 



terra gomna 



{tenna 
ranana 
togannera 



tanina 



364 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English. 


East. 


West. 


South. 


Nortli. 


Bay (a) 


magra 








(to) 


waldeapowel 








{fine) 


lutregala 








Dead 






1 lowatka, v. 
'; lowatka, p. 


) 


Devil 


comtena 


patanela 


( rargeropper 
\ namneberick 


[ talba 








i 


Die 










Dive 










Dog (native) 




loputallow 


lowdina 




(British) 




mooboa 




Door 






temminoop 




Drahe 


lamilbena 








{wild) 


malbena 








Dress 


legunia 








Drink 


leguna 









Drops of rain 






rinadena 


Dry 


catrebateany 








Ear 


pelverata 


lewlina 


towrick 


cowanriggs 


Earth 


gunta 






( newinna 
( (gibbee) 


Eat 






meenawa 


Eggs 









palinna 


Elbow 


rowella 








Emu 


rekuna 








Evacuate 


legana 








Evening 










Eye 


lepena 


pollatoola 


leemanrick 


namericca 


Eyelash 






leelberrick 




Eyebrow 






bringden 




Face 




manrable 






Family 










Fare 


niparani 








Father 


munlamana 


tatana 






Feathers 


munwaddia 








Fetch 










Flghi 




memana 






Finger 










Finger (fore 








motook 




Fire 
Fish 
Fist 


patarola 


lopa 


i unee ^ 
\ lopa ) 


leipa 


trew 


reannemara 







Uncertain, 
moogara 



mata 
bugue6 



laina laima 



blatheraway 

cuegnilia 

vaiguioiiagui 

coantana 

tuwie, dodoni 

malqueratopani 



laedai 

crowdo 
( nubere 
\ nubamihere 



tagarilia 

ardoungui 

rmgeny 

lorildri b^vit 

logui 
I wighana or 
( poper, nvhe 
( penunina 
\ penungana 



TASMAHIAN VOCABULARIES. 



365 



English. 


East. 


Flame 




Flower 




Fly 




{Mow) 




Flying 


pinega 


FaUii 


leward 


Fog 


mnna 


Foot 


langana 


Frog 


pulbena 


' Frost 


alta 


! Girl 


ludineny 


\ 


( cnckana 



West. 



lola 



South, 
lopatm 



moanga 



labittaka 



paraka 



VHeerUun, 



weealeena oelle 



labrica Ingna pere 



Giveme 



Go on 

, Go home 
i Good 
j Googe 

Gragg 

i Onus tree 
I Great 
Ground 

G%a 

Gvn 



ludineny 



tabelty 



naracoopa 
robenganna 



( mnia ^ \ 
imanginie | / 



tringena mara 



tackany 
pandorga 



haka-tettdga 



teannie mare- 
doungui 

{jackay (?) 
tangara 



rodidana 
comthenana 

gnnta 

rowenanna 

lila 



myna or m^ra neena 



nala 
lola 



{wome roonina 
poene nimeni 

lackrana 



longa 



Hair 


cethana 


J palanina or 1 
[pareata j" 





parba 


I keelana 
I pelilogtieni 
( peliogirigoni 


Hand 


anamana 








rabalga 


henimenna 
riUa 


Havk 


pacta 










TeegD&ririri 


{eagle) 
Head 


engenana 

pathenanaddi pnlbeany 




cowenna 
awittaka 


cockinna 
ewncka 




Here 












lomi 


High 
HiU 
Horse 
Hunt 

Hut 


bai-icutana 






neika 




weeticita 
parwothana 


leprena 






poopu 

; temma ^ 
; poporook ) 


mulaga 

tama lebirinna 


I 
Idand 


leurewagera 






' mena 
.manga 




meena 
1 mana 
leareaway 



366 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English. East. West. 

Island 1 

n„„„„\ i laibrenala 

{large) S 

Kangaroo \ 

{male) ^ 

{female) 

{pouch) kigranana 

{rat) reprenana 



bungana 

nannabenana 

plerenny 

latbanama leea 



Kill 
King 

Knee 

Know 

Lad 

Large 

Laugh 

Leg 

Lie {verb) 
Light 
Lightning 
Lips 

Little 

Lobster 
Long way 
or time 
Love 
Low 
Magpie 
MaTce 
Man 

{old) 



( canara or \ 
\ curena / 



ludowing 
( lowlobengang 



I 



\ or pebleganana ^ 



South. 



lemmook 
lurgu 



wanga 



( tunapee 

I manga-namntga 

marinook 



North. 



lalliga 



katenna 
nammorgun 

manta 
penna 



Uncertain. 



J lathakar 
{ leigb lenna 



boira tara 
manglie 

I ragualia 
\ rouga rouga 

{tunapry 
labberie 



tenalga 



( lagana 

< erai 

towlangang 
tretetea 

mogudelia 



nuele 
relbia 



penna (wybra) 



loyetea 
lewter 

pomale 



weipa 
redpa 



Many 

spears 

Mersey River paranaple 

Moon lutand weena 

Mosquito 

Mother powamena pamena 

Mountain truwalla 

Mouth youtantalabana canea 

Muscles \ 

{shellfish) ) 

Mutton {bird) youla laninyua 



webba 



tagalinga 
prennai 

liiina weedina 



{weenina 
mougui 
mire,mine-mi ' 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIEa 



367 



English 

Naih 

Narel 

Neri 

Night 

No 

Note 



East. 



lepera 
leware 



West. 



denia 



Nwse 

Oak 
■ Oar 
\Old 
, One 

'■ Opossum 
^Other 

Ousters 
\ Parrot 
', Pdican 

Pillow 

Pipe 
; Plant 
I Plenty 
I Porcupine 
i Porpoise 
: Port Sorrel 
I Put atcay 

Rain 
; Sirer 

(/argre) 

Rkmlet 

Sods 

.Rope 

Round {turn) mabea 

^•■n {rerl) moltema 
d 

I iSeoW 

j Scoreheiiitme) 

I Scrape (icood) 

\sea 

i Sea^weed 

i&e 



lemana 



petibela 



milabena 



taralangana 



trewdina 



trewmena 



warthanina 
waddamana 
monttunana 



panatana 



nabowla 



mells 
emita 



i Seal 
I Sharpen 
Suep 



cartela 



South. 



rorook 

pootsa 

rowick 
( makrie } 

t meenamra S 

panna 



Korth. 



rawairiga 



Uneertma. 
pereloU 

lue 

leewarry 
poobyer, ntu/t 
mongui mongni 








parmery 






puinera 


naba 










louba or toba 


marrock 


caracca 


mola 




lanaba 








roere 






terre 


nanwoon 





cardia 


menna 


milma 






paiappa 


parragoa 



taddiwa 



kenweika 



mmpa 

roorga 

(lapree 
manga namra 

keekawa 



talawa 

magog 

pathana 

tagowawinna rengnie 

came 

penn-meena 



neethoba 

i lamnnika 



irina-nntffn 
rouigri 



lapey 



pemiwaddi n ana mlemena 



368 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



English. 

Ship 

Shoulders 

Shout 

Sick 

Side (one) 

Sit 

Sit you down 

Sky 

Sleep 

Small 

Snake 

Snow 

Soon 

Spear 

Stars 

{little) 

Stone 

Stop 

Strike 

Strong 

Sulky 

Sim 



East, 
luiropony 

camey 



crackenicka 



oldiaa 



palana 
lenigugana 
lenicarpeny 
neckaproiny 

kalipianna 
ratairareny 

petreanna 



Swan 



r robigana "1 
\ wubia J 



Swiftly 

Tattoo 

Teeth yanna 

Tell 

They {he, her, 

them or that) 

Thigh 

This 

Throw away 

Thumb 

Thunder 

Tiger 

Tongue mena 

Tree 

Two 

Waddy 

Wake 

Walk (tabelty) 



West. 

cawella 

meevenany 
loila 



nabageena 



publee 



yannolople 



tula 



tullana 



South. 



meena 
crackena 



roroowu 
teeboack 



poiranapry 

nigga 

moorden 

longa 
crackena 



loina 



North. 



nicka 



powranna 



raccah (s) 
murdunnah 



loyna 
cocha 



Uncertain. 

bagny hagny 

meenattie 
maubia 
m^gri mere 
medi 

I malougna or lo- 
( gouan 



prenna (v & s) 

lonna loine 
rogueri toidi 

( workalenna 



^panubere 

catagunya 

f woorangitie 
L penutita 

palere 

pegui canan 

came 







paraway 
pegarapaguera 


wan 






navattn 








lowerinna 






mamana 


mene 


toronna 




peragui 
calabawa boul* 


lerga 


rocah 


runna 


lowenruppa 




tawie mogor 



TASMANIAN VOCABULARIES. 



369 



English. 


East. 


Walking 




Wallaby 




Was 




Warm 




Water (fresh) legani lerui • 


(salt) 




Water-bag 




White-man 




Wind 




Wing 




Woman 


(labia) 


(old) 


lowlapewanna 


Won^ai 




Wood 


moomara 


Te$ 





Yonder 





West. 



tablety 



mogo 



South. 



Ymt 



weela 



North. 
( teiriga ^ 
(tablee ) 

tanah 
moka 



nitipa 

numeraredia 

leewan 

lappa 



loyoranna 



UneertatH. 
tolo magara 

tara lo cougane 
crack ne 

{lini mocha 
roti 

mocha carty 
regaa 



(labia) lorga lolna (labia) quanipaiarana 



watka 



I nena ) 
(ninga / 



{qaoiba I 
wallisa ^ 



renave 
narapa nina 
neenie. 



The following, like the extracts of the preceding chap- 
ter, are from an earlier paper (indeed from the one which 
gave the others), and are inserted upon the same prin- 
ciple, and with the same excuse for their incomplete- 
ness. 

Port Dalrymple and King Georgis Sound (Nind and Astrol. :) — Woand, 
barana, P. D. ; bareuk, N. : wood, moumbra, P. D. ; poum, N. ; hair, 
hide, P. 3. ; Icaat, N. : thigh, degagla, P. D. ; tawal, N. : kangaroo, 
taramei, P. D. ; taamour, N. : lips, mono, P. D. ; mele, K. G. S. : no, 
poufie, P. D. ; poualt, poort, K. G. S. : egg, Icomeha, P. D. ; hierhee, 
K. G. S. : bone, pnale, P. D. ; nouil, K. G. S. (bone of bird used to suck 
up water) N. : skin, kidna, P. D. ; hiao ? K, G. S. : two, kateboueve, P. D. ; 
kadjen, K. G. S. (N.). Fifty-six words in common. 

Port Dalrymple and Gulf St. Vincent. — Mouth, mma, P. D. ; tamonde, 
G. 8. V. (a compound word, since taa is mouth, in K. G. S.) : drink, kS>le, 
P. D. ; kawe, G. S. V. : arm, anme, P. D. ; aondo (also shoulder), G. S. V. : 
hawk, gan henen kenen, P. D. ; nanno, G. S. V. : hunger, tigate, P. D. ; 
takiou, G. S. V. : head, eloura, P. D. ; ioullo, G. S. V. : nose, medouer 
(mula), P. D. ; modla, G. S. V. : bird, iola, pallo, G. S. V. : stone, lenn 
parenne, P. D. ; pmre ? G. S. V. : foot, dogna, P. D. ; tenna, G. S. V. : 
sun, tegoura (also moon), P. D. ; tendo, G. S. V. Seventy words in com- 
mon. 

B B 



370 



TASMANIAN. 



Port Dalrymple and Jervis's Ba^j. — Wound, barana, P. D. ; Tcaranra, 
J. B. : tooth, iaine, P. D. ; ira, J. B. : skin, Tcidna, P. D. ; hagano, J. B. : 
foot, dogna, P. D. ; tona (tjenne, tidna, jeetia), J. B. : head, eloura, P. D. ; 
hollo, J. B. Fifty-four words in common. 

What follows is a notice of some miscellaneous 
coincidences between the Van Dieman's Land and the 
Australian. 



English. 

Ears 

Tliigh 

Stone 

Breast 

Skin 

Bay 

Run 

Feet 

Little 

Lip 

Egg 

Tree 

Mouth 

Tongue 

Tooth 

Speak 

Leg 

Knee 

Moon 

Nose 

HawTc 

Hwnger 

Laugh 

Moon 

Day 

Fire 

Dew 

Water 



Van Dieman's Land. 

cuengilia, 1803 

tula, Lh. 
j pure, Adel. 
> voye, K. G. S. 

pienenana, Lh. 

kidna, P.D. 

megra, Lh. 

mella, Lh. 

perre, D, C. 

bodenevoued, P. D. 

mona, P. D. 

komeka, P. D. 

moumra, P. D. 

kamy, Cook, 
kane, P. D. 

darra, P. J. 
gorook, ditto, 
tegoura, P. D. 

medouer, P. D. 

gan henen henen, P.D. 
tegate, P. D. 
pigne, P. D. 
vena, 1835 
megra, 1835 
une, 1803 
manghelena, rain 

boue lakade 



Australia, 
gundugeli, Menero Downs 
dara, Menero Downs 

lenn parene, P. D. 

voyene, Menero Downs 

makundo, Teichelman 

nangeri, Menero Downs 

monri, Menero Downs 

birre, generally toe-nail 

baddoeen. Grey 

tameno {upper Up), ditto. [man 

muka, egg, anything round, Teichel- 

worra {forest), Teichelman 



kame 



speaTc ) 

mouth > Jervis's Bay 

cj-y ) 



lerai 

ronga, D. C. 

kakirra, Teichelman 
\ mudia, ditto 
I moolya, Grey 

gargyre, ditto 

taityo, Teichelman 

mengk, Grey 

yennadah, P. J. 

karmarroo, ditto ■ 

yong, ditto 

menniemoolong 

Ineylucka, Muri-ay, P. D. 
bado, ditto 

lucka, Carpentarian. 



Papuan affinities of the Tasmanian. 



Feet 
Beard 



5 perre ) 

\ perelia {nails) J 

kongine 



petiran, Carteret Bay 

fgangapouni, Waigid 
\ yenga, Mallicollo 







TASMANIAN. 371 


Bird 


mouta 


manouk, MaUicoUo 


Chin 


kamnena 


gambape, Waigid 


Tooth 


1 canan 
\ iane 
( yane 


gani, mouth, WaiffiH 

insik, teeth, Port Praslin, MaUicoUo 


Sand 


gnne 


coon, yean 


Wood 
Tree 


gui 


kaibns, Pap. and MaUicoUo 


Ear 


koyge 


gaaineng, New Caledonia 


Mouth 


mougui 


wangae and mooangoia 


Arm 


houana, gonna 


pingue 


^^o-^lS) 


boaheigha 


Fire 


nala 


afi, Mepp, nap, MaUicoUo 


Knees 


j rangalia ) 
( ronga ) 


banguiligha 


Bead 


mata 


mackie 


No 


neudi 


nola 


Ears 


cuegnulia 


gnening 


Xails 


pereloigni 


pihingui 


Hair 


pelilogueni 


healing, poun ingue 


Teeth 


p^ui 


penonngha 
paou wangne 


Fingers 


b^nia 


hadooheigha 


Nose 


mongui 


mandec, vanding 


Sleep 


makunya 


kingo. 



The Tasmanian, with its four dialects, is spoken by 
fewer than fifty individuals, occupants of Flinders 
Island, to which they have been removed. 



B B 2 



372 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 



CHAPTER LIV. 

Review of the preceding Class. — Its Characteristics, Divisions, and Value. — 
The so-called Negritos. 

The details of a large group being now <ione with we 
may take a retrospect of the class at large. 

The first thing which commands attention is its thorough 
insular or oceanic character ; on the strength of which 
those who choose to give it a general name may call it 
the Oceanic class. Subordinate to this is the remarkable 
distribution of some of its members ; even when treated 
as Oceanic. Easter Island is nearer to America, Mada- 
gascar nearer to Africa than to Asia. Formosa, on the 
other hand, is in the latitude of China and on the verge 
of the Japanese waters. The small islands that lie im- 
mediately to the North of it end in a compound of sima, 
which, in Japanese, means island. 

In no one out of the thousand and one islands and 
islets in which the preceding dialects are spoken, are 
there any clear and undoubted signs of any older popu- 
lation than the speakers of the present languages, dialects 
and subdialects, in their oldest form. I say clear and 
undoubted, because, in some, they have been either inferred 
or presumed — it may be on reasonable grounds. The 
strongest presumptions (not unaccompanied by evidence) 
in favour of anything of this kind are in Formosa. 

In one great division of the group {i. e. in Polynesia 
Proper) the diffusion has been decidedly recent; this 



m GENERAL. 373 

being an inference from the great uniformity with which 
the language is spoken from the Sandwich Islands to 
New Zealand, from Easter Island to Ticopia. 

That the line of migration for Micronesia and Polynesia 
was round the Papuan area rather than across it was 
suggested by Forster. His suggestion, however, has been 
but imperfectly recognized, so that some writers have 
unconsciously re-discovered it, and others have speculated 
from a point of view which they would never have 
taken had the investigations of that able man been fami- 
liar to them. In blaming others for this neglect the 
present writer by no means exculpates himself. 

Of the difference between the Oceanic tongues 
and those continental forms of speech which lie 
nearest to them, in the way of geography, too much has 
been made. Of the continental languages those which 
are the most monosyllabic, accentuate, and (to Em-opean 
ears) cacophonic, (such as the Burmese and the Chinese,) 
are those which are the best known in Europe, while, 
on the other hand, it is the Malay and the Javanese, with 
their soft sounds, their dissyllabic and polysyllabic voca- 
bles, and their liquid articulations, which have commanded 
the most attention. In the Manillas and Madagascar a 
comparatively complex giammar adds to the elements 
of contrast. 

That the difference is considerable cannot be denied. 
The remark, however, upon the extinction of the 
nearest congener to the Malay, which was made at the 
beginning of our exposition, helps to account for it. 

Another series of facts that calls for a few remarks 
lies in the domain of the ethnolocHst rather than in that 
of the pure philologue — a series of facts suggested by a 
term that has been used more than once — viz. Negrito. 
That the Papuans, and that the Australians are of that 
colour which the name Xegro, as applied to tbe African, 
suggests, is well known. As they are not yellow, and 
as brown, nuiroon, chocolate, and the like, are by no 



374 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

means current terras in Geography, we call them some- 
what laxly, and somewhat too generally, J5Zac^s. And Black 
let them — largely and generally — be called. The main 
fact connected with their colour lies in the real or sup- 
posed existence of men and women of the same dark 
hue, not only in New Holland and New Guinea, but in 
certain islands of the Indian Archipelago. In what 
particular islands they are to be found, and what shade 
of darkness those that are found actually exhibit, is a 
matter upon which it is difficult to obtain precise in- 
formation. Twenty or thirty years ago, these indi- 
viduals — individuals who may conveniently be called 
the Blacks of the Malay area — were ascribed to almost 
every island in the Archipelago with the exception of 
Java. As the islands, however, have become better 
known, the Blacks have become conspicuous from their 
non-existence ; the real fact being that in certain localities 
certain tribes are, at one and the same time, ruder than 
the rest, more pagan than the rest, darker-skinned, and 
(in some cases) worse-fed, than the rest. Of the Blacks 
of the Philippines (the only group wherein their absolute 
non-existence has not been demonstrated) this is (in all 
probability) the most that can be said — in other words, 
it may safely be stated, that the existence of a variety of 
mankind forming a class to which the term Negrito can 
either scientifically or conveniently apply is imaginary. 
How far the same applies to the Samangs of the main- 
land remains to be seen. Of the Andaman islanders, 
for the philology of the present group, no cognizance 
need be taken. Their affinities are with the Mon and 
Burmese. 

Now, however unreal this Negrito element in the 
Indian Archipelago may be, it is clear that, so long as it 
is assumed, it must serve as a basis for a good deal of 
hypothetical speculation. In the first place, the lan- 
guages which go with it run a great chance of being 
separated from their geographical neighbours on ^ prion 



IN GENERAL. 376 

oTounds. And on a prioi^i grounds this separation has 
been imagined. After what has been stated, it is need- 
less to add that it has no existence. The Umiray, the 
San Matheo, and the Dumagat forms of speech are, eo 
nomine, Negrito, and ed lingua akin to the Tagala or 
the ordinary Philippine : as may be seen by either the 
cm-sory inspection of them supplied by the present work, 
or a reference to the fuller vocabulary of Steen Bille's 
Voyage of the Galathee, fi-om which (the only authority 
for the class) they are taken. 

In respect to the relations borne by the Papuan lan- 
guages to the Australian, and those borne by the lan- 
guages of the two groups (taken together) with the 
Malay and Polynesian (in the ordinary sense of the terms), 
this same difference of physical conformation (which 
is to a great extent real) has had a similar effect in en- 
gendering guess-work. The statement that, between 
the Black tongues and the Brown or Yellow there is 
no affinity, is simply a crudity uttered upon ci prioH 
grounds by authorities who ought to have been more 
cautious. There are plenty of affinities. What they are 
worth is another question. Whatever the Papuan and 
Australian languages may be like, or unlike, they are 
more like one another than aught else ; they are, also, 
more like the Malay and Polynesian, however little or 
great that likeness may be. Whether great or small, 
however, there is some likeness. 

And, in like manner, whether the likeness be little or 
much, the Malay languages are liker to the southern 
members of the monosyllabic class than to any other 
forms of speech. Indian affinities they may have, and 
Turanian affinities they may have, but they have only 
these so far as they have them through the interjacent 
tongues, or else through being in either the same, or a 
similar, stage of development. Common sense suggests 
this, and observation verifies it. 

That the class is a natural one is admitted ; the 



376 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

only doubt being whether it be not too large a one. In 
other words, it may be a congeries of three or two classes 
rather than a single group. The present writer, whilst 
he insists upon its being single, admits that it is a class 
of a high ordinal value ; what that value is being unde- 
termined. It falls into two primary divisions : — 

The first contains the Malay, the word being used so 
as to include everything from the Siamese frontier to 
Formosa on the north and the islands beyond Timor 
to the east. In this, the Malagasi and Formosan are 
extreme, or aberrant, divisions : the remainder being 
grouped round Flores, round Celebes, and round Min- 
doro, as centres, and the principle of classification being 
that of type rather than definition. The ordinary way 
of taking the Malay as a starting-point is inconvenient : 
inasmuch as, the Malay is an extreme rather than a 
central form of speech. 

The second division of the group begins with Lord 
North's Island, and ends in the parts between the 
Kingsmill group and the Samoan Archipelago, contain- 
ing, inter alia, the Ladrones and Carolines, i. e. Micro- 
nesia. That the Tobi and Pelew languages (the former 
apparently with special allfinities to the TJlea) belong to 
this rather than to the Philippines is an inference from 
the few data we possess : the Pelew being a very out- 
lying language. That the class ends exactly at the 
Navigators' Islands is scarcely a safe assertion. That 
the Kingsmill (or Tarawan) dialects belong to it, and 
that the Samoan does not, is all that is absolutely cer- 
tain. It may be added that, in other respects, i. e. ou 
ethnological grounds, the group is a natural one. It 
is one, however, for which we are greatly in want of 
data, I know of no grammar for Micronesia ; and, al- 
though it is nearly certain that more is known in Spain 
about the Ladrone and CaroHne dialects than is current 
amongst philologues, I know of no written compositions 
or carefully-constructed vocabularies. 



IN GENERAL. 377 

With the Navigators' Islands, or the Samoan Archi- 
pelago, the tliird class, or that containing Polynesia 
Proper, begins : the Nukahivan being more especially 
Samoan, and the Hawaian of the Sandwich Islands 
being more particularly Nukahivan. Then come the 
Society and Friendly Islands, forming the central mass, 
from which Paumoto (Dangerous Archipelago), Easter 
Island, Rarotonga, the Austral Islands, and New Zea- 
land — each in their several directions — seem to have 
been peopled ; with Ticopia, Rotuma, Uea, kc, as offsets 
in the West. The minute detail of all this has been 
carefully investigated by able philologues, missionary- and 
lay ; indeed the amount of material collected for Poly- 
nesia Proper stands in a favourable contrast to the scanti- 
ness of our data for Micronesia. 

The ordinal value of the Polynesian class is as low 
as that of the Turk ; and, if we allow for the difference 
between a wide diffusion over a continent and a wide 
diffusion over an ocean, it is with the Turks that the 
Poh-nesians must be compared. They have spread both 
recently and rapidly. In the Micronesian and Malay 
groups there must be some five or six sections, each of 
which is of as high an ordinal value as all Polynesia. 
On the other hand, it is possible that the oldest island 
beyond the Samoan Archipelago has received its popula- 
tion from the Navigators' Islands subsequent to the date 
of the settlement of the Norwegians in Iceland. 

The second grand class may be called Kelenoneaian, 
(a term which is preferable on etymological grounds to 
Melanesian,) or the class appertaining to the islands 
with a dark-skinned population. Of this enough has 
been said ah-eady. It falls into two or three primary 
di%-isions as the case may be — certainly into the 
Papuan and Australian, perhaps into the Papuan, the 
AustraUan, and the Tasraanian. 

The Polynesians went round Kelenonesia ; and, ac- 
cording to many good authorities, the Fijis give us an 



378 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

area -where the two streams met. Individually, I think 
that the Papuan element in their dialects has been over- 
valued. I commit myself, however, to no decided opinion. 
The Fiji group was, therefore, dealt with by itself, and 
the chief Papuan affinities (taken wholly from Gabelentz) 
which its vocabularies exhibited were given somewhat 
fully. 

Each of the Kelenonesian groups (even if we take in 
the Tasmanian as a primary one) is of high ordinal 
value, especially when it is compared, or contrasted, with 
the Polynesian Proper, to which it stands much in the 
same relation as the XJgrian does to the Turk, Mongol, or 
Tungus. This is an inference not only from certain ex- 
treme forms but from the decided contrasts which certain 
languages of islands in close geographical relations to each 
other present. That certain phenomena of transition will 
occur when the forms of speech from the central parts of 
New Guinea become known is what may reasonably be 
expected. Still, the extremes will remain as distant 
from one another as before ; and so will the chasms in 
the interjacent area. As it is, the New Guinea lan- 
guages appear to constitute a group equivalent to all the 
rest put together ; beyond which the Soloman Islands, 
the New Hebrides, the Loyalty Islands, and New Cale- 
donia, form three subordinate divisions of a second class, 
themselves falling into sections and sub-sections. With 
data, however, so scanty as those which we possess, no 
arrangements can be other than provisional ; so that it is 
only on the principle that truth comes more easily out 
of error than out of confusion that the previous classi- 
fication has been suggested. 

That the grammatical structure of the Papuan lan- 
guages has been credited with certain remarkable cha- 
racteristics — characteristics of sufficient importance to 
be set against a considerable amount of glossarial co- 
incidence — has already been stated. I think, however, 
that much of their value depends upon their novelty. 



m GENERAL. 379 

Gabelentz, with whom any investigator must differ with 
hesitation, lays manifest stress upon two points — the 
quinary character of the Papuan numeration and the 
system of pereonal pronouns. But the former is a nega- 
tive, rather than a positive, character — all the more so 
fiom the fact of the five numerals as far as they go, 
being undeniably and admittedly both Malay and Poly- 
nesian. 

With the personal pronouns the matter is less simple. 
They present two phenomena; (I ) the so-called Exclusive 
and Inclusive forms, and (2) the so-called Trinal num- 
ber. 

Of these the Annatom gives a fair example ; where 

Ainyak ^ / 
Akaijan =yo\i tvo -f- / 
Ajumrau = you two — / 
Akataij = you three + / 

That these are rare ways of speaking cannot be 
denied. Few persons in English care to say how many 
persons they address, or yet to say whether they are 
themselves included in what is said. What, however, 
are such expressions as nios otros, vos otros, in Spanish, 
and nui aZtri, vui alti-i in Sardinian, but plurals, which 
(whatever they may be at the present time) are eocdu- 
sive in their origin ? It can scarcely, however, be said 
that these are inflections. 

And the same applies to the so-called trinal number. 
Who ciills vje three, in English, a Number at all, i. e. a 
Number in the technical and crrammatical sense of the 
word ? Who even calls us two a Dual ? Yet that 
the Papuan Trinal is neither more nor less than this is 
plain from the following forms in the MaUicoUo : — 



Aijumtaij = you three — I 
Akaija = you -f- / 
Aijama = you — /. 



Inau = / 

Kliai-im = you 

Na-ii = he 

Na-miihl i _ ( exdufire 

Drivan i -'«'««> [indusiTt 



Kha-miihl = you ttco 
Na-taroi = you three 
Na-tavatz = yoti four 
Dra-tin = irc three 
Dra-toratz = we four. 



380 OCEANIC LANGUAGES 

As points, then, of grammar, or, at any rate, as points 
of inflection, I submit that the Quinary Numeration, 
the Exclusive and Inclusive Pronouns, and the Trinal 
Number be eliminated from the consideration of the 
Papuan characteristics ; and I add that, even if they 
were grammatical they would scarcely be characteristic ; 
inasmuch as they may be found elsewhere, and that not 
only sporadically, or among the languages of the world 
at large, but within the Malay and Polynesian area 
itself. 

Other points of criticism connect themselves with the 
phonesis. The Polynesian languages are pre-eminently 
vocalic. They are vocalic if we look to the paucity of sepa- 
rate consonantal sounds ; b, d, g, s, and r, being generally 
wanting. They are vocalic if we look to the fact of few 
or no words ending in a consonant. They are vocalic 
if we look to the non-existence of two concurrent conso- 
nants in the same syllable. 

Now, in all these matters the Papuan tongues present 
some contrast. In some of the islands there are conso- 
nantal endings ; in some concurrent consonants ; in all 
of them more elementary consonants than are to be 
found ill any language of Polynesia. Yet they differ 
among themselves in the extent to which they are thus 
consonantal ; some having many, others but few, words, 
where a consonant is final. None are more vocalic 
than the most vocalic of the Malay tongues ; and among 
the Malay tongues themselves some are more consonantal 
than others. Above all, it is not with the Polynesian 
that the Papuan tongues are, in the first instance, to be 
compared — still less exclusively. 

As has already been stated, the ordinal value of the 
Polynesian class is nil, or nearly so. The real point of 
contact between the Papuan and Non-papuan tongues 
lies in the parts about Ceram. From these I think 
that New Guinea was peopled at a period anterior toj 
the peopling of Micronesia ; at a time when the remotfti 



IN GENERAL. 



381 



cincestors of the Eastern Moluccas were ruder, more un- 
dersized, and darker-skinned (for in this sense the term 
Negrito may have an ethnological import), than they 
are now ; at a time when they were chiefly pagan ; at 
a time when the usefiil arts were in their very rudi- 
ments ; at a time when the numeration went no fiirther 
than the five fingers of a single hand. If so, the Poly- 
nesians should give us the extremities of two chains, 
rather than any link between them. 

The relations of the Papuans to the Australians is 
more equivocal. I once suggested, on the strength of 
certain New Caledonian affinities, that Tasmania was 
peopled by means of a migration that came via the 
Papuan islands, i. e. round Australia, rather than across 
it ; a doctrine which at present I am prepared neither to 
abandon nor assert. 

In like manner Australia may have been peopled fi*om 
New Guinea, or from Timor : if fi-om Timor, at a period 
of greater rudeness and barbarity than even that which 
(by hypothesis) prevailed in the Eastern Moluccas when 
New Guinea was first occupied. When Australia was 
first trod numeration bad not even reached ^ve. 

The numerals are preceded by prefixes (as may be 
seen in the specimen) throughout the Papuan languages ; 
and in comparatively distant localities these prefixes 
coincide — e. g. in the Louisiade and New Caledonia. 



English 


Om 


Two 


Briefly Island 


paihe-tiA 


pahi-wo 


Cook's New Caledonia 


tro-geeaing 


tca-Too 


La Billardiere's do. 


oua-nait 


oua-dou 


English 


Three 


Four 


Brierly Island 


paihe-tvLan 


paihe-pak 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-teen 


ira-mbaeek 


La Billardiere's do. 


oua -tgoien 


oua-thait 


English 


Five 


Six 


Brierly Island 


paihe-]im& 


paihe-won 


Cook's New Caledonia 


wa-jmim 


ico-nnim-geeek 


La Billardiere's do. 


oaa-nnaim 


ou-naim-guik 



382 



OCEANIC LANGUAGES 



English 
Brierly Island 
Cook's New Caledonia 
La Billardiere's do. 
English 
Brierly Island 
Cook's New Caledonia 
La Billardiere's do. 



Seven 

paAe-pik 

wa-nnim-noo 

OMa-naim-dou 

Nine 

paihe-aiwo 

wa-nnim-baeek 

owa-naim-bait 



Eight 
paihe-WRQ 
toa-nnim-gain 
ow-naim-guein 
Ten 

pai?ie-a.vra,ia, 
wa-nnoon-aiuk 
OMa-doun-hic. 



Traces of this, however, may be found within the Malay- 



area. 



Another point worth noticing is the following ; a 
point best illustrated by certain American languages, 
e. g. amongst others by those of the following table : — 

(1.) 



English. 


Mbaya. 


Abi|)0iii8n. 


Mokobi. 


Head 


ma-gnilo 


ne-maiat 




Eye 


rti-gecoge 


wa-toele 


wi-cote 


Ear 


ma-pagate 






Nose 


m'-onige 






Tongue 


no -gueligi 






Hair 


Ma-modi 


Jie-etiguic 


ma-ccuta 


Hand 


ni-baagadi 


wa-pakeni 


wa-poguena 


Foot 


wo-gonagi 


(2.) 




English. 


Moxa (1).» 


Moxa (3). 


Moxa (3). 


Head 


nw-ciuti 


WM-chuti 


wM-chiuti 


Eye 


nti-chi 




WM-ki 


Ear 


wM-cioca 






Nose 


nw-siri 


WM-siri 




Tongue 


ww-nene 


wit-nene 


WM-nene 


Hand 


7m-bore 


mw-boupe 


wu-bore 


Foot 


wi-bope 




ni-bope. 



Here the prefix is the possessive pronoun, so that na- 
guilo = my head, &c. ; the capacity of the speaker for 
separating the thing possessed fi'om the possessor being, 
apparently, so small as to make it almost impossible to 
disconnect the noun from its pronoun. 

The Papuan and (?) Tasmanian give the same amalga- 
mation. 

* These are three different dialects. 



IN GENERAL. 383 

Upon what may be called the Ablative Subject, more 
will be said in the sequel. 

What follows is an extract from thi-ee very short vo- 
cabularies, illustrating the statement, made some chap- 
ters back, that the Ornbay, the Hangar ei, and the Tim- 
hora, had Kelenonesian aflSnities. 

Arm:=iharana, Ombay ; porene. Pine Gorme dialect of Australia. 

Hand=:aujuc, Ombay ; hingue, New Caledonia. 

Nose^imouni, Ombay ; maninya, mandeg, mandeinne, New Caledonia ; 
menu. Tan Dieman's Land, western dialect; mini, Mangerei ; meoun, 
muidge, mugui, Macquarie Harbour. 

Head=i7»o«7a, Ombay ; moos (=:hair), Damley Islands ; moochi (=hair), 
Massied ; immoos (^beard), Damley Islands ; eeta moochi (=:beard), 
Massied. 

Knee=i««-6ouia, Ombay ; hoichi, hoidkay (^forefinger), Damley Is- 
lands. 

Leg=iral-a, Ombay ; horag-nata, Jhongworong dialect of the Australian. 

Bosom=a7nj', Ombay ; naem, Damley Island. 

Tliigli=i/«ja, Ombay ; tinna-mook (^foot), Witouro dialect of Australian. 
The root, tin, is very general throughout Australia in the sense of foot. 

'Be\\j:=te-I:ap-ana, Ombay ; coopoi (=naTel), Damley Island. 

St&is=ipi-berre, Mangarei; bering, hirrong, Sydney. 

Hand=tanara5ra, lllangarei ; taintu, Timbora ; tamira, Sydney. 

Head=;aAc, Mangarei ; cAow, King George's Sound. 

Stars^tjn//l-on(/, Timboro ; chindy. King George's Sound, Australia. 

Moon=:man5r'on5r, Timbora ; meuc, King George's Sound. 

Sun=i"n5rl-on^, Timbora ; coing, Sydney. 

Blood =itero, Timbora ; gnoorong, Cowagary dialect of Australia. 

Ke&d=:l:okore, Timbora ; gogorrah, Cowagary. 

Fish^ajrpi, Mangarei ; wapi, Damley Island. 

Of these affinities nearly all are Austrahan. In 
those with the Papuan dialects the parts about Ceram 
and Gilolo are the most abundant. 



384 NORTH-WESTERN AMERICA. 



CHAPTER LV. 

Languages of America. — The Eskimo. — The Athabaskan dialects. — The 
Kitunaha. — The Atna. — The Haidah, Chemmesyan, Wakaah, and 
Chinuk. 

The languages of the New World now come under 
notice ; languages of which the origin some few years 
back was obscure. This was because most of our data 
for the ethnology of America were derived from the 
Indians of Canada and the United States rather than 
from those of the Hudson's Bay Territory and Russian 
America. As long as the parts between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific were insufficiently explored, 
the nearest congeners to the populations of the north- 
eastern parts of Asia were insufficiently known. With 
the improvements in this respect the mystery has di- 
minished — so much so that, even before we leave Asia, 
decided affinities between the languages of Siberia and 
the languages of the northern coast of the Pacific pre- 
sent themselves. 

The lines by which America might be peopled from 
Asia are three — the first, via Behring's Straits ; the 
second, via the Aleutian chain of islands — islands run- 
ning from Kamtshatka to the Peninsula of Aliaska ; the 
third, via the Kurile islands, from either Korea or the 
Peninsula of Sagalin. Of these, though the presumptions 
may be in favour of the first, the phenomena in the 
present state of our knowledge, favour the second. 

For Europe and Asia the Circumpolar forms of speech 



THE ESKIMO. 386 

belong to different genera, if not to different orders ; 
and tbey are comparatively numerous. Above all, tbey 
have (every one of them) decided southern aflinities — 
so much so as to give them the appearance of being 
intrusive. "With the Norwegian and Russian this is 
not only the case, but it is known to be so. Of the 
Lap and Samoyed the southern origin is less decided. 
On each side, however, there are southern affinities. 
With the Tungus these southern affinities are more 
decided stiU. The nearest approach (after the Lap) to 
anything like an original Arctic situs is supplied by the 
Yukahiri and Tshuktshi. Yet even here it is only an 
approach. 

In America, on the other hand, the Arctic region is 
mainly covered by dialects of a single language — the 
Eskimo ; the intrasion from the south being inconsider- 
able. Hence, the Eskimo area is horizontal rather than 
vertical ; broad rather than deep ; and running, in its 
extension, from east to west rather than from north to 
south. The language of Greenland and Labrador is 
Eskimo. The language of the eastern extremity of 
Asia is Eskimo. The lanomage of the Aleutian islands 
is Eskimo. The language of the interjacent regions 
is Eskimo also. 

So much for the breadth and continuity of the Es- 
kimo area. 

In respect to its depth, it has its maximum on the 
Atlantic, where it reaches the latitude of Newfoundland. 

It is on the side of the Atlantic* that the contrast 
between the Eskimo and the ordinary Indian of North 
America — the Red Indian as he is often called — is most 

* It is often nsefal (not to say necessary) to speak thns ; indeed, we most 
occasionally write Atlantic and Pacific instead of West and East. This is 
because we have occasionally to shift our position. The Eskimos of Green- 
land are an Eastern, and the Konaegi of Eadiak a Western, population, only, 
when we look at them from Europe. When we begin with the NamoUos of 
the Asiatic side of Behring's Straits, and go on with the Aleutians, and the 
Konsgi, East becomes West, and rice veitd, 

C C 



386 



NORTH-WESTERN AMERICA. 



decided. Hence, as long as the phenomena of transition 
which are exhibited on the side of the Pacific were un- 
known, the connection between the aborigines with 
both the Siberians and the Americans was not only 
doubtful, but the line of demarcation which was drawn 
between the Eskimo and the Indian was exaggerated. 

The Eskimo is the only language common to the two 
continents ; and this it is in two ways. The Aleutian 
dialects are in situ, and, as such, actually transitional. 
But, besides these, there is, in the parts about the 
Anadjrr and Tshuktshi Noss, a population of compara- 
tively recent origin, occupant of the parts between the 
most western of the true Tshuktshi of Behring's 
Straits — a population which seems (so to say) to have 
been reflected back from America upon Asia. On the 
other hand, however, no true Asiatic language is spoken 
in any part of America. 

The best known of the Aleutian forms of speech, 
which probably represent a group of the ordinal value 
of all the others put together, is the Unalashkan. 



English. 


Unalaslika. 


Kadiak. 


Kuskutsliewak. 


Labrador. 


Man 


tayaho 


sh6k 


tatshu 


inuit 


Woman 


anhahenak 


aganak 






Bead 


kamhek 


naskok 


kamikuk 


niakko 


Hair 


imlin 


neoet 


nuiat 


nuiat 


Nose 


anhozin 


kinaga 


nikh 


kingat 


Mouth 


ahilrek 


kanot 


kanik 


kannerk 


Ear 


tutusak 


khiune 


tshuutuik 


suit 


Ears 


tutasakin 


khiudok 




sintik 


Eye 


thak 


inhalak 


vitatuik 


aiiga 


Tongue 


ahnak 


ulue 


alianiik 


okak 


Hand 


kbianh 


taleha 


yagatsliutuik 


aggait 


Foot 


kitok 


looga 


igut 


itigak 


Tooth 


kiahuzin 


hudeit 


knutuik 


kiutit 


Blood 


auiak 


a(ik 




auk 


Sky 


innyak 


keliok 


kiilyak 


kUlek 


Sun 


ahhapak 


madzak 




sekkinek 


Moon 


tuhedak 


yalok 


tangek 


takkek 


Star 


Stan 


ageke 


mittit 


ubloriak 


Fire 


keyhnak 


knok 


knuik 


ikoma 


Watei- 


tanak 


tanak 


muek 


immek 







THE ESKIMO. 


38^ 


Eagiish. 


Unalashka. 


Kadiak. 


Koskutshewak. 


Labrador. 


Sain 


khetak 


ketok 






River 


khehanok 


kuik 


kvak 


kok 


Sand 


khoohok 


kabea 


kagnyak 




Sea 


allaok 


imak 


immakh-pik 


immak 


Snow 


kannek 


annne 


kanikh-ohak 


karniek 


Stone 


kuvranak 


yamak 


tkalhk-uk 




Tree 


jakak 


kobohaktsbalakua 




One 


atoken 


ataadzek 


atuachik 


attonsck 


Two 


arlok 


azlha 


ainak 


marruk 


Three 


kanka 


pingasrak 


painaivak 


pingasat 


Pour 


sikhLa 


stamek 


tsbanuk 


eittamat 


Fire 


khaan 


talimfk 


talemek 


taUek 


Six 


atlin 


ahoilime 


akhvinok 


arranget 


Seven 


(ikun 


malehonien 


ainaakhranam 


pingasallo 


Eight 


kankheen 


inglulun 


pinaiviakhTanam pinaiuik 


Nine 


sikheen 


kulnfihin 


chtameakhranam tellimeUa 


Ten 


atek 


kfUen 


tamenu^hranam tellimayoktat 



It is to the Eskimo of this latter, larger, and more 
complex group that the NaTnollo, or Eskimo of the 
Asiatic continent belongs. 



ED-lish. 


Tfhoktshi Kos. 


Uouth of the Anad;r. 


Head 


nashko 


nashkok 


Hair 


nnyak 


nuyet 


Nose 


tatiik 


khunggak 


Eye 


iik 


iik 


Ear 


tsliintak 


tshiftukhk 


Blood 


aakn 


anka 


Sh, 


kiiilah 


keilak 


Sun 


ehekkinak 


matsbak 


Moon 


tankok 


irallak 


Star 


igalgtak 


iralikatakh 


Fire 


annak 


eknok 


Water 


mok 


emak 


Tree 


onakhtsik 


nnaktshek 


Fi»h 


salyuk 


ikahliik 


River 


kuik 


kaigiitt 


Sand 


kannak 


kaujak 


Snow 


anna 


anighu 


One 


attashek 


attazhhk 


Two 


malgok 


malgakh 


Three 


pegayut 


pingaya 


Four 


ishtamat 


ishtama 


Five 


tatlemat 


taklima 


Ten 


kulla 


kuUe. 

c c 2 



388 THE ATHABASKAN GROUP. 

Next to the Eskimo comes the great Athabaskan 
family, stock, group, or class. 

The Athabaskan area touches Hudson's Bay on the 
one side, the Pacific on the other. 

With the exception of the Eskimo, the Athabaskan 
forms of speech are the most northern of the New World. 

For the northern Athabaskans (the main body of the 
family) the philological details were, until lately, emi- 
nently scanty and insufficient. There was, indeed, an 
imperfect substitute for them in the statements of several 
highly trustworthy authors as to certain tribes which 
spoke a language allied to the Chepewyan and as to 
others who did not ; — statements which, on the whole, 
have been shown to be correct ; statements, however, 
which required tlie confirmation of vocabularies. These 
have now been procured ; if not to the full extent of all 
the details of the family to an extent quite sufficient 
for the purposes of the philologue. They show that the 
most western branch of the stock, the Chepewyan Pro- 
per, or the language of what Dobbs called the Northern 
Indians, is closely akin to that of the Dog-ribs, the Hare 
(or Slave), and the Beaver Indians, and that the Daho- 
dinni, called from their warlike habits the Mauvais 
Monde, are but slightly separated from them. Farther 
west a change takes place, but not one of much import- 
ance. Interpreters are understood with greater diffi- 
culty, but still understood. 

The Takulli, Nagail, or Chin division falls into no less 
than eleven minor sections ; all of which but one end 
in this root, viz. -tin. 

1. The TsbM-tin, or Talko-^m. 

(?) 2. The Tsilko-im or Chilko-^m, perhaps the same 
word in a different dialect. 

3. The Nasko-im 8. Tlie Natliau-im. 

4. The Thetlio-im 9, The Nikozliau-^m. 

5. The Tsatsno-^m 10. The Tatshiau-im, and 

6. The Nulaau-^m. 11. The Babin Indians. 

7. The Ntaauo-^m. 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 389 

Sir John Richardson has shown, what was before but 
suspected, that the Loucheux Indians of Mackenzie 
River are Athabaskan ; the Loucheux being a tribe 
known under many names — ^under that of the Quar- 
rellei-s, imder that of the Squinters, under that of the 
Thycothi and Digothi, under that of Kutshin. The 
particular tribes of the Kutshin division, occupants of 
either the eastern frontier of Russian America, or the 
noith-westem parts of the Hudson's Bay territory, are 
as follows : — 

1 . The Axtez-Jcutshi zz Hard people. 

2. The Ts\m-kuts?ii — Water people. 

3. The T&tzei-kutshi =. Rampart people ; falling into 

foiu" bands. 

4. The Teystse-ArufoAi r= People of the shelter. 

5. The Vanta-i-M<sAi = People of the lakes. 

6. The l^eyetse-Jcutshi zz'PeojAe of the open comitry. 

7. The Tlagga-silla =z Little doo:s. 

This brings us to the Kenay. A Kenay vocabulary 
has long been known. It appears in Lisianisky, tabu- 
lated with the Kadiak, Sitkan, and Unalaskan of the 
Aleutian Islands. It was supplied by the occupants of 
Cook's Inlet. Were these Athabaskan? The present 
writer owes to Mr. Isbister the suggestion that they 
were Loucheux, and to the same authority he was in- 
debted for the use of a very short Loucheux vocabulary. 
Having compared this with Lisiansky's, he placed both 
languages in the same category — rightly in respect to 
the main point, wrongly in respect to a subordinate. 
He determined the place of the Loudieux by that of the 
Kenay, and made both Kolush. He would now reverse 
the process and make both Athabaskan (in the widest 
sense of the word), as Sir John Richardson has also 
suggested. 

For all the languages hitherto mentioned we have 
specimens. For some, however, of the populations 
whose names appear in the maps, within the Athabaskan 



390 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



area, we must either rest satisfied with the testimony 
of writers or rely on inference. In some cases, too, 
we have the same population under dififerent names. 
Without, then, giving any minute criticism, I will briefly 
state that all the Indians of the Athabaskan area whose 
names end in -dinni are Athabaskan ; viz. — 

1. The See-issaw-cZmm r= Rising-sun-me7i. 

2. The-tsawot-c?mm = Birch-rind-me-n. 

3. The Thlingeha-(^mm r= Dog-rib-meTi. 

4. The Etsh-tawut-c?mm = Thickwood-TTie^i. 

5. The Ambah-tawut-cZm-ni = Mountain-sheep-me?i. 

6. The TsiUaw-awdiit-cZmm := Bushwood-meTi'. 

Hare-Indians and Strong-bows are also Athabaskan 
names. The ITare-Indians are called Kaneho. The 
Nehanni and some other populations of less importance 
are also, to almost a certainty, Athabaskan. 



English. 


Kenay. 


Kutshin. 


Slave. 


Dog-rib. 


Man 


tinna 


'tinne 






Woman 


mokelan 


tshekwe 






Head 


shangge 




saykwl 


ta 


Hair 


stseahu 




sakwlgah 


theoya 


Mouth 


shnaan 




kwarlchi 




Teeth 


shrikka 




saygfi 


baighu 


Tongue 


stsilue 






eththadu 


Ear 


stsllu 




settzay 


bedzegai 


Eye 


snasha 




sentah 


mendi 


Hand 


shkuna 




siulah 


mila 


Sun 


channu 


sakh 


sah 


sa 


Moon 


nee 


thun 


sah 


tethesa 


Star 


skin 




fwun, them 


thiu 


Fire 


taaze 




khun 


khun 


Water 


vilni 


to 


tti 


tu 


River 


katnu 


dessh 






Rain 


- 


dsha 


chon 


tshon 


Day 


chaan 


tzinna 






Night 


kaak 


hetleghe 






Snow 


ajjah 





jeah 


yah, teill 


Stone 


kaliknike 







thai 


I 


su 


si 







Thou 


nan 


nin 






Father (my) 


stukta 


se-tsay 






Son {my) 


ssi-JA 


sc-jay 







THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



391 



English. Kenay. 


Kntehin. 


Slare. 




Dog-rib. 


One tsflgtan 


tila^a 


thelgai 




*enclai 


Tico nutaia 


nakhei 


olkie 




*iiaklia 


Thru toluke 


thieka 


tadette 




•ttagha 


Four tanke 


tanna 


tinghi 




*ttiiic 


Five t^flu 


illakonelei 


sazelle 




*sasfillai 


Six kfijtoni 




etaente 




•ntkettai 


Seven kantsehe 




tUazadie, 




*khosingting 


Eight Itakale 




etzandie 




•etzenting 


Nine Ikitsitha 




eththleihalai 


«khakuU 


Te» klajfiii 




keaaatai 




*hoiiana 


The Beaver Indian 


is transitional to 


the Slave and 



the Chepewyan Proper. 

The Sikani and Sussi tongues, lying as far south as 
the drainage of the Saskatshewan, and as far west as 
the Rocky Mountains, are, and have been for some years, 
known as Athabaskan. 



EngHsh. 


Chepewyaa. 


TakoDL 


Man 


diimie 


dini 


Woman 


cheqnois 


tsheko 


Father 


zi'tah (my) 


apa 


Mother 


rinah {my) 


unnangcool 


Son 


ziazaj (my) 


eyoze 


Daughter 


zilengai 


eacha 


Head 


ed thie 


bitsa 


Hair 


tbiegah 


oz^a 


Far 




otso 


Fife 


nackay 


beni 


Note 




paninsrhis 


Tongue 


edthu 


tsoola 


Tooth 


goo 


ohgoo 


Hand 


law 


la 


Feet 


cuk 


osha 


Blood 


deU 


skai 


Home 


coeen 


knkh 


Axe 


thynle 


shashill 


Knife 


bess 


teish 


Shoes 


kinchee 


keskot 


Sun 


sail 


tsa 


Moon 


sah. 


tsa 


Star 




sMmn 



* The words marked Uma are eitiier a second dialect or a second Toeaba- 
lary of the Slate. 



392 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Chepevryan. 


TakulU. 


Fire 


counn 


kwun 


Water 


toue 


too 


Rain 


thynnelsee 


naoton 


Snow 


yath 


ghies 


River 


tesse 


akokh 


Stone 


thaih 


tse 


Meat 


bid 


utson 


Dog 


sliengh 


tkU 


Beaver 


zah 


tslia 


Bear 


zass 


sus 


Great 


unshaw 


tsho 


Cold 


edzah 


hungkaz 


Black 


dellzin 


dulkuz 


Bed 


delicouse 


dulkun 


I 


ne 


si 


Thou 


nee 


yin 


One 


slachy 


etkhla 


Two 


naghur 


nangkakh 


Tliree 


taghy 


ta 


Four 


dengky 


tingti 


Five 


sasoulachee 


skunlai 


Six 


alkitachy 


ulkitaki 


Seven 




takalte 


Eight 


olkideinghy 


ulkinggi 


Nine 


cakinahanothna 


lanizi etkhlahkula 


Ten 


canothna 


lanizi. 



The Atna at the mouth of the Copper Kiver, the 
Koltshani higher up the stream, and the Ugalents 
around Mount St. Elias, are all Athabaskan — not, indeed, 
so decidedly as the Beaver, the Dog-rib, or the Proper 
Chepewyan; but still Athabaskan. They are not Eskimo 
though they have Eskimo affinities. They are not 
Kolush, though they have Kolush affinities. They are 
by no means isolated, and as little are they to be made 
into a class by themselves. At the same time, it should 
be added that by including these we raise the value of 
the class, and we raise it still more when we include 
the Kolush. 



English. 

Eye 

ffair 

Teeth 



Ugalents. 



Atna. 


Kolstshani. 


snyga 


tshintagi 


stsega 


stshjga 


g« 


nogu 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



393 



English. 


Ugalfnts. 


Atna. 


Kolstshani. 


Nose 




sontRhift 


sant.shis 


Hand 




8l» 


kun 


Head 




ttn 


sla 


Ear 




stsega 


stsi 


Sun 


kaketlkh 


naai 


naaitshete 


Moon 


kakha 


goltsei 


sattshetle 


Star 


tlakhekl 


zzhun 


son 


One 


tlkinke 


shelkae 


ilite 


Two 


loate 


nat^kka 


laken 


Three 


totlkoa 


taakei 


takei 


Four 


kalakakya 


tiinki 


tani 


Five 


tsoane 


altshen 


taltshan 


Six 


tsun 


kastaan 


kistan 


Seven 


laatetson 


kontsegai 


kontshagai 


Eight 


katetsrm 


tkkhladenki 


tan 


Nine 


kutkte 


tklakolei 


takolei 


Ten 


takakkh 


plazha 


natitlya. 



The Athabaskan is broadly and definitely separated 
from the language of its frontiers in proportion as we 
move from the Pacific towards the Atlantic. 

The most southern of the Athabaskans Proper are 
the Sussis, in north latitude 51° — there or thereabouts. 
But they are only the most Southern of the Athabaskans 
en masse. There are outlyers of the stock as far south 
as the southern parts of Oregon. More than this, there 
are Athabaskans in California, New Mexico, and Sonora. 

Mr. Hale showed that the Umkwa, Kwaliokwa, and 
Tlatskanai dialects of a district so far south as the 
mouth of the Columbia, and the upper portion of the 
Umkwa, were outlying members of the Athabaskan stock, 
which dialects were afterwards shown, by a discovery of 
Professor Turner's, to be only ^e^iultimate ramifications ; 
inasmuch as in California, New Mexico, Sonora, and 
even in Chihuhua, as far south as 30° north latitude, 
Athabaskan forms of speech were to be foimd ; viz. the 
Navaho, the Jecorilla, the Pinalero, along with the 
Apatsh of New Mexico, California, and Sonora. To 
these add the Hoopah of California, which is also 
Athabaskan. 



394 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



(1.) 



Englisb. 


Tlatskanai. 


Kwaliokwa. 


Umkwa. 


Man 


khanane 




titson 




taiitsen 




tone 


Woman 


tseokeia 


oat 


ekhe 




tseake 






Bead 


khostoma 


nin 


suga 




stsie 




si 


Hair 


khotsosea 


soaktlane 


suga 




stsose 




sal a 


Ear 


khotskhe 


khonade 


tzige 




stsakhai 




tzage 


Eye 


nakhai 




nage 


Nose 


khointsus 


dalainstzetze 


ziz 


Mouth 


khokwaitzaale 




ta 




wunaya 






Tongue 


khotzotkhltzitzkhltsaha 


uotaa 


lasom 




seqinakal 




santkMo 


Tooth 


khotsiakatatkhltson 


koute 


uo 








cugu 


Hand 


kholaa 




zlaa 




sla 




zila 


Foot 


khoakhastlsokai 




zkhe 




nokatkh 






Swn 


laose 




za 




szlakhalaklia 




khangze 


Moon 


taose 




igaltzi 


Stwr 






khatlatzf 


Fire 


tkhlkane 




khong 


Water 


to 




tkho. 



(2.) 



Engliali. 
Man 
Woman 
Head {my) 
Hair {my) 
Face {my) 
Ear {my) 
Eye {my) 
Nose {my) 
Mouth {my) 
Tongue {my) 
Tooth {my) 
Sky 



Navaho. 

tennai 

estsonnee 

A.wtzeetsin 

Azttzee 

Awnnee 

Awtjah 

A?<nnah 

^Mtcbili 

htizzs.\ 

hut\j60 

hurgo 
eeyah 



Apatsh. 
ailee 
eetzan 
seezee 



streenee 

scetza 

sleeda 

sectzee 

sheeda 

sheed&ie 



Pinalero. 

payyahnah 

etsunni 

setzezil 

sitzchar 
tshindar 
chinchi 



eah 



THE ATHABASKAN LANGUAGES. 



395 



English. 


Navaho. 


Apatsh. 


Pinalero. 


Sun 


chokonoi 


skeemai 


yahehe 


Moon 


klaihonoi 


clanai 


ilsonsayed 


Star 


SODh 


suns 


ailsonsatyoa 


Day 


cheen-^0 


eeska 




NigU 


klai-gfo 


da 




Light 


hoascen-gro 


skee 




Rain 


naheltinh 


nagostee 




Snow 


yas 


zahs 




Hail 


neelo 


heeloah 




Fire 


konh 


kOQ 




Water 


tonh 


toah 


to 


Stone 


tsai 


zeyzay 


tshaier 


One 


tlahee 


tahse 




Two 


nahkee 


nahkee 




Three 


tanh 


taa 





(3.) 



English. 


Hoopah. 


Jecorilla. 


Head 


okhek 


it-se 


Forehead 


Aotsintah 


pin-nay 


Face 


Aaanith 




Eye 


Attanah 


pindah 


Nose 


Auntcha 


witehess 


Teeth 


Aowwa 


^ho 


Tongue 


sastha 


ezahte 


Ear 


Aotcheweh 


wickyah 


Hair 


tsewok 


itse 


Neck 


A«sevatl 


tfjckcost 


Arm 


Aoithlani 


KTttse 


Hand 


Aollah 


wtalah. 



The Kitunaha, Kutani, Gootanie or Flaibow area is 
long rather than broad, and it follows the line of the 
Rocky Mountains between 52° and 48° north latitude. 
How definitely it is divided by the main ridge from that 
of the Blackfoots I am unable to say ; but as a general 
rule, the Kutani lie west, the Blackfoots east ; the former 
being Indians of New Caledonia and Oregon, the latter 
of the Hudson's Bay Territory. 

On the west, the Kutani country is bounded by that 
of the Shuswap and Selish ; on the north by the Sussi, 
Sikanni, and Nagail Athabaskans ; on the south (I 



396 



THE KUTANI. 



think) by some of the XJpsaroka or Crow tribes. All 
these relations are remarkable, and so is the geographical 
position of the area. It is in a mountain range ; and, 
as such, it is a district likely to be an ancient occupancy. 
The languages of the frontiers are referable to four 
different families — the Athabaskan, the Atna, the Al- 
gonkin, and the Sioux ; from all of which the Kutani 
differs notably ; though, like all the languages of America, 
it has numerous miscellaneous affinities. In respect to 
its phonesis it agrees with the North Oregon languages. 
The similarity in name to that of the Loucheux, whom 
Richardson calls Kutshin, deserves notice. 

The Kutani vocabulary of Mr. Hale was obtained 
from a Cree Indian, and is not to be depended on. This 
being the case it is fortunate that it is not the only spe- 
cimen of the language. There is an earlier one of Mr. 
Howse's, published in the Transactions of the Philologi- 
cal Society. It is as follows ; being given in full as 
representing all that is known of the language : — 



Englisli. 


Kutani. 


Englisb. 


Kutani. 


One 


hook cain 


This Indian 


in nai ah quels 


Two 


ass 




mah kin nic 


Three 


calle sah 


TluU Indian 


CO ah quels mah 


Four 


had sah 




kin nic 


Five 


yea co 


These Indians 


wai nai ah quels 


Six 


in ne me sah 




mah kin nic nin 


Seven 


whist taw lah 




tie 


Eight 


waw ah sah 


Wldch man ? 


cath lah te te calt ? 


Nine 


ky yie kit to 


Which Indians f 


cah lah ah quels 


Ten 


aye to vow 




mah kin nic nin 


An Indian 


ah quels mah kin 




tie? 




nic 


WUiich gun t 


call lah tah vow ? 


A man 


te te calt 


Who 


cath lah 


A woman 


balle key 


My son 


cah mah hat lay 


A shoe 


cath lend 


His son 


hot lay is 


A yun 


tah vow 


He is good 


sook say 


I 


cah min 


It is good 


sook kin nai 


Thou 


lin coo 


He is arrived 


swan hah 


He 


nin CO is 


I love him 


hones sclah kilt 


We {thou and /) 


cah min nah lah 


He loves me 


sclah kilt nai 



TEE KUTANI. 



397 



English. 
/ see him 
I see his son 

He sees me 
He steals 
I love him 



I do not love him 

My husband 

He is asleep 
I am a man 
I am a woman 
Where f 
]Vhere is my gun t 

]Vhere ia his gun J 

A lake 
Hoio much ? 
It is cold weather 
A tent 

My tent 
Tfty tent 
His tent 
Our (thy and my) 

tent 
Yes 
No 
Men 
Women 

Girl [in her teens) 
Girls (in their 

teens) 
Boy 
Boys 
Little boy 
Child 
Children 
Father (by 

sons) 
Father (by 

daughters) 
Mother 
Brother, eldest 



the 



Sutani. 

hones ze caught 
hones ze canght ah 
calttis 
ze caught tene 
i inney 

hones sclah kilt 
ney 
cah sclah kilt nai 
can no claw kin 
nah 
come ney ney 
te te calt ne ne 
balle key ne ne 
cas kin ? 
cass kin cah tah 

tow] 1 
cass kin tah tow- 
Is? 
ah CO CO nook 
cack sah ? 
kis caw tit late 
ah caw slah co 
hoke 
cah ah kit lah 
ah kit lah nis 
ah kit lah is 
cah ah kit lah 
nam 
ah ah 
waw 

te te calt nin tie 
balle key nin tie 
nah oh tit 

nah oh tit nin tie 

stalt 

stalt nin tie 

stalt nah nah 

cah mo 

cah mo nin tie 

cah de doo 



English. 

Brother, youngest 

(by brothers) 
Brother, youngest 

(by sisters) 
Sister, eldest 
Sister, youngest 
Uncle 
Aunt 

Grandfather 
Grandmother 
Thy husband 
My wife 
Thy wife 
Son 

Daughter 

Come here 

Go avxty 

Take care 

Get out of the way 

Come in 

Go out 

Stop 

Run 

Slowly 

Miserly 

Beggarly 



the cah sons 

cah mah 
cah tat 



I give 

Thou gir est 

He gives 
He gave 
I beat 
Thou beatest 
He beats 

Give me 

He gave m£ 

I lore you 

He lores 



KatanL 
cats zah 

cah ze ah 

cats sous 

cah nah nah 

cath ah 

cah tilt tilt 

cah pa])a 

cah de de 

in claw kin nah nis 

cah tilt nah mo 

tilt nah mo nis 

can nah hot lay or 

ah calt 
cass win 
clan nah 
cloon no 
ill kilt we in 
yon vaw 
tie cath ah min 
sclah nah ah min 
mae kaek 
sin naek kin 
ah nis cah zin 
o per tin 

coke CO mae kah 
kan 
hone silt ah mah tie 

sis ney 
kin nah mah tie 
zey 
sclah mah tie zey 
cah mah tie cates 
hone cah slah tea 
kin cah slah leat 
kis kilt cone slah 
leat 
ah mah tie kit 
sous 
nah mah tie kit 
sap pe ney 
hone sclah kilt 
ney 
sclah kilt 



Do you love me f kin sclah slap T 



398 



THE KUTANI. 



English. 


Kfitani. 


English. 


Kfitani. 


/ hate you 


hone cah sclah kilt 


Red pine 


he mos 




ney 


Cedar 


heats ze natt 


Thou hatest 


kin cah sclah kilt 


Poplar 


ac cle mack 


He hates 


cah sclah kilt 


Aspen 


ac CO CO zle mack 


I speak 


hones ah ney 


Fire 


ah kin ne co co 


Thov, speakest 


kins ah 


Ice 


ah CO wheat 


He speaks 


kates ah 


Cliarcoal 


ah kits cah kilt 


We speak 


hones ah nah slah 


Ashes 


ah CO que me co 


Tou speak 


talk e tea leat 


Kettle 


yeats skime 


They speak 


seals ah 


Mat tent 


tah lalt ah kit lah 


I steal 


hone i he ne 




nam 


I sleep 


hone come ney 


Head 


ac clam 




ney 


Eyes 


ac cack leat 


We sleep 


hone come ney nah 


Nose 


ac coun 




lah ney 


Mouth 


ac calt le mah 


I die 


hones alt hip pe 


Chin 


ac cah me zin ne 




ney 




cack 


Thou diest 


kins alt hip 


Checks 


ac que ma malt 


We die 


hone ah o co noak 


Hair 


ac coke que slam 




nah slah ney 


Body 


ac CO no cack 


Give me to eat 


he shoe 


Arms 


ac sglat 


Eat 


he ken 


Legs 


ac sack 


My gun 


cah tah vow 


Belly 


ac CO womb 


Thy gun 


tah vow nis 


Back 


ac cove cah slack 


His gun 


tah vow is 


Side 


ac kin no cack 


Mountain 


ac CO vo cle it 


Ears 


ac coke co what 


Rocky mountain 


ac CO vo cle it nook 


Animals 


yah mo 




key 


Horse 


kilt calt law ah 


Snowy mountain 


ac CO vo cle it ac 




shin 




clo 


Stallion 


cass CO 


Road or track 


ac que mah nam 


Mare 


stoitgalt 


Large river 


cath le man me 


Bull 


neel seek 




took 


Cow 


sloiike copo 


Small river 


hah cack 


Birds 


to coots cah min 


Creek 


nis cah took 




nah 


Lwrge lake 


will caw ac co co 


Blue jay 


co quis kay 




nook 


Crow 


coke kin 


Small lake 


ac CO CO nook nah 


Raven 


nah nah key 




nah 


Snakes (rattle- 




Rapid 


ah cah hop cle it 


snake) 


wilt le malt 


Fall 


wheat taw hop cle 


Garter snake 


ah CO new slam 




it 


Roots (camass) 


hap pey 


Shoals 


ah coke you coo 


Bitter root 


nah cam me shou 




nook 


Tobacco root 


mass mass 


Channel 


hah cath slaw o 


Sweet potatoes 


ah whis sea 




weak 


Moose herry 


ac CO mo 


Wood or trees 


ah kits slah in 


Straidberry 


ac CO CO 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



399 



Ruglish. 


Kutani. 


English. 


Kntani. 


Pipe 


couse 


Red deer 


kilt caw sley 


Pipe stem 


ac coot lah 


Moose deer 


snap peco 


Axe 


ah coot talt 


Woolrereen 


ats po 


Tobacco 


yac ket 


Wolf 


cack kin 


Flesh 


ah coot lack 


Beaver 


sin nah 


Calf 


ah kin co malt 


Otter 


ah cow oh alt 


Tiger 


s'vie 


Mini 


in new yah 


Bears of all kinds 


cap pe tie 


Martin 


nac suck 


Black or Iroicn 




Musquadi 


an CO 


bears 


nip pe CO 


Small grey plain 




Grizzle bear 


kit slaw slaw 


wolf 


skinkoots. 


Rein deer 


neats snap pie co 







West of the Kutanis and south of the Taknlli Atha- 
baskans lie the northernmost members of a great class, 
which extends as far south as the Sahaptin fi-ontier. It 
has been named by Hale and Gallatin Tsihaili-Selish. 
It contains the Shushwap or Atna Proper, Kuttelspelm 
(or Pend d'Oreilles), Selish, Spokan (or Kettle FaU), 
Okanagan, Skitsuish (or Coeur d'Alene), Piskwaus, Nus- 
dalum, Kawitchen, Cathlascou, Skwali, Chechili, (Tsihaili,) 
Kwaintl, Kwenaiwtl, (Kowehtsk,) Nsietshawus (or Killa- 
muk), and Billechula, spoken at the mouth of Salmon 
Kiver ; a language to which a vocabulary from Mac- 
kenzie's Travels of the dialect spoken at Friendly 
Villasre is referable. 



English. 


Atna.* 


Piskaws. 


SkwaU. 


Kowelitsk. 


Man 


kulmukh 


skaltiimikko 


stumsh 


nawetkhlamakJi 


Woman 


sifmotkhlitshk 


sumaem 


stkhladai 


kawitkhl 


Father 


katsa 


laaus 


baa 


koma 


Mother 


kekha 


shkni 


sokho 


kota 


Son 


sku^a^a 


ashkusas 


nimuda 


numan 


Daughter 


stifmk&alt 


stumkas 


nibada 


tsunuman 


Head 


skapkhun 


khmnnkum 


skhaios 


khomut 


Hair 


khauitun 


skhiauktra 


skhatso 


kuskus 


Ear 


tkhlauu 


taua 


kholane 


khoolan 


Eye 


khokukhlostan 


fiinatkhlo- } 
shomun S 


khalom 


mos 


Nose 


spusaks 


muksin 


makicsin 


mukusun 


MoiUh 


spidutsin 


skhumtshin 


kamukh 


kitnikh 


Tongue 


tikhwatsk 


milik 


tkhlalab 


tekhntsitkhl 


Teeth 


khalakhu 


khalekha 


ts(«nis 


ySnis 


Hand 


lakhaleakst 


k&likh 


tshalash 


lakbaiaka 



From Hale, in Gallatin. 



400 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



Ensilish. 


Atna, 


Piskaws. 


Skwali. 


Kowelitsk. 


Fingers 


lakhaleakst 


kaiikh 


tshalash 


lakhaiaka 


Feet 


leakliin 


stsooliin 


tsMshin 


tsotkhl 


Blood 


metikhea 


mitkhlkaia 


stulikwan 


skwaitkhl 


House 


tshitukh 


stuhul 


alittkhl 


khakh 


Axe 


tkhlumen 


khaweskhan 


khamatn 


khMstn 


Knife 


khutkhlakst 


mikhamun 


snokh 


kwakhomwn 


Shoes 


shitkhltso 


skhaiwliin 


ialshin 


tsittkhlshin 


Sky 


slkhleakhitt 


khttmomtaskhut 


tkhltalakun 


Sun 


skwokwaws 


khoshura 


tkhlukhatkhl 


tkhlokhwaokin 


Moon 


makhen 


suakhaam 


stkhlukhwalwrn tklilokhwatkhl 


Star 


sukoshint 


puklipukliaiauit stshishus 


kase 


Day 


pakhiauit 


skhwlkhwlt 


skhlakhel 


skhaiekh 


Night 


khwtshitshoi 


shtsowi 


tkhlakh 


kwaiekh 


Fire 


teekwu 


shtshiatkwp 


hot 


moksip 


Water 


shawitkhlkww 


sliauitkhlkwa 


kho 


kal 


Rain 


klakstan 


stau 


skhahwn 


swkwM 


Snow 


makha 


shmaa 


makho 


skhlakhw?/. 


Earth 


tkhlokalukh 


Mmaumit 


suatiukhtin 


tMm«kh 


River 


tsuakh 


npukwatkwi 


stulakwtt 


skewitkhlko 


Stone 


shkhanikh 


khittkhlot 


tshetkhla 


twkalis 


Tree 


tsighap 


shuopt 




iamwts 


Meat 


tshee 


skattk 


maiats 


kos 


Dog 


skakha 


khMkhatk- ^ 
hltshin S 


skobai 


kakha 


Beaver 


skalau 


skalau 






Bear 


shkMmkhaes ' ' 
(black) ;: 


mikhatkhl 






Bird 


spioM 


huhuiui 


tkhlitknaalkitm 


Fish 


shuauwitkhl 


nacauitkhlkwa 






Great 


khaiom 


kwMtunt 


hekhwo 


tuwuikh 


Cold 


tshwatkhl 


shtshilt 


tws 


tkhlek 


White 


pewkh 


paiakh 


khokkhwkh 


kskliwokh 


Black 


kwaiokhwaiil 


khwaii 


khaimetsh 


ksnwkhu 


Red 


tshiwkhwM 


kwil 


khaikwitshlzt 


uktseakhu 


I 


ntshatshua 


intsha 


uisu 


Mutsa 


Thou 


anwwl 


inui 


duthwe 


nitwe 


He 


wn26wis 


tswnil 


tsunitkhl 


tswne 


One 


nkho 


nkksh 


nutsho 


ots 


Two 


siseltt 


tkhauMs 


sale 


sale 


Three 


ketkhles 


katkhles 


tkhlikho 


katkhle 


Four 


mos 


mush its 


mos 


mos 


Five 


tshelikst 


tshilikslit 


tsilats 


tshelatsh 


Six 


takhamakst 


hotshimakst 


tsilatsha 


takham 


Seven 


tsliutsitkhlka 


shispjtlkh 


tsook 


tsops 


Eight 


nkoops 


tuwin 


takatshe 


tshamos 


Nine 


tMmtkhlin ) 
wkokaa J 


khakhanot 


khown 


tookLu 


Ten 


opwkst 


6panikst 


panutshs 


panatsh. 



THE ATNA, OR SELISH, DIALECTS. 



401 



The Tsihaili-Selish languages reach the sea in the parts 
opposite Vancouver's Island. Perhaps they touch it to 
the north also. Perhaps, too, some of the Takulli forms of 
speech still further north do the same. The current 
statements, however, are to the effect that to the south 
of the parts opposite Sitka and to the north of the 
parts opposite Vancouver's Island the two families in 
question are separated from the Pacific by a narrow 
strip of separate languages. The.se are, beginning from 
the north — 

1. The Kolush. 

2. The Haidah, spoken by the Skittegats, Massets, 
Kumshahas, and Kyganie of Queen Charlotte's Islands 
and the Prince of Wales' Archipelago. 

3. The Chemmesycui, spoken along the sea-coast and 
islands in north latitude 5o°; 

4. The Hailtsa, containing the dialects of the sea- 
coast between Hawkesbury Island and Brough ton's 
Archipelago ; also those of the northern part of Van- 
couver's Island. 

From the Piskwaus, in the preceding group, the tran- 
sition, in the opinion of the present writer, who only 
attempts a provisional and approximate arrangement, 
lies through the Billechula (which he makes Atna) to 
the Hailtsa and its congeners of the present group. 



English. 


Kolush of Sitka. 


Skittegats. 


Chemmesyan. 


Hailtsa. 


Man 


chakleyh 


keeset 


tzib 


nmims 


Woman 


shavTOt 


kna 


unnaach 


kanum 


Head 


ashaggee 






hete 


Hair 


koshahaoo 


catts 






Ear 


kakook 








Nose 


kaclu 


coon 







Mouth 


kake 








Tongue 


katnoot 








Tooth 


kaooh 








Hand 


kacheen 







haiasi 


Feet 


kahoos 









Sun 


kakkaan 


tzue 


kiamak 


tkblikshnalit 


Moon 


tees 


kukn 


kiumogumaatuk 


nusikh 


j Star 


kootahanaha 


kaaldha 


pialost 





D D 



402 



THE SITKA, ETC. 



English. 


Kohish of Sitka. 


Skittegata. 


Chemmesyan. 


Hailtsa. 


Home 


tasnen5,win 


tkwutkhle 




mukatee 


Axe 


tkhlakatstwra 


khuestwD 




taawish 


Day 




koondlain 


tseicoosah 




Fire 


haan 


tsinoo 




tsultila 


Water 


ieen 


huntle 


use 


waum 


Rain 


sevva 


tuU 


waash 


yukhwa 


Snow 


kleyt 


tnll hatter 


moaks 


kwispish 


Stone 


te 


tlaha 


loap 




Tree 


shaak 


kyet 


kunagun 




I 


chat 


cagen 


newyo 


nuka 


Thou 




tingkyah 


noone 


tsu 


He 




anhest 


qua 




One 


tlekh 


skwansun 


kaak 


manuik 


Two 


tech 


stung 


tupchaat 


maluik 


Three 


nezk 


thkoonweelh 


gnndh 


yukhtuk 


Four 


taakun 


stunsun 


tuchaalpuch 


mouk 


Five 


kejetschin 


kleith 


kuhdhoouis 


shiowk 


Six 


kletuschu 


ktonell 


coald 


ketkhliouk 


Seven 


tachate nschu 


tseekwah 


tupooald 


matkhlius 


Eight 


nesket uschu 


stansanghah 


kundh 


yukhtaksimus 


Nine 


kuschok klathshskwasunha kustamoas 


mumiskumea 


Ten 


tschinkat 


klath 


kippio 


koljushun. 



Next come the languages of Quadra's and Vancouver's 
Island and a small portion of the opposite continent. 
Then the Tshinuk and its congeners. 



English. 


Nsictshawus.* 


Watlala(7V,7M«Mi). 


Nutka. 


Man 


taiilaho 


tkhlekala 


checkup 


Woman 


suitkhlats 


tkhlkakilak 


klootzmah 


Father 


uluB. 


tkhhikhlam 


noowexa 


Mother 


vXua, 


waiak 


hoomahexa 


Son 


twnwwon 


itshikhan 


tanassis checkup 


Daughter 


txlMDMWMn 


wkitkhan 


tanassis klootsmah 


Head 


takhen 


kakhstakh 


towhatsetel 


Hair 


tkhlu&khen 


MkMshshw 


hapscup 


Far 


twn6 


amemtsha 


parpee 


Eye 


taskhatkhl 


iakhot 


kassee 


Nose 


tiwakhisMn 


imiktshi 


neetsa 


Mouth 


shinuotsins 


emekushkhat 


ictla-tzul {sing. ) 


Tongue 


tikhitsas 


mankhutkonu ma 


choop 


Teeth 


tkhlasawin 


tkhlbekatsh 


cheechee 1 


Hand 


tshalds 


twrnekshi 


kookaniksa I 


Fingers 


kwkMtsatsha 


titmekshi 


uc-tza 



* Or Killamuk ; a language of the Selish, or Atna, group. 



THE NSIETSHAWUS. 



403 



Englisli. 


Nsietshawus. 


Watlala {Tskinmi). 


K6tica. 


Pea 


nikheiciois 


tumepsh 


kliRkin 


Blood 


skiuo 


tkhlkawulkt 


atzi-mis 


KfUfe 


tukhaiotkhl 


khawekhe 


ehiltayek 


Shoes 


mj/cinasMtwii 


tkaitkhlpa 




Sl-if 


taskhukhun 


koshakh 


sieyah 


Sun 


tataukhtun 


katkhlakh 


oophelth 


Moon 


tukioshirtxn 


uktkhlttmen 


oophelth 


Slar 


nakhikhiaikhia 


tkhlkbekLanama 


tartoose 


Day 


hunuvus 


iotshoktigh 


nas-chitl 


Night 


hultul 


aiikap 


atajai 


Fire 


tkhlaskhokh 


watotkhl 


eennuksee 


Water 


tkhlakhiio 


tkhltshokwa 


chahak 


Rmn 


tkhlasilotkhl 


ishketkhlti 


meetia 


Snow 


tkblaskhunun 


tkhtuka 


qneece 


Earth 


tawekh 


welkh 


klattmniss 


Rirer 


nisatintshi 


tkhlokbooet 


tzac 


StoHe 


tashunsh 


khalamut 


maoksee 


Tree 


tkhlaaskhi 


tkamonak 


Boochis 


Meat 


tatse 


ipkhalewa 


chis-qui-mis 


Dog 


tsaskhakhea 


khotkhot 


aemitl 


Bearer 


tatokhwoso 


ikhwakhwa 





Bear 


tatontshiesho 


kanokh 


chi-mitz 


Bird 


ikhlaskhokha 


tkalakalabak h 


kaenne 


Pish 






kfiei^pa 


Great 


tMwtttkh 


iakaitkhl 


asco 


Cold 


tatsnwali 


tsometigh 


ate-quitzi-iuajas 


WhiU 


tahakhi 


tkhop 


atit-tzutle 


mack 


tsawulukiu 


tkhlul 





Red 


tkUakul 


tklpal 




I 


ttntsu 


naika 


chelle 


Thoit 


unaike 


maik* 


SOS 


He 


tsMnitkhl 


iakhka 


ahkoo 


One 


tuheike 


ikLt 


sahwank 


Two 


tkhlasale 


maknsht 


attJa 


Three 


tshanat 


tkhlom 


katsa 


PoKr 


tkhlawos 


laket 


mooh 


Fire 


isukhus 


kwanan 


soochah 


Six 


teiilukhatshi 


takhf/m 


noohoo 


Seren 


tntshoos 


suDumaknst 


attlepoo 


Eight 


tnkatehi 


ksotken 


atlahquelth 


Nine 


tkhleio 


kweos 


sawwaukquelth 


Ten 


tkhlaahantshs 


tatkheelikma 


hyo. 



The class to which the Nutka and its congreners 
belong is called the Wakash. The Tlaoquatsh and 
Wakash Proper belong to it. 

D D 2 



404 OREGON AND OALIFORNIAN LANGUAGES. 



CHAPTER LVI. 

Languages of Oregon and California. — Cayfis, &c. — Lutuami, &c, — Ehnek. — 
Weitspek. — Kulanapo. — Copeh. — Pujuni, &c. — Costano, &c. — Eslen. — 
Netela. — San Diego, &c. 

All the preceding languages belong to the Hudson's 
Bay Territory and to British Oregon rather than to 
California. Those that follow belong to California 
and American Oregon. Though the minute details 
of the frontier are not accurately known there seems 
to be a notable change in the parts about it. The 
nature of this, in a rough, way, may be illustrated 
by the following table. 

Contrast the two columns. How smoothly the words 
on the right run, how harshly sound (when they can be 
sounded) those of the left. Not, however, that they 
give us the actual sounds of the combination khl, &c. 
All that this means is that there is some extraordinaiy 
sound to be expressed which neither any existing sign 
nor any common combination will represent. In Mr. 
Hale's vocabularies it is represented by a special letter. 



English. 


Selish. 


TsHnuk. 


Shoshoni. 


Man 


skaltamekho 


tkhlekala 


taka 


Woman 


swrnaam 


tkhlakel 


kwMM 


Boy 


skokosea 


tklkaskus 


natsi 


Girl 


shautum 


tklalekh 


naints«ts 


Child 


aktttlt 


etshanuks 


wa 


Father 


htdus 


tkhliamiima 


&pui 


Mother 


skdis 


tkhlian^a 


pia 


Wife 


makhonakh 


iuakbekal 


weijui 


Son 


skokosea 


etsokha 


natsi 


Daughter 


stunitshaS;lt 


okwukha 


nanai 


Brother 


katshki (elder) 


kapkhu 


tamye 


Sitter 


tklkikee 


tkhliau 


namei. 




OREGON AND CALIFORNIAN LANGUAGES. 405 

As a general rule the harsher phonesis lies to the 
north, the softer to the south, of the Califomian frontier. 
That the difference, however, is, by no means, absolute, 
may be seen from the following list : — 



(1) 



English. 


Wishosk. 


Weiyot. 


Boy 


ligeritl 


knshama 


Married 


wehowut'l 


haqaeh 


Head 


wntwetl 


metwet 


Hair 


pah'tl 


pabt'l 


Face 


kahtsonetl 


snlatek 


Beard 


tseh'pl 


cheh'pl 


Body 


tah 


hit'l 


Foot 


wehlihl 


wellili'tl 


Tillage 


mohl 


katswab'tl 


ChieS 


kowqueh'tl 


kaiowuh 


Axe 


mahtl 


mehtl 


Pipe 


mahfletl 


mahtlel 


Wind 


rahtegut'l 


mktagun 


Duck 


hahaliU 

(2.) 


hahahlih. 


English. 


Diegono. 


CadiuL 


Leg 


cwith'l 




To-day 


enyat'l 




To-morrow 


matmyat'l 




Bread 


meyutl 




Ear 


hamat'l 


smyth'l 


Neck 




n'yeth'l 


Arm 
Hand 


BeDi 


iseth'l 


Friend 




nyet'l 


Feather 




sahwitli'L 



And the mixture may be seen on the frontier. The 
Tshinuk, a harsh tongue, has for its nearest congeners 
the Killamuk on one side and the Lutuami (apparently 
soft) on the other. 

The Gayus, or Molele, group is, apparently, transi- 
tional. 



406 





CAYUS, ETC. 




EngUsh. 


Cayus. 


Willamet. 


Man 


yfiant 


atshanggo 


Woman 


pintkhlkaiu 


pummaike 


Father 


pintet 


sima 


Mother 


penin 


sinni 


Son 


wai 


tawakhai 


Daiighier 


■wai 


tshitapinna 


Head 


talsh 


tamutkhl 


Hair 


tkhlokomot 


amutkhl 


Ear 


taksh 


pokta 


Eye 


hakamush 


kwalakkh 


Nose 


pitkhloken 


unan 


Mouth 


sumkhaksh 


mandi 


Tongue 


push 


mamtshutkhl 


Tooth 


tenif 


puti 


Hand 


epip 


tlakwa 


Fingers 


epip 


alakwa 


Feet 


tish 


puijf 


Blood 


tiweusli 


iii6euu 


House 


nislit 


haiameih(=^re) 


Axe 


yengthokinsh 


khueshtan 


Knife 


shekt 


hekemistah 


Shoes 


taitkUo 


ulumof 


Sky 


adjalawaia 


amiank 


Swn 


hue wish 


ampiun 


Moon 


katkhltop 


utap 


Star 


tkhlikhlish 


atuininank 


Day 


eweiu 


luupimn 


Night 


ftalp 


atitshikim 


Fire 


tetsh 


hammeih 


Water 


iskkainish 


mampuka 


Main 


tishtkitkhlmiting 


ukwii 


Snow 


poi 


nukpeik 


Earth 


lingsh 


hunkhalop 


River 


lushmi 


luantsal 


Stone 


apit 


audi 


Tree 


lauik 


huntawatkhl 


Meat 


pithuli 


umhok 


Dog 


ndapang 


mantal 


Beaver 


pick a 


akaipi 


Bear 


limeaksh 


alotufan 


Bird 


tianiyiwa 


pokalfana 


Great 


ya(imua 


pul 


Cold 


shunga 


p^ngkafiti 


White 


tkhlaktkhl4ko 


komm6u 


Black 


shkupshkdpu 


maieum 


Red 


lakaitlakaitu • 


tshal 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 



407 



English 


Cajta. 


Wilkraet 


/ 


ining 


tsbii 


Thvu 


niki 


m^ha 


He 


nip 


kak 


One 


na 


vaan 


Two 


leplin 


keen 


Three 


matnin 


npshin 


Powr 


piping 


taope 


Five 


tawit 


h6wan 


Six 


noinii 


taf 


Seven 


noilip 


pBhinimna 


EigJd 


noimat 


keemHa 


Xine 


tanauiaisMmshin 


wanwaha 


Ten 


ningitelp 


tinifia. 



Tlie Lutuami, Skasti, and Palaik are thrown by 
Grallatin into three separate classes. They are, 'w-ithout 
doubt, mutually unintelligible. Nevertheless they can- 
not be very widely separated. 

The chief language in contact with the Shasti is the 
intrusive Athabaskan of the Umkwa and Tlatskanai 
tribes. Hence the nearest languages with which it should 
be compared are the Jakon and Kalapuya, fiom which 
it is geographically separated. For this reason we do 
not expect any great amount of coincidences. We find 
some, however. 



English. 


Lutuami 


ShastL 


Palnilr. 


Jakon. 


Man 


hishnaisits 


awatikoa 


yatiu 


kalt 


Woman 


shnaw-ats 


taritsi 


nmtewitsen 


tkhlaks 


Father 


kauktishap 




vail 


stmta 


Mother 


ankompkisup 


milatkM 


tail 


tkhla 


Son 






yafiitsa 


sinmaats 


Daughter 






lamanitea 




Head 


nos 


niak 


lah 


tkhlokia 


Hair 


lak 




tiyi 


sinittkhlodn (mjt) 


Ear 


momoutsh 


isak 


kumnindats 


kwoUrwutsa 


Eye 


lolup 


ol 


asu 


skikisu 


Xose 


pshish 


eri 


iami 


tusina 


Mouth 


shum 


an 


ap 


khai 


Tongue 


pawua 


ehena 


ipili 


titlela 


Tooth 


tnt 


itsaa 


itsa 


stelieliU 


Hand 


nap 


apka 


U 





408 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 



English. 


Lutuami. 


Shasti. 


Palaik. 


Jakon. 


Fingers 


kopo 


akhasik 


il 


kwotkhl 


Feet 


pats 


akwes 


tsiko 




Blood 


poits 


Ime 


ahati 


pouts 


House 


latsrtsh 


Mma 


tiluts 


tsitsaiskia 


Axe 


lakotsish 


aniakidi 


shlakotkis 


pakhtiu 


Knife 


wate 


atsirai 


shatikh 


kiai 


Shoes 


wakshna 


atsMkb 


kelala 


skanaiksealuista 


Sky 


paishish 


wwkwe 


MsehelS. 


laa 


Sun 


sapas 


tsoare 


tsul 


pitskom 


Moon 


wokaukash 


apkhteu 


tsul 


okhon 


Star 


tshol 




tsamikh 


tkhlalt 


Bay 






matiklitsi 




Niffht 


pshin 


apkta 


mahektsa 


kaehe 


Fire 


loloks 


iiD& 


malis 


kilita 


Water 


diiipo 


atsa 


as 


kilo 


Rain 


kittolshas 


litshik 


enwaetsa 


tkhlakos 


Snow 


kais 


khae 


ti 


kimit 


Earth 


kaela 


tarak 


kela 


onitstwh 


River 


kokai 


asurahdua 


atswma 


haiu 


Stone 


kotai 


itsa 


wlishti 


kelih 


Tree 






tsatiaslita 




Meat 






mishuts 




Dog 


watsak 


hapso 


watsakha 


tskekh 


Beavei' 


pum 


tawai 


pum 


kaatsilawa 


Bear 


tokwuks 


haukidai 


lokhoa 


kotiimamo 


Bird 


miak 


tarar^kh 


lauitsa 


kukuaia 


Fish 






alish 




Great 


moonis 


k^mpe 


waw§, 


haihaiat 


Cold 


kataks 


isikato 


Mstse 


kwutitwkliMnu 


White 


palpal 


itaiu 


tiwitsi 


kwakhalt 


mack 


posposli 


epkliotS.rakhe 


hakiitshi 


kaitsht 


Red 


taktakali 


eakhti 


takhlakhe 


paLalwt 


I 


no 


Ida 


it 


kone 


Thou 


i 


mai 


piklik^ 


nikh 


He 


hot 


hina 


piklikd 


kwoutsi 


One 


natshik 


tshiS.mu 


Mmis 


khwrn 


Two 


lapit 


hoka 


kSki 


tsokhwakhwa 


Tliree 


ntani 


hatski 


tsfishti 


pusuntkhlklia 


Fow 


wonip 


irahaia 


hatami 


tsuikikliatsokhwakia 


Five 


tonapni 


etsha 


molosi 


holatklilkha 


Six 


nakskishwptane tahaia 






Seven 


tapkisliMpt4ne 


hokaikinis 






Eight 


ndanekishMptane 


hatsikiri 






Nine 


natskaiakish 


kirihariki-ikriu 




Ten 


taunip 


etsehewi 


hamish 


sauitttstu. 



LUTUAMI, SHASTI, PALAIK. 



409 



Neither are there wanting afilnities to the Sahaptin 
and Cayus languages — allied to each other. Thus — 

Ear=^mumutsh liVLtadnoi^ku-mumuats Falaik=mt(feau» Sahaptin=:^«a2; 

Sliasti=^aibA Cayus. 
Mouth=^hum Lntmaai^zshum-iaksh Cayfis=AiOT Sahaptin. 
T(mgue=paicus Lntuami=:pav:ish Saliaptin==piaA Cajlis. 
Tooth=:tiU Lntu&nn=til Sahaptin. • 

Foot=.ahce3 Shasti:=ai-A«o Sahaptin. 
Blood^ahati Palaik=i-ii-e< Sahaptin. 
Fire^loldks Lntnami=iAjifcsAa Sahaptin. 
One=natsh{k Lutnami=naJl-« Sahaptin^no Cay^. 
Two=lapt Lutnami^/opi/ Sahaptin^ Jt CajHs. 

The Lutuami seems somewhat the most Sahaptin of 
the three ; and this is what we expect from its geogra- 
phical position. It is also, like the Palaik, conterminous 
with the Wihinast ; both Palaik and Lutuami, along with 
the Shasti, having Shoshoni (for which see the sequel) 
affinities. 



English. 

Nose 

Mouth 

Ear 

Sun 

Water 

I 

Thou 

He 

One 



Shoshoni. 

moui=:iami, Palaik. 

timpa^shnm, Lutuami. 

inana=isak, Shasti. 

tava^sapas, Lutuami. 

pa:=ampo, Lutuami. 

ni=:no, Lutuami. 

i=i, Lutuami. 

oo=hot, Lutuami. 

shimutsi^teA/amMU, Shasti ; umis, Palaik. 



The latter of the following vocabularies, which, with 
those that follow, belong to California, was taken 
from a Seragoin Indian, i. e. from an Indian to whom 
it was Tiot the native tongue. We are warned of this 
by the collector — the inference being that the Tahlewak 
vocabulary is not wholly trustworthy. 



English. 


Ehnek. 


Tahlewah. 


Man 


ahwunsh 


pohlosan'h 


Boy 


anak'hocha 


kerrhn 


Girl 


yehnipahoitch 


kernihl 


Indian 


ahrah 


astowah 


Head 


akhoutshhoutsh 


astinthah 


Beard 


merruhw 


semerrhperrh 



410 



THE EHNEK, ETC. 



English. 


Ehnek. 


Tahlewah. 


Neck 


sihn 


ichonti 


Face 


ahve 


wetawaluh 


Tongue 


upri 


so'h 


Teeth 


wu'h 


shtf 


Foot 


fissi 


stab 


One 


issah 


titskoh 


Two 


p,chhok 


kitchnik 


Three 


keurakh 


kltchnah 


Four 


peehs 


tshahanik 


Five 


tirahho 


schwallah 


Ten 


trah 


swellah. 



The junction of the Rivers Klaraatl and Trinity gives 
us the locality for the Weltspek. Its dialects, the 
Weiyot and Wishosk, extend far into Humboldt County, 
where they are, probably, the prevailing forms of speech, 
being used on the Mad River, and the parts about Cape 
Mendocino. From the Weitspek they differ much more 
than they do from each other. 



English. 


Weitspek. 


English. 


Weitspek. 


Man 


pagehk 


Moon 


ketnewabr 


Woman . 


•wintsuk 


Star 


haugets 


Boy 


hohksh 


Day 


tehnep 


Girl 


wai inuksh 


I)arh 


ketutski 


Head 


tegueh 


Fire 


mets 


Hair 


leptait] 


Water 


paha 


Ear 


spehguh 


I 


nek 


Eye 


mylih 


Thou 


kehl 


Nose 


metpi 


One 


spinekoh 


Jfouth 


mihlutl 


Two 


uuehr 


Tongue 


mehprh 


Three 


naksa 


Teeth 


merpetl 


Four 


tohhuniie 


Beard 


mehpercli 


Five 


mahrotum 


Arm, 


m eh shell' 


Six 


hohtcho 


Hand 


tsewush 


Seven 


tchewurr 


Foot 


metsk6 


Eight 


k'hehwuh 


Blood 


happ'l 


Nine 


kerr 


Sun 


w&nouahleh 


Ten 


wert'hlehwerh 



Mendocino is the name suggested for the Choweshak, 
Batemdaikai, Kulanapo, Yukai, and Khwaklamayu 
forms of speech collectively. 

1,2. The Choweshak and Batemdaikai are spoken 



THE KULAKAPO, ETC. 



411 



ou Eel River, and in the direction of the southern 
branches of the Weitspek group, with which they have 
affinities. 

3, 4, 5. The Kulanapo is spoken about Clear Lake, 
the Yukai on Russian River. These forms of speech, 
closely allied to each other, are also allied to the so- 
called NoHheiiii Indians of Baer's Beitrdge, &c. — 
Noiihern meaning to the north of the settlement of 
Ross. The particular tribe, of which we have a vocabu- 
lary, called itself Khwakhlamayu. 

0-) 



English. 


KhwaUdamayn. 


English. 


Khwakhlamayu 


Head 


khonuno 


Moon 


kal.tztiii. 


Hair 


shoka 


Star 


kaoioi 


Eye 


iia 


Fire 


okbo 


Ear 


ghnip^t 


Water 


aka 


Nose 


pla 


One 


ka 


Mouth 


aa 


Two 


koo 


Tooth 


00 


Three 


sabo 


Tongue 


aba 


Four 


mora 


Hand 


psha 


Five 


tysba 


Foot 


sakki 


Six 


lara. 


Sun 


ada 

(2 







£nglUh. 


Kulaoapo. 


English. 


Kulanapa 


Man 


kaah 


Moon 


luelab 


Woman 


dah 


Star 


oiyahoh 


Boy 


kahwih 


Day 


dahmol 


Girl 


dahhats 


Dark 


petib 


Head 


kaiyah * 


Fire 


k'hoh 


Hair 


musuh 


Water 


k'hah 


Ear 


shimah 


I 


bah 


Eye 


ui 


Thou 


ma 


Nose 


labahbo 


One 


k'habb'h 


Mouth 


katsedeh 


Two 


kots 


Tongue 


bal 


Three 


bomeka 


Teeth 


yaoh 


Four 


dol 


Beard 


kateatsa 


Five 


lebmab 


Arm 


tsnah 


Six 


tsadi 


Hand 


biyyah 


Seven 


knlabots 


Foot 


kahmah 


Eight 


kokodobl 


Blood 


bahlaik 


Nine 


badarolshum 


Sun 


lab 


Ten 


hadoratlek. 



412 



THE COPEH. 



The Copeh is spoken at the head of Putos Creek. 
How far this will eventually turn out to be a convenient 
name for the group, or how far the group itself will be 
natural, is uncertain. A vocabulary in Gallatin from 
the Upper Sacramento, and one from Mag Readings, in 
the south of Shasti county, belong to the group. 



English. 


Copeh. 


Mag Readings. 


Upper Sacramento. 


Man 


pehtluk 


winnoke 




Woman 


muhlteh 


dokke 




Head 


buhk 


pok 





Hair 


tiih 


toini 


tomoi 


Eye 


sah 


chuti 


tumut 


Nose 


kiunik 




tsono 


Mouth 


koM 




kal 


Teeth 


siih 


shi 




Bea/rd 


ctehsaki 


khetcheki 




Arm 


sahkh 





keole 


Hand 


semh 


Rhim 


tsemut [fingers) 


Foot 


mai'h 


mat 


ktamoso 


Blood 


sahk 


chedik 




Sun 


sunh 


tuku 


sas 


Wind 


toudi 


kleyhi 




Rain 


yohro 


luhollo 




Snow 


yohl 


yola 




Fire 


poh 


pau 


po 


Water 


mehm 


mem 


mem 


Earth 


kirrh 


kosh 





About eighty or a hundred miles from its mouth, the 
river Sacramento is said to form a division between two 
languages, one using momi, the other kik, for vjater. 

For the former group we have the (a) Pujuni, (6) 
Secumne, and (c) Tsamak specimens of Hale, as also the 
Cushna vocabulary, from the coimty Yuba, of School- 
craft. 



English. 


Pujuni. 


Seknmne. 


Tsamak. 


Man 


9Tme 


mailik 


mailik 


Woman 


kele 


kele 


kiUe 


Child 




maidumonai 




Daughter 




eti 





Head 


t9ut9(il 


tsol 


t9ult9t 


Hair 


oi 


ono 


oi 



THE PUJUNI, ETC. 



413 



English. 


Pnjuni. 


Sektunne 


Ear 


ono 


bono 


Eye 


wat^ 


U 


Nose 


heaka 


suma 


Mouth 


molo ! 


earn 


Neck 


tokotok 


kui 


Arm 


ma 


wah 


Hand 


t^apai 


ma 


Fingers 


t^ikikap 


biti 


Leg 


pai 


podo 


Foot 


katMp 


pu 


Toe 


tap 


biti 


House 


he 


be 


Bow 


olamni 




Arrow 


hula 




Shoes 




solum 


Beads 




bawut 


Shy 


hibi 




Sun 


oko 


oko 


Day 


oko 


eki 


Night 




PO 


Fire 


?a 


sa 


Water 


momi, mop 


mop 


River 


Idkolok 


momdi 


Stone 


o 





Tree 


t^a 


tsa 


Grapes 




mnti 


Deer 


wil 


knt 


Bird 




tidt 


Fish 




pala 


Salmon 


mai 


mai 


Name 




land 


Good 


huk 


wenne 


Bad 




t^o? 


Old 




hawil 


New 




be 


Sweet 




snduk 


Sour 




oho 


Hasten 




ie«ra 


Run 


tshel 


gewa 


Walk 


iye 


wiye 


Smm 


pi 




Talk 


wiwina 


enim 


Sing 




tsol 


Dance 




paio 


One 


ti 


wikte 


Two 


teene 


pen 


Three 


shupui 


sapoi 



Tsamak. 

orro 

hil 



kolat 

kalat 

tamsult or tamt^at 

tcikikup 

bimpi 

pai 



9* 

momi 

mnnti 



kut 



huk 
maidik 



414 



THE PUJUNI, ETC. 



English. 


Pnjnni. 


Sekumne. 


Four 


pehel 


tsi 


Five 


mustic 


mauk 


Six 


tini, (sic) 


tini, a (sic) 


Seven 


tapui 


pensi (?) sic 


Eight 


petshei 


tapau C?) sic 


Nine 


matshum 


mutsum 


Ten 


tshapanaka 


aduk 



Tsamak. 



Hale's vocabulary of the Talatui belongs to the 
group for which the name Moquelumne is proposed ; a 
Moquelurane Hill and a Moquelumne River being found 
within the area over which the languages belonging to 
it are spoken. Again, the names of the tribes that 
speak them end largely in -mTie, — Chupumne, &c. As 
far south as Tnol-umne county the language belongs to 
this division ; viz. (1 .) the Mumaltachi ; (2.) the Mul- 
lateco ; (3.) the Apangasi ; (4.) the Lapappu ; and (5.) 
the Siyante or Typosd bands speak this language. 



(1.) 



English. 


Talatui. 


San Raphael. 


Man 


sawe 


lamantiya 


Woman 


esuu 


kulaish 


Father 


tata 


api 


Daughter 


tele 


ai 


Head 


tikit 


molu 


Ear 


alok 


alokh 


Eye 


wilai 


shuta 


Nose 


uk 


hiike 


Mouth 


hube 


laknm 


Hand 


iku 


ak 


Foot 


subei 


koio 


Srni 


hi 


hi 


Day 


hi umu 


hi 


Night 


ka-wil 


walayuta 


Fire 


wike 


waik 


Water 


kik 


kiik 


Stone 


sawa 


lupoii 


Bird 


lune, ti 


kakalis 


House 


kodja 


koitaya 


One 


kenate 


kenai 


Two 


oyo-ko 


oza 


TJiree 


teli-ko 


tula-ka 



THE TALATUI, ETC. 



415 



English. 




TalatnL 




San Raphael. 


Four 




oi^u-ko 




wiag 


Fire 




kassa-ko 




kenekns 


Six 




temebo 




patirak 


Seren 




kanikuk 


(?) sic 


semlawi 


Eight 




kauinda 




wTiisuya 


Nine 




ooi 




umarask 


Ten 




ekaye 

(20 




kitsLish. 


English. 


Tshokoyem. 




English. 


Tshokoyem. 


Man 


tai-esse 






Star 


hittish 


Woman 


kuleh-esse 




Bay 


hialuiah 


Boy 


yokeh {smalt) 




Night 


ka\rul 


Girl 


koyah 






Fire 


wikih 


Head 


moloh 






Water 


kihk 


Ear 


ahlohk 






River 


polah 


Eye 


shat 






Stone 


lepeh 


Nose 


hnk 






I 


kahni 


Mouth 


lapgup 






Thou 


mih 


Tongue 


lehntip 






He 


ikkoh 


Tooth 


kuht 






Tlity 


mnkkam 


Neck 


helekke 






All 


mukkam 


Foot 


koyok 






Wha 


mahnti 


Blood 


kichawh 






Eat 


yohlomosili 


Shy 


lihUTi 






Drink 


nshn 


Sun 


hih 






Run 


hihcliiali 


Moon 


palulok 






See 


emh. 



The tribes under the supervision of the Mission of 
Dolores were five in number; the Ah wastes, the Olhones, 
or Costanoe (of the coast), the Romonans, the Tulomos, 
and the Altatmos. The vocabulary of which the fol- 
lowing is an extract was taken from Pedro Alcantara, 
who was a boy when the Mission was founded, A.D. 
1776. He was of the Komonan tribe. 



English. 


Costana 


English. 


Costana 


Man 


imhen 


Ear 


tuOTOS 


Woman 


ratichma 


Eye 


rehin 


Boy 


shinismak 


Nose 


fis 


Girl 


kaira 


Mouth 


werper 


Head 


<Uc 


Tongue 


tassek 



416 



THE COSTANO, ETC. 



English. 


Costano. 


English. 


Costano. 


Tooth 


siit 


River 


orush 


Neck 


Ian 


Stone 


erek 


Foot 


kolo 


I 


kahnah 


Blood 


payan 


Thou 


mene 


Shy 


renenie 


He 


wahche 


Sun 


islimen 


They 


nekumsah 


Moon 


kolma 


All 


kete 


Star 


agweh 


Who 


mate 


Day 


puhe (light) 


Eat 


aLmush 


Night 


moor (dark) 


Drink 


owahto 


Fire 


roretaon 


Run 


akamtoha 


Water 


sii 


See 


atempimah 



In the north of Mariposa county, and not far south 
of the Tuolomne area, the language seems changed, and 
the CoconooTis is spoken by some bands on the Mercede 
river. 

The Tulare, akin to it, is probably conterminous with 
the Mohave of the San Bernardin and the Santa Barbara 
forms of speech. 



English. 


Coconoons. 


Tulare. 


Head 


oto 


utno 


Hair 


tolus 


cells 


Ear 


took 


took 


Nose 


thedick 


tuneck 


Mouth 


sammack 


shemmak 


Tongue 


talcotch 


talkat 


Tooth 


talee 


talee 


Sim 


suyou 


cop 


Moon 


offaum 


taahmemna 


Stm- 


tchietas 


sahel 


Day 


hial 


tahoh 


Fire 


sottol 


ossel 


Water 


illeck 


ilUck. 



For the counties (missions) which touch the sea, we 
have, to the south of the Costanos, the following voca- 
bularies : — 

(i.) 

English. Eslen. Ruslcn. Soledad. San Miguel. San Antonio. 

Man ejennutek muguyamk mue loai 

Woman tamitek latrayamank shurishtne tlene 

Father ahay appan nikana tata tele 



SANTA BARBARA, ETC. 



417 



English. 


Eslen. 


Rusleu. 




Soledad. 


San Miguel. 


San Antonio. 


Mother 


azia 


aan 




nikana 


apai 


epjo 


Son 


panna 


enshinsli 


nikioish 


paser 




Dawjiiter tapana 


kaana 




nika 


paser 





Head 








tshop 


tobuko 


traako 


Hair 








worokh 


teasakho 




Ears 








otsho 


tentkhito 


tishokolo 


Xose 








OS 


tenento 




Eyes 









hun 


trugento 




Mouth 








hai 


treliko 




>i-y 


imita 


terraj 








napalemak 


Moon 


tomanisaashi 


orpetue 


i-ishmen 






tatsoopai 


Day 


asatza 


ishmen 








trokana 


Light 


jetza 


shorto 










Xight 


tomanis 


orpetui 










Fire 


manamenes 


hello 










Water 


azanax 


ziy 








tsha 


Boic 


payunay 


laguan 








kakheia 


Arrow 


lottos 


teps 








tatoyen 


Great 


pntuki 


ishac 








katsha 


Small 


ojask 


pishit 










Move 


nitscha 


ka 










There 


nimetaha 


me 










One 


pek 


enjala 




himitsa 


tohi 


kitol 


Two 


nihaj 


ultis 




utshe 


kngsu 


kakishe 


Three 


julep 


kappes 




tkapka 


tlubahi 


klap'hai 


Four 


jamajus 


ultizim 




utjit 


kesa 


kisha 


Five 


pemajala 


hali izu 




paruash 


oldrato 


ultraoh 


Six 


peguatanoi 


hali shakem 


iminuksh; 


apiaite 


painel 


Seren 


jnla jualanei 


kapkamai shakem adnksha 


tepa 


t'eh 


Eight 


julep jualanei 


ultumai shakem 


taitemi 


sratel 


shaanel 


Nine 


jamajas jnalaaei 


packe 




-watso 


teditrnp 


tetatsoi 


Ten 


tomoila 


tamchajt 


matsoso 


txapa 


tsoek 








(2.) 










English. 




Santa Barbara. 


San Lois Obispo. 




Sl-y 




alapai 




tikhis 






Sim 




alishakna 


s'maps 




Moon 




agoai 




tabna 






Stan 




akehun 




k'shihimu 




Water 




oh 




to 






House 




ahpa 










Man 




eheye 




h'LDaono 




Woman 




ehnek 




tasiyuhl 




CkUd 




tupneesh 




tschoilmono 




Stme 




kheup 




tkhenp 




Day 




hosiec-ftinni 


fchashin 












E 


E 



418 



SANTA BARBARA, ETC. 



English. 


Santa Barbara, 


San Luis Obispo. 


One 


paka 


tskhumu 


Two 


shkoho 


eshin 


Three 


masekh 


misha 


Four 


skumu 


paksi 


Five 


yiti-paka 


tiyehui 


Six 


yiti-shkome 


ksuhuasya 


Seven 


yiti-masekh 


kshuamishhe 


Fight 


malahua 


sh'komo 


Nine 


spa 


shumotchi-makhe 


Ten 


kestko 


tuyimili 


Eleven 


keilu 


tihuapa 


Ttoelve 


masekh -eskumu 


takotia 


Thirteen 


kel-paka 


huakshumu 


Fourteen 


kel-ishko 


huaklesin 


Fifteen 


kel-masekh 


huaklmishe 


Sixteen 


peta 


peusi 


Lake 


eukeke 




Sea 


skahamihui 


t' shnekhan 


Mountain 


osblomohl 


tspu 


Bow 


aklia 


takha 


Arrmo 


yah 


tslehui 


Chief 


huot 




Bad 




tsohuis 


Earth 


iti-kiala-kaipi 




River 


shtejeje 


tslimi 


Salt 


tipi 


tepu 


Light 


neuk 


tina 


Night 


sulcuhu 


teh' khime 


Cold 


sokhton 




Hot 


sientseuk 




White 


ohuokh 




Black 


akemai 




Boor 


ekeipe 




Body 


hekiampium 




Father 


hokonosh 


sapi 


Mother 


khoninash 


tuyu 


Brave 


akhauishash 




Much 





tsekhu 


Little 




tsihuisnin 


Head 




p'sho 


Heart 




nokhop 


Hand 




nupu 


Far 




p'ta 


Friend 




tsakhsi 


Enemy 




tsinayihlmn. 



THE NETELA, ETC. 



419 



(3.) 



English. 


Netela. 


Ky. 


Man 


yiitB 


woroit 


Woman 


snngwal 


tokor 


Father 


nana 


anak 


Mother 


noyo 


aok 


Son 


nakam 


aikok 


Daughter 


nasnam 


aiarok 


Head 


nuyn 


apoam 


Ear 


nanakuum 


anana 


Eye 


nopalum 


atshotshon 


Nose 


nomaitm 


amepin 


MmUh 




atoDgin 


Tongne 




anongin 


Teeth 


noto 


atatum 


Hand 


natakalom 


aman 


Fingers 


watshkat 




Feet 


nee 




Blood 


noo 


akhain 


Boose 


niki 


kitsh 


S»n 


temet 


tamet 


Moon 


moil 


moar 


Star 


saol 


su5t 


Day 


teme 


oronga 


Night 


tokmtrt 


yanket 


Fire 


mnghat 


tshawot 


Water 


pal 


bar 


Rain 


kwast 


akwakit 


Snow 


ynit 


yoat 


Earth 




tonanga 


Stone 


tot 


tota 


Dog 


aghwal 


waosi 


Bear 


hanot 


hnnar 


Bird 


cfaeymat 


amasharot 


Fish 


mn^^ut 


k waling 


Great 


oboloo 


yoit 


Cold 




atsho 


White 


kwaiknot 


arawatai 


Blacl 


yoMatkhnot 


ynpikha 


Red 


koiakoiet 


kwaaokha 


I 


no 


noma 


Thou 


om 


oma 


He 


wanal 


ahe 


One 


pokn 


pnka 


Two 


wehe 


wehe 


Three 


pahe 


pake 



£ £ 2 



420 



THE YUMA DIALECTS. 



English. 


Netela. 


K«. 


Four 


watsa 


watsa 


Five 


mahar 




Six 


pawahe 




Seven 


aghwohuitsh 




Eight 


weheswatsa 




Nine 


pehelenga 




Ten 


wehkun-mahar 





The Yuma Indians occupy each side of the Colorado 
both above and below its junction with the Gila. They 
are also called Cuchans, and are a fierce predatory 
nation, encroaching equally on tribes of their own lan- 
guage and on aliens. 



English. 


Cucban. 


Cocomaricopa. 


Diegnno. 


Man 


epatsh 


apatch 


( &,ycutcht 
1 epatch 


Woman 


sinyak 


seniact 


sun 


Indian 


metepaie 
[ ecoutsucherowo j 







Head 


•< and > 

{ umwelthoocouo ) 




estar 


Hair 


eetche 




hiletar 


Ear 


smytM 






Nose 






hu 


Mouth 






ah 


Tongue 


epulche 






Tooth 


aredoche 






Beard 


yahboineh 






Hand 


eesalche 


issalis 


selh 


Foot 


emetclislipaslapya 


ametche 


hamulyay 


STcy 


ammai 






Sun 


nyatch 






Moon 


huthlya 






Star 


klupwalaie 






Snow 


halup 






Fire 


aawoh 


house 




Water 


aha 


haache 


kha 


I 


nyat 





nyah 


He 


habritzk 






One 


sin 


sandek 


hina 


Two 


havick 


haveka 


hawue 


Three 


hamuk 


hamoka 


hamuk 


Four 


chapop 


champapa 


chapop 


Five 


scrap 


sarap 


suap. 



THE YUMA DIALECTS. 



421 



(2.) 



English. 


Mohave. 


Man 


ipah 


Woman 


sinyax 


Head 


cawawa 


Hair 


I'mi 


Face 


ihalimi 


Forehead 


yamapul 


Ear 


esmailk 


Note 


ihn 


Eye 


idotz 


Mouth 


ia 


Tongue 


ipailya 


Tooth 


ido 


Arm 


isail 


Foot 


imilapilap 


Blood 


niawhut 


Shy 


amaiiga 


Sun 


nyatz 



English. 


Moharc 


Moon 


hullya 


Star 


hanrnse 


Fire 


awa 


Water 


aha 


I 


nyatz 


Thou 


mantz 


He 


pepa 


One 


setto 


Two 


haTika 


Three 


hamoko 


Four 


pinepapa 


Five 


serapa 


Six 


sinta 


Seven 


vika 


EigJa 


moka 


Nine 


pai 


Ten 


arapa. 



The Cocoraaricopa Indians are joint occupants of 
certain villages on the Gila ; the population with which 
they are associated being Pima. Alike in other re- 
spects, the Pima and Cocomaricopa Indians differ in 
language. 



422 OLD CALIFORNIA, 



CHAPTER LVII. 

Old California. 

San Diego lies in 32|-° north latitude, a point at 
which the philology diverges. I first follow it in the 
direction of Old California. It is stated in the Mithri- 
dates that the most northern of the Proper Old Cali- 
fornian tongues, the Cochimi, is spoken as far north as 
33°. If so, the Dieguno maybe Old Californian as well 
as New; which I think it is, believing, at the same 
time, that Cochimi and Guchan are the same words. 

Again, in the following Paternoster the word for sky 
=iammi in the Cuchan vocabulary. 

Cochimi of San Xavier. 

father sky 

Pennayu makenamb^ yaa ambayujui miyS, mo ; 

7iame men confess and love all 

Buhu mombojua tamma gkomend^ hi nogodoflo demuejueg gkajim; 

and sky earth favour 

Pennaytila bogodofio gkajim, gui hi ambayujup maba yaa keammete decuiny : 
mo puegin ; 

sky earth 

Yaa m blihula mujua ambayup mo dedahijua, amet 6 nd guilugui ei piig- 
kajim ; 

this day day 

Tamada yaa ibo ejueg quiluguiqui pemijich 6 mdu ibo yanno puegifi ; 

and man evil 

Guihi tamma yaa gambuegjula kepujui ambinyijua pennayala dedaudugijua, 
giulugui pagkajim ; 
and although and 

Guihi yaa tagamuegla hui ambinyijua hi doomo puhuegjua, he doomo 
pogonunyim ; 



OLD CALIFORNIA. 423 

and earth bless eril 

Tagamuegjua guihi usimahel keammet e decainyimo, guihi yaa hui ambinyi 
yaa gambuegpea pagkaadugnm. 

Of recent notices of any of the languages of Old Cali- 
fornia, eo noraine, I know none. In the Mithridates 
the information is pre-eminently scanty. 

According to the only work which I have examined 
at first hand, the Nachriclden von der American ischen 
Halhinsel Kalifomiien (Mannlieim, 1772 ; in the Mith- 
ridides, 1773), the anonymous author of which was a 
Jesuit missionary in the middle parts of the peninsula, 
the languages of Old California were — 

1 . Tlie Wo/ikur, spoken in several dialects. 

2. The Utshiti. 

3. The Layamon. 

4. The Cochiml, north, and 

5. The Pericu, at the southern extremity of the 
peninsula. 

6. A probably new form of speech used by some 
tribes visited by Linck. 

This is what we leara fixjm what we may call the 
Mannheim account ; the way in which the author 
expresses himself being not exactly in the form just 
exhibited, but to the effect that, besides the Waikur 
with its dialects, there were five others. 

The Waikur Proper, the language which the author 
under notice was most especially engaged on, and which 
he says that he knew suflScieutly for his purposes as a 
missionary, is the language of the middle part of the 
peninsula. How far the Utshiti and Layamon were 
dialects of it, how far they were separate substantive 
languages, is not very clearly expressed. The writer had 
Utshis, and XJtshipujes, and Atschimes in his mission, 
"thoroughly distinct tribes — lauter versehiedene Volck- 
lein." Nevertheless he always speaks as if the Waikur 
tongue was sufficient for his purposes. On the. other 
hand, the Utshiti is especially mentioned as a separate 



424 OLD CALIFORNIA. 

language. Adelung makes it a form of the Waikur ; as 
he does the Layamon, and also the Cora and Aripe, 
Then there comes a population called Ika, probably the 
Picos or Ficos of Bagert, another authority for these 
parts. Are these, the sixth population of the Mannheim 
account, the unknown tribes visited by Linck ? I think 
not. They are mentioned in another part of the book 
as knoivn. 

To the names already mentioned — 

1. Ika, 3. Utshipuje, 

2. Utshi, 4. Atschime, 
add 

5. Paurus, 9. Mitsheriku-tamais, 

6. Teak was, 10. Mitsheriku-tearus, 

7. Teengtiabebes, 11. Mitsheriku-ruanajeres, 

8. Angukwaros, 

and you have a list of the tribes with which a mission- 
ary for those parts of California where the Waikur 
language prevailed, came in contact. Altogether they 
gave no more than some 500 individuals, so miserably 
scanty was the population. 

The occupancies of these lay chiefly within the Co- 
chimi area, which reached as far south as the parts 
about Loretto in 2 6° north latitude ; the Loretto Ian • 
guage being the Layamon. This at least is the in- 
ference from the very short table of the Mithridates, 
which, however little it may tell us in other respects, at 
least informs us that the San Xavier, San Borgia, and 
Loretto forms of speech were nearer akin to each other 
than to the Waikiu*. 



English. 


San Xavier. 


San Borgia. 


Loretto. 


Waiknr. 


Sky 


ambayujub 


ambeink 




terereka-datemba 


Earth 


amet 


amate-guang 




datemba 


Fire 




usi 


ussi 




Man 


tamma 


tama 


tamma 


ti 


Father 


kakka 


iham 


keneda 




Son 




uisaham 




tshanu. 



OLD CALIFORNIA. 



425 



The short compositions of Hervas (given in the Mith- 
ridates) show the same. 

Waihtr Paternoster, -with the German, InterlinecUionj from the 
Mith ridates. 
Kepe-ddre tekereka-datembi dai ; 
ujiser Vater gebogene Erd du hist ; 

ei-ri akatuikd-pu-me ; 

dichodas erhennen alle werden; 
tshakarrake-pu-me ti tschie ; 

loben alle werden Lent und ; 
ecihi gracia-ri acume card tekerekadatembi tschie ; 
^en gratia o doss haben werden wir gebogene Erd und ; 
eiri jebarrakemi ti pu jaupe datemba 

dir dose gehorsamen werden Menschen alh heer Erd, 
pae ei jebarrakere aena kea; 
wie dir gehorsamen droben seynd; 
kepecun bu. kepe ken jatupe imtairi ; 
Mn««' Speis uns gebe dieser tag; 
cate kuitscharake tei tschie kepeciin atacamara 
UM rerzehe du und unser Boses ; 
pad kuitscharrakere cate tschie cavape atukiara keperujake ; 
wie verzehen icir auch die Bases uns than; 
catd tikakamb^ tdi tschie ; 
tins helfe du und; 

cnvTuneri cate ad atoki^ia ; 

woUen werden Nickt tcir etwas Bases; 
kepe kakunja pe atacara tschie. Amen. 
uns be^chutze von Bosen und. Amen. 

The compound tekereka-datembizzbent land =. sky z=^ 
heaven. 

To this very periphrastic Paternoster we may add the 
following fragments of the Waikur conjugation : — 



m ^ 




' ego ludo 


Ei 


1 tu ludis 


Tat&u 
Gatd 


ille ludit 


Petd 
Tac&va . 


w>» luditis 


(. illi ludunt 


Be ^ 


r ego lusi 


Ei 


tu lusisti 


Tut&u 
Cate 


■ ainnkiririkeris • 


ille lusit 
nos lusimut 


Pete 




vos lusittis 


Tuc^va . 




^ iUi luterunt. 



426 



OLD CALIFORNIA. 



Amiikirime = ludere. 
Amukiri tei=dude. 
Amukiri tu=ludite. 

Be-ri ^ 
Ei-ri I 

Tut^u-ri 
Cate-ri 
Pete-ri 
Tuc^va-ri . 



- amukiririkarikarasr: " 



' / wish I had not played 

Thou, <i;c. 

He, (be. 

We, tfcc. 

Ye, d'c. 
L They, dec. 



Of the Pericu, spoken at the south extremity of the 
peninsula, I know no specimens. 

With this concludes the notice of the languages of 
Old California ; languages belonging to the most neg- 
lected class in philology ; languages of which our data 
are pre-eminently fragmentary ; above all, languages 
which (from the probably approaching extinction) are 
destined to be but imperfectly known. All that can be 
said of them is, that they appear to graduate into each 
other, and that, at the neck of the peninsula, they 
certainly graduate into those of the mainland. That 
they are all Yuvia is probable. What value is im- 
pressed upon the class by making them so is another 
question. 



THE PIMA, ETC. 



427 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

Languages of Sonora. — Mexico. — (Joatimala. — Honduras. — 
Nicaragua, &c. 

With the neck of the peninsula ; the southern bound- 
aiy of California ; the northern boundary of Sonora ; 
and the line of contact between the Cocomaricopas and 
the Piraa Indians, begins a new division. Upon the 
difference between the Pimas and the Cocomaricopas, 
there is no want of decided statements. Many notices 
of the two populations are accompanied by comparative 
vocabularies, in which the difference is manifest — all the 
more so from the contrast it supplies to their topogra- 
phical contact, and the similarity of their habits. They 
" agree in everything but their languages, and in this they 
differ " is the common (and true) statement concerning 
them. 

But though the distinction is real, it must not be 
overvalued. At the same time the Piraa class (of unde- 
termined value) is a real one. 

That it contains the Pima Proper, the Opata, and 
the Eudeve, may be seen from the Mithi'idates. 



English. • 


Pima. 


English. 


Pima* 


Man 


huth 


Sun 


tabs 


WamuH 


hahri 


MooH 


mahsa 


Indian 


huup 


Star 


non 


Head 


mouk 


Snow 


chiah 


Hair 


ptmuk 


Fire 


tahi 


Ear 


ptnahauk 


Water 


suutik 


Nose 


tahnk 


I 


ahan 


Mouth 


chinits 


He 


yeutah 


Tonyue 


neuen 


One 


yumako 


Tooth 


ptahan 


Two 


kuak 


Beard 


chinyo 


Three 


vaik 


Hand 


mahahtk 


Foniir 


kiik 


Foot 


tetaght 


Fine 


pultas. 


Skff 


ptchuwik 







428 THE OPATA, ETC. 

In Spanish America the character of our material 
changes, and we get Artes rather than vocabularies — 
the Artes, concerning which more will be found in the 
sequel. 

Opata. 

Tamo mas tegui&caxMgaa, cacame; 

A mo tegua santo ^ ; 

A me reino tame macte ; 

Hinadeia iguati terepa ania teguiacachiveri ; 

Chiama tamo guaco veu tamo mac; 

Guatame neavere tamo cai naideni ac^ api tame neavere tomo opagua ; 

Gua cai tame taotitudare ; 

Cai naideni chiguadu — Apita cachi§,. 

That the language of the Papagos, Papagocotam, is 
also Pima rests upon good external evidence. Whether 
the speech of the Ciris, and population of the island of 
Tiburon and the parts opposite, be also Pima, is at 
present uncertain. 

The Ibequi belongs to the same class — slightly en- 
larged. 

Hiaqui. 

/<om-acliai <e»e-capo catecame; 

Che-chevasu yoyorvva; 

Itou piepsana em yaorahua ; 

Em harepo in buyapo annua amante (ievecapo?) vecapo annua beni 

Machuveiiom-buareu yem itom amica-itow ; 

Esoc alulutiria ca-aljiton-anecau itepo soc alulutiria ebeni itom veherim 

Caitom butia huenacuchi cativiri betana ; 

Aman ztom-yeretua. 

So, also, the 

Tvhar. 

/te-caiiar te^ruiuicarichua catemat; 

Imit ie^rmuarac milituraba teochiqualac ; 

Imit huegmica carinite bacachin-assifaguin ; 

Imit avamunarir echu naiSagualac imo cuigan amo nachic iejrmue-caricheri ; 

Ite cokuatarit, essemer taniguarit, iabbe ite micam ; 

Ite tatacoli ikiri atzomua ikirirain ite bacacbin cale kuegma nafiegua cantem ; 

Caisa ite nosam bacatatacoli ; 

Bacachin ackiro muetzerac ite. 



THE CORA, ETC. 4-29 

So, also, the 

Tarahumara. 

Tami nono, mamd regui gnami gatiki ; 

Tami noineruje mu regua ; 

Telimea rekijena ; 

Tami negnaruje mu jelaliki henna, guetshiki, mapn hatschibe regnega 

guami; 
Tami nututuge hipeba ; 
Tami guecanje tami guikeliki, matame hatschibe r^;u^a tami guecanje pntae 

tami guikejameke ; 
Ke ta tami satuje ; 
Telegatigemeke mechka hul4. Amen. 



So, also, the 



Cora. 



Ta yaoape tapahosk pethebe ; 

Cherihaaca eiia teaguarira ; 

Ghemealmabeni tahemi (to us) eiia chianaca ; 

Gheaqoasteni eiia jevira iye (as) chianacatapoan tup up tapaho& ; 

Eii ta hamuit {bread) eu te huima tahetze rej mjeve iMc {to-day) ta taa ; 

Hoataaniraca ta xanacan tetup itcahmo tatahoatauni titaxanacante ; 

Ta raehre teatcai harobereni xanacat hetze huabachreaca teod tahemi rata- 

huaga tehai eu ene. 
Che-enhuatahua. 



With these end our data, but not our lists of dialects ; 
the names Maya, Guazave, Heria, Sieuraba, Xixime, 
Topia, Tepeguana, and Acaxee all being, either in 
Hervas or elsewhere, applied to the different forms of 
speech of Sonora and Sinaloa ; to which may be added 
the Tahu, the Pacasca, and the Aca^ca, which is pro- 
bably the same word as Acaxee, just as Huimi is the 
same as YuTna, and Zaqiie as Hiaqui. Of the Guazave 
a particular dialect is named as the Akcmie. Add to 
these the Zoe and Huitcole, which are probably the 
same as the Huite. 

That some of these unrepresented forms of speech be- 
long to the same class with the Pima, Hiaqui, &c,, is 



430 THE OTOMI. 

nearly certain. How many, however, do so is another 
question. It may be that all are in the same predica- 
ment ; it may be only a few. 

These languages lead us to the Mexican Proper ; of 
which it is difficult to give the true situs. This is be- 
cause it is a pre-eminently intrusive tongue. It is, pro- 
bably, spoken beyond its original boundaries in every 
direction ; sometimes (as in Central America) in isolated 
patches. Again — there are in many of the districts which, 
originally, belonged to the Mexican empire, local names 
of Mexican origin which are as strange to the spot on 
which they appear as the German or Russian names in 
Estonia, or Livonia. Thirdly, the ordinary name for 
the language — Asteh — seems to be, word for word, the 
same as the Maya term Huasteca ; a fact which sug- 
gests that the Mexicans were only Asteks in the way 
that the English are Britons, i. e. not at all, except 
so far as they took possession of a country originally 
British. The nearest approach to a true Mexican name, 
— a name which, in opposition to Astek, is Mexican in 
the way that English is English as opposed to British 
— ^is Nahuatl. At any rate, Astek is an inconvenient 
synonym for Mexican. 

Of all the languages hitherto named, the one to which 
the Mexican is nearest allied, is the Tarahumara, through 
which it graduates, through the Cora, into the Sonora 
tongues, and through them to California, fee, &c. 

That the sound expressed by tl is Mexican, may be 
seen from even the shortest vocabularies. 

More has been written on the Ofomi than any other 
language of these parts ; the proper Mexican not ex- 
cepted. It was observed by Naxera that it was Tnono- 
syllahic rather than polysynthetic, as so many of the 
American languages are, with somewhat doubtful pro- 
priety, denominated. A Mexican language, with a 
Chinese cliaracteristic, could scarcely fail to suggest 



THE OTOMI, ETC. 431 

comparisons. Hence, the first operation on the Otomi 
was to disconnect it from the languages of the New, and 
to connect it with those of the Old World. "With his 
accustomed caution, Gallatin satisfied himself with stating 
what others had said, his own opinion evidently being 
that the relation to the Chinese was one of analogy 
rather than afiinity. 

Doubtless this is the sounder view ; and one con- 
firmed by three series of comparisons made elsewhere 
by the present writer. 

The first shows that the Otomi, as compared with the 
monosyllabic languages of Asia, en masse, has several 
words in common. But the second quahfies our in- 
ferences, by showdng that the Maya, a language more 
distant fi-om China than the .Otomi, and by no means 
inordiuately monosyllabic in its structure, has, there or 
thereabouts, as many. The third forbids any separation 
of the Otomi from the other languages of America by 
showing that it has the ordinary amount of miscellaneous 
affinities. 

Hence, in respect to the Chinese, &c., the real question 
is not whether it has so many crffinities with the OtoTnif 
but whether it has more affinities with the OtoTni than 
vAth the Maya or any other American language; a 
matter which we must not investigate without remem- 
bering that some difierence in favour of the Otomi is to 
be expected, inasmuch as two languages with short or 
monosyllabic w^ords will, fi-om the very fact of the short- 
ness and simpUcity of their constituent elements, have 
more words alike than two polysyllabic forms of speecli. 

The fact, however, which most afiects the place of 
the Otomi language is the quasi-monosyllabic character of 
other American languages, e. g. the Athabaskan and the 
Attacapa. 

Of the Pirinda and Tarasca we have grammatical 
sketches, with abstracts of them, by Gallatin. The fol- 
lowing are from the Mithridates. 



432 THE TARASCA, ETC. 

Pirinda. 

Cabutumtaki ke exjechori pininte ; 

Niboteachatii tucathi nitubuteallu ; 

Tantoki hacacovi nitubutea pininte ; 

Tarejoki nirihonta manicatii ninujami propininte ; 

Boturimegui dammuce tupacovi cbii ; 

Exgemundicovi boturichochii, kicatii pracarovi kuentumnndijo boturiclio- 

chijo ; 
Niantexecliichovi rumkuentuvi innivochochii ; 
Moripachitovi cuinenzimo tegui. 
Tucatii. 

Tarasca Paternoster, 

Tata uchS,veri tukire hacahini av^ndaro ; 

Santo arikeve tucheveti hacangurikua ; 

Wetzin andarenoni tucheveti irecheekua ; 

Ukuareve tucheveti wekua iskire avandaro, na humengaca istu umengave ixu 

excherendo. 
Huehaeveri curinda hanganari pakua intzcutzini yarn ; 
Santzin wepovacheras huehaeveri hatzingakuareta, izki huchanac wepochacu- 

vanita haca huchaveri hatzingakuaechani ; 
Ca hastzin teruhtazema teruniguta perakua himbo ; 
Evapentztatzini yaru catzincturita himbo. Isevengua. 



Totonaca. 

Quintlatcan6 nac tiayan huil ; 
Tacollalihuacahuanli b mi raaocxot ; 
Niquiminanin 6 mintacacchi 
Tacholahuanla o min pahuat 
Cholei ix cacnitiet chalchix nac tiayan ; 
quin chouhcan lacalliya 
niquilaixquiuh yanohue ; 
Caquilamatzancaniuh quintacallitcan 
Chonlei 6 quitnan lamatzancaniyaub 

6 quintalac allaniyan ; 
Ca ala quilamactaxtoyauh 
Nali yojauh naca liyogni 
Ghontacholacahuanla. 

TJte same, from Hervas. 

Kintaccan d nitiayan huill ; 

Tacotllali huacahuanla o min pexca maocxot 

Camill omintagchi, 

Tacholaca huanla ixcacgnitiet ot 

skiniau chon cholacan ocnatiayan ; 

Alyanohue nikila ixkiu ki lacali chaocan ; 



THE MAYA LANGUAGES. 433 

Kilamatzancaniau kintacagllitcan 

Kintalacatlanian ochonkinan iclamatzan — 

Caniau kintalacatlanian ; 

NikUamapotaxtou ala nicliyolau 

Lacotlanacatalit nikilamapotexto 

Lamatzon lacacoltana. 

Chontacholacahuanla. 

Mixteca Paternoster. 
Dzuttmdoo, zo dzicani andihui;* 
Naca cuneihuando sasanine ; 
Nakisi santoniisini ; 

Nacahui nuunaihni saha yocuhui inini dzahoatnaha yocnhui andihui ; * 
Dzitandoo yutnaa yntnaa tasinisindo hiutni ; 

Dzandooni cuachisindo dzaguatnaha yodzandoondoonhi hindo snhani sin 
Hoasi kihui nahani nnciiitandodzondo kuachi ; 
Tahui fiahani ndihindo sahanawliaaka dzahua : 
Nacahm, 

Hervas writes, that the Zapoteca (probably Maya), 
Mazateca, Chinanteca, and Mixe were allied. The 
Mixe locality is the district around Tehuantepec. 

The Maya stands in contrast to the Mexican Proper 
(how it comports itself to the less known languages of its 
frontier is uncertain), by having a milder phonesis — 
such, at least, being the inference from the ordinary 
specimens. 

The Maya, in the limited, or proper sense of the word, 
is the language of Yucatan. It is also the name of a 
group ; i. e. it is used as a general, as well as a parti- 
cular, term. Mr. Squier, who has done so much for the 
class that he ought to be allowed to fix its nomenclature, 
suggests the name Tzendal. I believe, however, that this 
is simply another form of Chontal ; a name which wiU 
re-appear in the sequel. Maya, too, is the older term. 
The Maya phonesis, in some of the dialects at least, 
is that of the Sahaptin and Shoslioni rather than the 
Atna and Tshinuk. 

No tongue has more dialects (for they all seem to be 
this) which are designated by separate names and (as 
such) wear the garb of separate languages than the Maya. 

* Possibly the Masya dehmalu. 

F F 



434. THE MAYA LANGUAGES. 

Some may be so. I think, however, that they are 
dialects with independent names. The distribution of 
them is remarkable. There is a northern section, spoken 
in the parts about Tabasco, which in the present state 
of our knowledge is isolated. This is — 

The Huasteca — word for. word, Astek. The termina- 
tion -eca, is Maya. The speculations which arise out 
of this similarity of name, as well as those which ai-e 
suggested by the prevalence of the termination -eca 
in Mexican narratives, form no part of our present in- 
quiries. 

The Kachiquel is Maya : the Kachiquel being one of 
the chief languages of Guatemala. 

So is the Quiche, called also the Utlateca. 

So is the Zutugil, called also the Zacapula, with 
the Atiteca. 

So is the Poconchi, or Pocoman. 

So is the Chorti. 

The Ma'm is, probably, the same. Is Manche another 
form of Mam ? 

So, perhaps, is the Popoluca. 

So is the Tzendal, spoken in Chiapas. 

The Lacandona, spoken by some stiU independent 
tribes in Vera Paz, is, probably, in the same category 
with the Mara. No specimens, however, are known. 

The Ache. — Of tliis Fray Francisco Gomez Torque- 
mada writes that, " en a quella tierra (Guatemala) 
aprendio brevemente la Lengua Ache : que es la de sus 
Naturales y muy difficultuosa de aprender, porque le 
avia comunicado Dios el don de lenguas, que refiere su 
Apostol S. Pablo, y en ella aprovecho algunos aiios." 
Is it the same as the Atiteca ? 

In the Mithridates is the notice of a Zapoteca 
language, but nothing more. Squier suggests that it 
may be the Zacapula or Zutugil, — at least his notice 
of a work by Fray Luis Cancer runs thus — 



1 



THE LENCA, ETC. 



435 



Tarias Gancionles en Verso Zapoteca (Zacapulaf) Bobre los Histerios de 
la Beligion, paia el nso de los Keofitos de la Vera Paz. 

Vera Paz is the Zapoteca locality as given by Adelong. 

The displacement in Honduras, Nicaragua, &zc., has 
been great. Hence of the languages other than Maya 
little is known ; many of them being extinct. 

The Lenca language is represented by four vocabu- 
laries from the four Pueblos of Guajiquiro, Opatoro, 
Intibuca, and Sirmlaton ; that of the last being shorter 
and less complete than the others. They are quite re- 
cent, and are to be found only in the Spanish edition of 
Mr. Squier's Notes on Central America ; the English 
edition being without them. 





Honduras, 




EngHsh. 


Gaajiquiro. 


Opatoro. 


Intibnca. 


Man 




taho 


ania«lie 


WomoM 




move 


napu 


Boy 




gtiagna 


hna 


Head 


toro 


tohoro 


cagaai 


Ear 


yang 


yan 


y»ng»€a 


Eye 


Baing 


Baringla 


Earing 


Note 


napee 


napseh 


nepton 


Mouth 


ingh 


ambeingh 


ingori 


Tomgw 


nafel 


navel 


napel 


Teeth 


nagha 


neas 


nigh 


Nedc 


ampshala 


ampshala 


cange 


Arm 


kenin 


kenin 


kening 


Fingert 


lasel 


gnalalasel 




Foot 


gfiagi 


quagi 


gnaskaring 


Blood 


nahag 


uah 


qnch 


Sun 


gasi 


gashi 


gaaiii 


Star 


siri 


dri 




Fire 


uga 


'na 


3mga 


Water 


gnaas 


nash 


gnash 


Stone 


caa 


- caa 


tnpan 


Tree 


m 


m 


ili 


One 


ita 


ita 


itaska 


Two 


naa 






Three 


lagna 




— ... 


Four 


aria 






Five 


taihe 


saihe 




Six 


hme 


line 





F F 2 



436 



LANGUAGES OF HONDURAS 



English. 


Gnajiquiro. 


Opatoro. 


Intibnca. 


Seven 


huis-ca 







Eight 


teef-ca 






Nine 


kaiai)a 






Ten 


isis 


issis 






Nicaragua. 








(1-) 




English. 




Masaya. 


Subtiabo. 


Man 




rahpa 


wuho 


Woman 




rapa-ku 


»i-ahseyomo 


Boy 




sai-ka 


w-asome 


Girl 




sai-kee 


Ti-aheoun 


Child 




chichi 


«-aneyame 


Father 




ana 


goo-ha 


Mother 




autu 


goo -mo 


Husband 




a'mbin 


'mhohue 


Wife 




a'guyu 


wuine 


Son 




sacul-e 


n-asomeyamo 


Dav^hter 




saicul-a 


«-asayme 






a'cu 
edi 


goochemo 


Head 






Hair 




tu'su 


membe 


Face 




enu 


grote 


Forehead 




gnitu 


goola 


Ear 




nau 


nuhme 


Eye 




setu 


nahte 


Nose 




ta'co 


mungoo 


Mouth 




dahna 


nunsu 


Tongue 




duhu 


greuhe 


Tooth 




semu 


nahe 


Foot 




naku 


graho 


Sky 




dehmalu 


nekupe 


Sun 




ahea 


numbu 


Star 




ncn 


nuete 


. Fire 




ahku 


nafau 


Water 




eeia 


nimbu 






esee 
esenu 


nugo 


Stone 






I 




ic u 


saho 


Thou 




ic-a 


sumusheta 


He 




ic-a 




We 




hechel-u* 


semehmu 


Ye 




hechel-u* 




They 




icanu 




This 




ca-la 


_, — 



« 



* Compare with the Tarascan uchaveri. 



AND NICARAGUA. 



437 



(2.) 



English. 


Wulwa {Chontai). 




English. 


Wnlwa (CkoiUai). 


Man 


aU 




Head 


tunm 


Wonvin 


y-aU 




Eye 


minik-taka 


Son 


pau-ni-ma 




Nose 


magni-tuk. 


Daughter 


pau-co-ma 










(3.) 






English. 


M'aikna {iloskito Coasl). 


English. 


Waikna {Moskito Coait). 


Man 


waikna 


Head 


let 


Womm 


mairen 


Eye 


nakro 


Son 


lupia-waikna 


Nose 


kamka. 


Daughter 


lupia-mairen 


1 







The following is spoken in Costa Rica, between the 
river Zent, and the Bocca del Tauro. 



EngU=h. 


Talemenca. 




Englioh. 


Talemenca. 


Ear 


»u-kake 




Star 


bewue 


Eye 


»u-wiiaketei 




Fire 


tslmko 


Nose 


stt-telmkoto 




Water 


ditzita 


Mouth 


wt-'kuwu 




One 


e-tawa 


Tongvie 


e^-kupta 




Two 


ho-ieuM 


Tooth 


sa-ka 




Three . 


magna-^aoo 


Beard 


a^-karku raezili 


Four 


eke-teiKt 


Neck-joint f 


tzin 




Five 


gi-iewa 


Arm 


«a-fra 




Six 


si^wo-sie-le 


Hand 


«a-/ra-fej«-sek 


Seven 


«»-wo-wora 


Finger 


/ra -woata 




Eight 


»-«o-inagiiana 


NaU 


8a-kraska 




Nine 


si-wo-sie-tevca 


Sun 


kanhae 




Ten 


«a-flat-ka. 


Moon 


tola 








St. Salvador — 








English. 




Sarane 


rie. 


Bayano. 


Woman 




aaich 




pmra 


Hair 




chagaj 


?s 


saglaga 


Nose 




vas'e 




asagoa 


Eyes 




siguac 


va 


ivi4 


Mouth 




ca 




cagttiqui 


Teeth 




dajA 




nngala 


Ears 




old 




ouja 


Hand 




covare 




arcana 


Foot 




sera 




naea 


Sun 




chnlii 




— i— 


Moon 




data 






Stars 




behug^ 


apa 




One 








quencliiqae 



438 





VERAGUA. 




English. 


Savaneiic. 


Bayano. 


Tivo 




poTuar 


Three 




pavuar 


Four 




paquevuar 


Five 




atate 


Six 




nercua 


Seven 




cugle 


Eight 




pavaque 


Nine 




paquevaque 


Ten 




ambuc. 


arien— 

English. 


Canacuna. 


Darien. 


One 


quensa-cua 


conjungo 


Two 


vo-cua 


poquah 


Three 


paa-cua 


pauquah 


Four 


paque-cua 


pake-quah 


Fvoe 


atale 


eterrali 


Six 


ner-cua 


indricah 


Seven 


cugle 


coogolah 


Eight 


vau-agua 


paukopah 


Nine 


paque-haguc 


pakekopah 


Ten 


ambegui 


anivego. 



We now leave the Isthmus in order to take 
cognizance of three other groups, which have, ap- 
parently, been pretermitted in the preceding notices. 
These are the languages akin to the Sahaptin ; the lan- 
guages akin to the Shoshoni ; and the languages of 
the Pueblo Indians — the groups being, to some extent, 
artificial. 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 439 



CHAPTER LIX. 

Sahaptin, Fadaca, juid Pneblo Languages. 

The reason why these languages, with their compara- 
tively northern situs, have been left until the very 
fiontier of South America is touched, lies in their geo- 
graphical relations to the languages of the next division. 
As far as it has been practicable, we have, hitherto, kept 
to the west of the Rocky Mountains, having begun 
with the coast of the Pacific, because it was there that 
lay the nearest points of contact between America and 
Asia, and we have kept to the west, because, though difier- 
ent in its character under difierent circumstances, there 
has always been a connection between even such ex- 
treme lancmaores as those of Central America and those 
of the Arctic Circle. Of course, this does not exclude a 
similar connection with the languages on the other side 
of the Rocky Mountains. Two chains of affinity, how- 
ever, cannot be followed out at the same time. Mean- 
while, that to which the preference has been given 
is, to say the least, a convenient, as well as a natural, 
one. The line, however, of the Rocky Mountains, them- 
selves, is, by no means, purely and simply, a line from 
north to south. In Utah and New Mexico it takes us 
in the direction of the Atlantic. 

This turns our attention to the parts about the Great 
Salt Lake, and (as the dialects there spoken have defi- 
nite and decided affinities which run as far north as the 



440 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 



River Columbia) to certain districts in Oregon as well. 
Here present themselves several dialects referable to 
two groups. (1 .) The Sahaptin, and (2.) the Paduca. 

(From Dr. Scouler.) 



English. 


Saliaptin. 


Wallawalla. 


KJiketat. 


Man 


nama 


winsh 


wins 


Boy 


naswae 


tahnutshint 


aswan 


Woman 


aiat 


tilahi 


aiat 


Girl 


piteu 


tohauat 


pitiniks 


Wife 


swapna 


asham 


asham 


Child 


miahs 


isht 


mianash 


Father 


pislid 


pshit 


pshit 


Mother 


pika 


ptsha 


ptsha 


Head 


hushus 


tilpi 


palka 


Arm 


atim 


kanakas 




Eyes 


shilhu 


atshash 


atshash 


Nose 


nathnu 


nathnu 


nosnu 


Ears 


matsaia 


matsiu 




Mouth 


him 


em 


am 


Teeth 


tit 


tit 


. 


Hands 


spshus 


spap 


aUa 


Feet 


ahwa 


waha 


waha 


Legs 


wainsh 


tama 




Sun 


wishamtuksh 


au 


au 


Moon 




ailhai 


ailhai 


Stars 


witsein 


haslu 


haslo 


Clouds 


spalikt 


pashst 




Rain 


wakit 


sshhauit 


tohtoha 


Snow 


maka 


poi 


maka 


Ice 


tahask 


tahauk 


toh 


Fire 


ala 


sluksh 


sluks 


Water 


tkush 


tshush 


tshaosh 


Wood 


hatsin 


slukas 


slukuas 


Stone 


pishwa 


pshwa 


pshwa 


Grovmd 


watsash 


titsham 


titsham 


Good 


tahr 


skeh 


shoeah 


Bad 


kapsbish 


milla 


tshailwit 


Hot 


sakas 


sahwaih 


sahweah 


Cold 


kenis 


kasat 


tewisha kasat 


Far 


waiat 


wiat 


wiat 


Near 


keintam 


tsiwas 


tsa 


High 


tashti 


hwaiam 


hweami 


Low 


ahat 


smite 


niti 



SAHAPTIN GROUP. 



441 



English. 


Saliaptin. 


Wallawalla. 


Kliketat. 


White 


naihaih 


koik 


olash 


Black 


sunnhsiiiiah 


tshimnk 


tsimak 


Red 


sepilp 


sutsha 


sotsa 


Here 


kina 


tshna 


stsUoak 


There 


koiu 


kana 


skone 


Where r 


minnl 


minat 


mam ? 


When? 


manal 


man ? 


man ? 


What f 


misli J 


mish 1 


miah ? 


Why! 


manama ? 


mam? 




Whof 


ishi ? 


skia? 


skiu ? 


Which t 


ma? 


mam? 




How much ? 


mas? 


milh ? 


milh? 


So much 


kala 


kalk 


skulk 


How far ! 


miwail ? 


maal ? 




So far 


kewail 


kwal 




Houj l<mg ? 


mahae? 


maalh 




Too long 


kohae 


kwalk 




This 


ki 


tshi 


tshi 


That 


job 


kwa 


skwa 


I 


8a 


sa 


sok 


You 


soi 


sa 


snik 


He, the, it 


ipi 


ipin 


pink 


We 


nun 


nama 


nemak 


Ye 


imA 


ena 


imak 


They 


ema 


ema 


pamak 


Togo 


kasha 


winasha 


winasha 


To see 


hakesha 


hoksha 




Totay 


heisha 


nn 


na 


To talk- 


tseksa 


sraiwasa 


RiTiawasa 


To walk 


wenasa 


winashash 




To read 


wasasha 


wasasha 


vasasha 


To eat 


wipisha 


kwatashak 




To drink 


makosha 


matshoshask 




To sleep 


piniiniVsTin. 


pinasha 




To wake 


waksa 


tahsbisask 


tahshasha 


To love 


watanisha 




tkehsah 


To take 


paaka 


apalashask 




To know 


laknasa 


ashaknashash 


shokoasha 


To forget 


titolasha 


slakshash 




To give 


inisha 


nishamash 




To seize 


inpisha 


shatshash 


wanapsha 


To be cold 


iswaisa 




iswaiska 


To be sick 


komaisa 


painshash 


painsha 


To hunt 


tutoliksa 


nalaitisas 


nistewasa 


To lie 


mishamisha 


tshishkshash 


tshii^ka 


To steal 


pakwasha 


pakwashaKh 


pakwasha. 



442 



PADUCA GROUP. 



The Paduca forms of South Oregon and Utah seem 
to be in situ ; those of New Mexico, Texas, and New- 
Leon, &c. being intrusive. In respect to these, I 
imagine that a line drawn from the south-eastern corner 
of the Utah Lake to the source of the Red or Salt Fork 
branch of the River Arkansas, would pass through a 
country nearly, if not wholly, Paduca ; a country which 
would lie partly in Utah, partly in New Mexico, and 
partly in Kansas. It would cross the Rocky Mountains, 
or the watershed between the drainages of the Colorado 
and the Missouri. It would lie along a high and barren 
country. It would have on its west the Navaho, Moqui, 
and Apatsh areas ; on its east certain Sioux tribes, the 
Arapahos, and the Shyennes. It would begin in 
California and end in the parts about Tampico. 





a-) 




English. 


Shosboni. 


Wihinasht. 


Man 


taka 


nanS, 


Woman 


kwuu 


moghoni 


Head 


pampi 


tsopigh 


Hair 


tupia 


ikuo 


Ea/r 


inaka 


inako 


Eye 


pui 


pui 


Nose 


moui 


moui 


Mouth 


timpa 


tupa 


Tongue 


aku 


eghu 


Teeth 


tangwa 


tama 


Foot 


nampa 


kuki 


Sim 


tava 


tava 


Moon 


musbha 


musha 


Star 


putsihwa 


patuzuva 


Bay 


tashuii 


tavino 


Night 


tukwun 


tokano 


Fire 


kuna 


koso 


Water 


pa 


pa 


Stone 


timpi 


tipi 


Tree 


shuwi 




I 


ni 


ni 


That 


i 


i 


He 


00 


00. 



PADUCA GROUP. 



443 







(2.) 




English. 




Uta. 


Comanch. 


Man 




tooonpayah 


tooavishchee 


Woman 




naijah 


wyape« 


Sun 




tap 


taharp 


Moon 




mahtots 


mash 


Star 




quahlantz 


taarch 


Boy 




ahpats 


tooanickpee 


Girl 




mahmats 


wyapeechee 


Head 




tuts 


paaph 


Forehead 




mattock 




Face 




kooelp 


koTch 


Eye 




puttyshoe 


nachich 


Nose 




mahvetah 


moopee 


Mouth 




timp 


teppa 


Teeth 




tong 


t^hnee 


Tongue 




aboh 


ahako 


Chin 




hannockqaell 




Ear 




nink 


nahark 


Hair 




suooh 


parpe« 


Neck 




kolph 


toyock 


Arm 




pooir 


mowa 


Hand 




masseer 


mowa 


Breast 




pay 


toko 


Foot 




namp 


nahap 


Horse 




kahrah 


teheyar 


Serpent 




toeweroe 


noheer 


Dog 




sahreeta 


sbardee 


Cat 




moosah 




Fire 




coon 


koona 


Food 




oof 




Water 




pah 

(3) 


pahar. 


English. 


Piede (_or Pa-uta). 


English. 


Piede(orPa-i./a). 


Owe 


SOOS 




Six 


navi 


Two 


weioone 




Seven 


navikaTah 


Three 


pioone 




Eight 


nanneetsooui 


Four 


wolsooing 




Nine 


shookootspenkermi 


Five 


shoomia 




Ten 


tomshoouu 






W 




English. 




ChemnhaevL 


Cahuilla* 


Man 




tawatz 


nahanes 


WoTnan 




maruqu, 


% 


nikU 



* The affinity between tbe Netela and Kij with the Shoshoni, suggested by 
Hale and Grallatin, has been enlarged on by Baschmann. The Cahuillo has 
affinities on each side. It is not in situ. At the same time, it is only hy 
raising the value of the class, that all may be made Padaca. 



444 



PADUOA GROUP. 



English. 


Chemuliuevi. 


Caliuillo. 


Head 


mutacowa 


niyuluka 


Hair 


torpip 


piiki 


Face 


cobanim 


nepush 


Ear 


nancaba 


nanocka 


Eye 


puoui 


napush 


Nose 


muvi 


nemu 


Mouth 


timpouo 


netama 


Tongue 


ago 


nenun 


Tooth 


towwa 


metama 


Hand 


masiwanim 


nemohemosh 


Foot 


nampan 


neik 


Bone 


maiigan 


neta 


Blood 


paipi 


neo 


Sky 


tuup 


tuquashanica 


Sun 


tabaputz 


tamit 


Moon 


meagoropitz 


menyil 


Star 


putsib 


chehiam 


Fire 


cun 


cut 


Water 


pah 


pal 


One 


shuish 


supli 


Two 


waii 


mevri 


Three 


paii 


mepai 


Four 


watchu 


mewitchu 


Five 


manu 


nomequadnun 


Six 


nabai 


quadnunsupli 


Seven 


moquist 


quanmunwi 


Eight 


natch 


quanmunpa 


Nine 


uwip 


quanmunwichu 


Ten 


mashu 


nomachumi. 



The Kioway is, apparently, more Paduca than aught 
else. 



English. 


Kioway. 


English. 


Kioway 


Man 


kiani 


Blood 


Tim 


Woman 


mayi 


Bone 


tonsip 


Head 


kiaka 


Sky 


kiacoh 


Hair 


ooto 


Sun 


pal 


Face 


caupa 


Moon 


pa 


Forehead 


taupa 


Star 


tah 


Ear 


taati 


Fire 


pia 


Eye 


taati 


Water 


ta 


Nose 


maucon 


I 


no 


Mouth 


surol 


Thm 


am 


Tongue 


den 


He 


kin 


Tooth 


zun 


We 


kime 


Hand 


mortay 


Ye 


tusa 


Foot 


onsut 


They 


cuta 



THE TESUQUE, ETC. 



445 



English. 


Kioway. 


Englisfa. 


Kioway. 


One 


pahco 


Six 


mosso 


Two 


gia 


Seven 


pantsa 


Three 


pao 


Eight 


iatsa 


Four 


iaki 


Nine 


cohtea 


Five 


onto 


Ten 


cokhi. 



Tlie comparative civilization of the Pueblo Indians 
has always attracted the attention of the phUologue. 
UntU lately, however, he had but a minimum amount 
of trustworthy information concerning either their habits 
or their lancmacfe. He has now a fiiir amount of data 
for both. 

Of the Pueblo languages two (the Moqui and Zuni) 
belong to the drainage of the Rio Colorado, and four 
(the Tesuque, the Taoa, the Jemez, and the A coma) to 
that of the Rio Grande. 



English. 


Tesnqne.* 


English. 


Tesaqne. 


Man 


sae 


Snow 


poh 


Woman 


quie. 


Fire 


tah 


Boy 


enouh 


Water 


poh 


Girl 


aguuh 


Ice 


ohyeh 


Head 


pto 


Stone 


koh 


Hair 


po 


I 


nah 


Face 


tzae 


Thou 


oh 


Ear 


oyez 


He 


ihih 


Eye 


tzie 


She 


ihih 


Nose 


heu 


They 


ihnah 


Mouth 


so 


Ye 


nahih 


Tongue 


hae 


We {ineluxive) 


tahquireh 


Tooth 


mouaei 


{exclusive) 


nihyeaboh 


Beard 


hompo 


One 


guih 


Hand 


maho 


Two 


quihyeh 


Foot 


anh 


Three 


pohyeh 


Bone 


haehnn 


Four 


ionoah 


Blood 


uh 


Five 


pahnouh 


Sun 


tah 


Six 


sih 


Moon 


pho 


Seven 


chae 


Star 


ahgoyah 


Eight 


kuhbeh 


Day 


tahn 


Nine 


koaenoah 


Night 


kuriri 


Ten 


taheh. 


Rain 


kuohn 







* More Pima than ansht else. 



446 



ACOMA AND COOHETIMI. 







(2.) 




English. 


Acoma* 


Cochetimi. 


Eiwomi. 


Man 


hahtratse 


hachthe 


hatshthe 


Woman 


cuhu 


coyoni 


cuyauwi 


Hair 


hahtratni 




hatre 


Head 


nushkaine 




nashke 


Face 


howawinni 




skeeowa 


Eye 


hoonaine 




shaana 


Nose 


ouisuine 




wieshin 


Mouth 


ouicani 




chiaca 


Tongue 


watclihuntni 




watsMn 


One 




ishka 


isk 


Two 




kuomi 


'tuomi 


Three 




chami 


tshabi 


Four 




kiana 


kiana 


Five 




tama 


taoma 


Six 




chisa 


chisth 


Seven 




maicana 


maichana 


Eight 




cocomishia 


cocumshi 


Nine 




maeco 


maieco 


Ten 




'tkatz 


cahtz. 



The Moqui has decided Paduca affinities. 



* Perhaps, more Sioux than aught else. 



ALGONKIN CLASS. 447 



CHAPTER IX 

Languages l)etween the Athabaskan, the Rocky Moontains, and the Atlantic. 
— The Algonkin. — The Sioox. — The Iroquois. — The Catawba, Woccon, 
Uche, Natchez, Chetimacha, Adahi, and Attacapa Languages. — The 
Pawni, Biccaii, and Caddo. — The Languages of Texas. 

Unlike the Eskimo and the Athabaskan, the Algon- 
kin area touches the Ocean on one side only — being 
bounded on the west by the Kocky Mountains. Never- 
theless, it is of great magnitude, being spoken in Labra- 
dor, and in North Carolina ; on the Saskatshewan and 
the Potomac ; in both the Canadas, in Nova Scotia, 
in New Brunswick, in the Hudson's Bay Country, and 
m every one of the United States north of Georgia. 
On the north it is boimded by the Athabaskan, the 
eastern half of the area whereof it subtends. The whole 
question, however, of its magnitude, along with that of 
the direction in which it extended itself, can scarcely be 
entertained until the main details of the two classes 
that succeed it, the Sioux and Iroquois, have been gone 
into. 

Though the Blackfoot is one of the most recent ad- 
ditions to this class ; in other words, though the Black- 
foot is one of the languages which were the last to be 
recognized as Algonkin, I take it first — the Blackfoot 
being in contact with the Kutani and certain forms of 
the Athabaskan already named. 



448 



ALGONKIN CLASS. 





(1.) 




English. 


Blackfoot. 


Menomeni. 


Man 


matape 


enaiBniew 


Woman 


aquie 


metamo 


Soy 


sacomape 


ahpayneesha 


Girl 


aquecouan 


kaykaw 


Head 


otocan 


maish 


Hair 


otocan 


maynayminn 


Pace 


otochris 


oshkayshayko 


Scarp 


c'otokan 


menainhquon 


Ea/r 


otokis 


maytahwoc 


Eye 


•wapespi 


maishkayshaick 


Nose 


mocquisis 


maycheosh 


Mouth 


naoie 


maytone 


Tongue 


natsini 


maytainnonniew 


Tooth 


nogpeki 


maypet 


Beard 


mongasti 


maynaytonankkonnuck 


Neck 


nogquoquini 


maykeeekon 


Arm 


otitis 


maynainh 


Shoulder 


catsiquin 


ohpaykeko nainh kum 


Bach 


okaquin 


oppainhquon 


Hand 


otttis 


ohnainkonnon 


Finger 


inaquiquitsi 


ohtainnohaykon 


Nail 


teotenoquits 


meshkanshcon 


Breast 


oquiquini 


ohpaun 


Body 


stomi 


mayeow 


Leg 


osicsina 


maykaut 


Foot 


ocatsi 


mayshait 


Bone 


osicsi 


ohkonne 


Blood 


apani 


mainhkee 


Sun 


natos 


kayshoh 


Moon 


natoscoucoui 


taypainhkayshoh 


Star 


cacatos 


almanlikock 


Bay 


apinacousli 


kayshaykots 


Night 


coucoui 


wahretopaykon 


Fire 


sti 


ishkotawe 


Water 


ocquie 


naypaywe 


Stone 


sococotosc 


ahshen 


Tree 


mistes 


meanshah 


Bird 


picsi 


waishkaynonh 


^9 


wouaou 


wahwon 


I 


nistoa 


naynanh 


Thxm 


cristoa 


kaynanh 


He 


hume 


waynanh 


She 


hume 


aynanli 


They 




wanonanh 


Te 




keenwoah 


We 




kaynanh {inclusire). 






oshneeshayak (exclusive). 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



449 



(2.) 



English. 


Qjibwa. 


Ottawa. 


Potowatami. 


Head 


ne ostegwon 


ondip (his) 




Hair 


mistekiah 


nisis {my) 


win sis 


Ear 


ottowng 


tawag 




Eye 


oskingick 


tcKkijik 


neskesick 


Nose 


schangguin 


tchaje 


ottschass 


Mouth 


oton 


t6ne 


indoun 


Tonffue 


otainini 


tenanian 




Tooth 


meput 


put 


webit 


Hand 


nenintchen 




neninch 


Feet 


ozia 


sit {sing.) 


nesit {sing.) 


Sun 


kisis 


kisis 


kesis 


Moon 


tepeki kisis 


tipiki kisis 


kesis 


Star 


anang 


anang {pi.) 


anung 


Day 


kigik 


kijig 




Night 


tipik 


tipik 





Fire 


ishkoda 


ashkote 


sen tab 


Water 


neebi 


niplsh 


nebee 


Stme 


ossin 






Tree 


metik 






Fish 


kekon 






I 


neen 




neenah 


Thou 


keen 




keen 


He 


ween 




weene 


One 


paizhik 


ningotchau 


n'godto 


Two 


neezhwand 


ninjwa 


neish 


Three 


nisswaid 


nis;wa 


n'swoah 


Four 


newin 


niwin 


nnaeon 


Five 


nalinnn 


nanan 


n'yawnnn 


Six 


gotoasso 


ningotwaswi 


n'godto wattso 


Seven 


neezhwawsec 


ninjwaswi 


nouk 


Eight 


shwawswe 


nichwaswi 


schwatso 


Nine 


shongguswe 


shang 


shocktso 


Ten 


medoswe 


kwetch 

(3.) 


metato. 


English. 




Old Algonkin. 


Kni.stioaox. 


Man 




alissinap 




Woman 




ichweh 


esqui 


Head 




oostikwan 


istegwen 


Hair 




nssis 


mistekiab 


Eye 




ooskirishek 


eskisoch 


Nose 




yash 


miskeewon 


Tongue 




ooton 


otoyanee 


Teeth 




tibit 


meepit 


Blood 




mishweh 


mithcoo 


Sun 




kisis 


pesim 
G G 



450 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



Englisli, 


Old Algonkin. 


Knistinaux. 


Moon 


debikatikisis 


tipiscopesim 


Star 


alank 


attack 


Bay 


okonogat 


kesecow 


Night 


debikat 


tipiscow 


Fire 


skootay 


esquittu 


Water 


nipi 


nepee 


Ram 


kimiwan 


kemeroon 


Snow 




mispoon 


Earth 


ackey 


askee 


Noon 


sispin 




Stone 


assin 


assene 


Tree 


metseeh 


J mislick achemusso {wood 
L standing upnght) 






Bird 


piley 


■pe&sia 


Fish 


kikons 


kenosee 


I 


nir 


nitha 


Thou 


kir 


kitha 


Ee 


wir 




One 


peygik 


pauck 


Two 


ninsh 


nishuh 


Three 


nisswey 


nishto 


Fowr 


neyoo 


nayo 


Five 


nahran 


nayahnun 


Six 


ningootwassoo 


negoto ahsik 


Seven 


ninsbwassoo 


toboocop 


Eight 


nisswassoo 


ian^naon 


Nine 


shangasso 


kagatemeta,tut 


Ten 


metassoo 
(4.) 


mitatat. 


English. 


Sheshatapoosh. 


Skoffi. 


Man 


napew 


nabouw 


Woman 


schquow 


schow 


Head 


stoukoaau 


oostookoohan 


Hair 


peeshquahan 


teepishquoouhn 


Tomjue 


tellenee 


eelayleenee 


Tooth 


mepeethex 


weeeepich 


Hand 


teekechee 


mestichee 


Feet 


neeshetch 


meshetch 


Sky 


washeshquaw 


walk 


Sum, 


beshung 


beeshoon 


Moon 


toposhabeshung 


teepeeshowbeshum 


Star 


johokata 


woochahaykatak 


Day 


jeeshekere 


jeeshekow 


Night 


tapishkow 


tapishkakow 


Fire 


schootoo 


schkootow 


Water 


Tiepeee 


nepee 


Stone 


ashenee 


ashenee 


Tree 


mistookooah 


meshtooquah. 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



451 



(5.) 



English . 


Micmac. 


Etchemin. 


Abenaki 


Man 


tchinem 


oskitap 


seenanbe 


Woman 


epit 


apet 


phanien 


Head 


wnidgik 


neneagan 


metep 


Hair 






nepiesitmar 


Ear 


hadougan 


chalkse 


netajtakw {my) 


Eye 


poMOgul 


n'siscol 


tsesiktt 


Nose 


ucHckun 


niton 


kitan 


MoiUh 




neswone 


nedun \my) 


Tongue 


willenonk 


nyllal 


mirasu 


Teeth 


uabidul 




nepit 


ffand 


kpiten 


petin 


nezetsi {my) 


Foot 


Mkkitat 


n'sit 


nesit 


Sh/ 


mooshkoon 


tnmoga 


kisukn 


Sun 


nakauget 


asptaiasait 


kuus 


Moon 


topanakoushet 


kisos 


ki.soQs 


Star 


kmaaokoonich 


psaisam 


uataue89» 


Day 


naakok 


kisnok 


kizeuku 


Night 


pisTikeeaukli 




kizt/kw 


Fire 


bukteu 


sknt 


skutai 


Water 


chabngnan 


somaqnone 


nabi 


Stone 


kundau 


panapsqa 


nimangan naz 


Tree 


neepeejeesh 


apas 


abassi 


I 


nU 


nel 





Thou 


kU 






He 


negeum 


wurt 




One 


nest 


naiget 


pezeku 


Two 


talu 


nes 


niffl 


Three 


chicht 


niM 


nass 


Four 


new 




iew 


Five 


nan 


itftne 


bareneshu 


Six 


achigopt 


gamatchine 


negudans 


Seven 


atumoguenok 


alohegannak 


tanbauans 


Eight 


sgomolchit 


okemulcliine 


ntsansek 


Nine 


pechkunadck 


asquenandake 


nwriwi 


Ten 


ptolu 


neqdensk 


mtara. 




(6.) 




English. 


Minsi. 


Nanticot. 


llohikan. 


Man 


lenni 


wohacki 


neemanaoo 


Woman 


ochqueu 


acqnahiqne 


p'ghainoom 


Head 


wilustican 


nnlahammoa (the) 


weensis {his) 


Hair 


weicheken 


nee-eesqnat 


weghankun 


Eye 


wichtawah 


nucksskeneeqnat 


nkeesqnan {his 


Nose 


wuschginqnal 


nickskeen 


okewon 


Tongue 


wichkiwon 


neeannow 




Mouth 


w'doon 


huntowey 


otonn 






G 


G 2 



452 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Minsi. 


Nanticok. 


Mohikan, 


Tooth 


wichput 


neeput 


wepeeton 


Hand 


wanachk 


nuluutz 


oaniskafi 


Foot 


wichyat 


nist 


ussutin 


Sun 


gischuck 


aquiquaqueahquak keesogh 


Moon 


nipahump atupquonihauqut 


i nepauhauck 


Star 


alank 


pumioije 


anauquanth. 


Day 


gieschku 


nucotucquon 


waukaumauw 


Night 


tpocLeu 


toopquow 


fpochk 


Fire 


tendei 


nip 


stauw 


Water 


ruby 


pa,Tnptuckquah 


thocknaun 


Stone 


achsum 


kawscup 


thaunaumku 


Tree 


michtuk 


peluicque 

(7.) 


machtok. 


English. 




Massachusetts. 


Narragansetts. 


Man 




wosketomp 


nnin 


Woman 




mittamwosses 


squaws 


Head 




puhkuk 


uppaquontup 


Hair 




meesunk 


wesheck 


Ear 




wehtauog 


wuttowwug 


Eye 




wuskesuk 


wuskeesuck 


Nose 




•vfutch 




Mouth 




nuttoon 


wuttone 


Tongue 




meenannoh 


weenat 


Tooth 




meepit 


wepit 


Hand 




nutcheg 


wunnicheke 


Foot 




wosseet 


wussette 


Sky 




kesak 


keesuck 


Sun 




nepauz 


nippawuz 


Moon 




nepaushat 


manepaustat 


Star 




annogs 


anockgus 


Day 




kesukod 


wompau 


Night 




nukon 


tuppaco 


Fire 




nootai 


squtta 


Watei- 




nippe 


nip 


Tree 




mehtug 


mintuck 


J 




neen 


neen 


Thm 




ken 


keen 


He 




noh 

(8.) 


ewo. 


English. Miami 




Iliuois. Sauki. 


Shawni. 


Man hetaniah 


inim neneo 


ileni 


Woman metamsah 


ickoe kwyokih 


equiwa 


Head indepekoneh 


wupip wesM 


weelekeh 


Hair nelissah 


nississah nenossoueh 


welathoh 


Ear tawakeh 


nittagai nektowakye 


'my) towakah 



ALGONKIN LANGUAGES. 



453 



English. 


Miami. 


Iliuois. 


Sauki. 


Shawni. 


Eye 


keshekweh 


isckengicon 


neskishekwih 


skisseeqwa 


Nose 


kekiwaneh 




nekkiwanuek 


ochali 


Mouth 


lonenneh 





wektoneh 




Tongue 


wehlaneh 


wilei 


nennaneveli 


weelinwie 


Teeth 


weepitah 




nepitan 


weepeetalee (A*» 


Hand 


oneksah 


nich 


nepak umetcheh 


niligie 


Feet 


katah 


■wissit 


nckatcheh (?) 


kn^e 


Shy 


kesheweh 


kisik 


apemekeh 


menquotwe 


Sun 




kisipol 


kejessoah 


kesathwa 
I tepethaka- 
kesathwa 


Moon 




kesis 


tepakeeskejes 


Star 


alangwa 


rangkhoa 


anakwakeh 


alagwa {pi.) 


Bay 


wasekhe 


kisik 


keeshekeh 


keeshqna 


Night 


pikkuntahkewe peckonteig 


tapakeh 


tepechke 


Pin 


kohteweh 


scotte 


eskwatah 


scoote 


Water 


nepeh 


nipi 


neppi 


neppee 


Stone 


saaneh 




asenneh 




Tree 


mistaakack 


toaaane 


namateh 


meteqneghke (pi.) 


I 


neelah 


nira 


iieenah (me) 


nelah 


Thou 


keelah 


kira 




kelah 


He 


weelah 


onira 




■welah. 



The Bethuck is the native lancmaore of Newfoundland. 
In 1846, the collation of a Bethuck vocabulary enabled 
me to state that the language of the extinct, or doubt- 
fully extant, aborigines of that island was akin to those 
of the ordinary American Indians rather than to the 
Eskimo ; further investigation showing that, of the or- 
dinary American languages, it was Algonkin rather than 
aught else. 

A sample of the evidence of this is to be found in the 
following table ; a table formed, not upon the coUation 
of the whole MS., but only upon the more important 
words contained in it. 



English, son. 
Bethuck, viageraguis. 
Cree, equssis. 
Ojibbeway, ningwisis 

negwis 

Ottawa, l-wis. 
Micmac, unquece. 
Pasamaquoddy, n'kos. 



=my sou. 



Narragensetts, nummuckiese = my 

son. 
Delaware, ^iMau=Ius son. 
Miami, aJainssima. 

ungwissah. 

Shawnee, hoisso. 

Sack and Fox, nekwessa. 

Menomeni, nekeeah. 



454 



THE BETHUCK 



English, girl. 
Bethuck, woaseesh. 
Cree, squaisis. 
Ojibbeway, eJcwaizais. 
Ottawa, aquesens. 
Old Algonkin, iclcwessen. 
Sheshatapoosh, squaslmh. 
Passamaquoddy, pehquasis. 
Narragansetts, squasese. 
Montaug, squasses. 
Sack & Fox, sJcivessah. 
Cree, awdsis^ child. 
Sheshatapoosli, awash = child. 

English, mouth. 
Bethuck, mamadthun. 
Nanticoke, mettoon. 
Massachusetts, miUtoori: 
Narragansetts, wuttoon. 
Penobscott, madoon. 
Acadcan, meton. 
Micmac, toon. 
Abenaki, ootoon, 

English, nose. 
Bethuck, gheen. 
Miami, keouane. 

English, teeth. 
Bethuck, hocbodza. 
Micmac, neebeet. 
Abenaki, neebeet. 

English, hand. 
Bethuck, maemed. 
Micmac, paeteen, 
Abenaki, mpateen. 

English, ear. 
Bethuck, mootchiman. 
Micmac, mootooween. 
Abenaki, nootawee. 

English, smoke. 
Bethuck, bassdiJc. 
Abenaki, ettoodahe. 

English, oil. 
Bethuck, emet. 
Micmac, memaye. 
Abenaki, pemmee. 



English, Sun. 

Bethuck, keiise. 

Cree, &c., kisis. 

Abenaki, kesus, 

Mohican, kesogh. 

Delaware, gishukh. 

Illinois, kisipol. 

Shawnoe, kesathwa. 

Sack & Fox, kejessoah. 

Menomeni, kaysho. 

Passamaquoddy, kisos =moon. 

Abenaki, kisus = moon. 

Cree, kesec&w = day. 

Ojibbeway, kijik=day and light. 

Ottawa, kijik=do. 

Abenaki, kiseoukou=do. 

Delaware, gies?iku = do. 

Illinois, hisik = do. 

Shawnoe, heeshqua = do. 

Sack & Fox, keeshekeh=do. 

English, fire. 
Bethuck, boobeeshawt. 
Cree, esquitti, scoviay. 
Ojibbeway, ishkodai, skootae. 
Ottawa, asJikote. 
Old Algonkin, skootay. 
Sheshatapoosh, schootay. 
Passamaquoddy, skeet. 
Abenaki, skoutai. 
Massachusetts, squitta. 
Narragansetts, squtta. 

English, white. 
Bethuck, wobee. 
Cree, wabisca. 

wapishkawo, 

Ojibbeway, wawbishkaw. 

wawbizze. 

Old Algonkin, wabi. 
Sheshatapoosh, wahpou. 
Micmac, ouabeg, wabeck. 
Mountaineer, toapsiou. 
Passamaquoddy, wapiyo. 
Abenaki, wanbighenour. 

wanbegan. 

Massachusetts, wonipi. 
Narragansetts, wompesu. 
Mohican, waupaaeck. 



OP NEWFOUNDLAND. 



455 



Montaug, tcampayo. 

Delaware, ^cape, wapsu, waptit. 

Nanticoke, waitppauyu. 

Miami, wapelcinggek. 

Shawnoe, opee. 

Sack k, Fox, wapeskayah. 

Menomeni, inaubinh ieewah. 

English, black, 
Bethuck, mandzey. 
Ojibbeway, muhlcudaiwa. 
Ottawa, mackateh. 
Narragansetts, m&wesu. 
MassadiTUietts, mooi. 

English, house. 
Bethuck, meeooticTc. 
Narragansetts, icetu. 

English, shoe. 
Bethuck, niiostn. 
Abenaki, mlcessen. 

English, snow. 
Bethuck, kaasussabook. 
Cree, 8a«6!^M»=hail. 
Ojibbeway, saisaigan. 
Sheshatapoosb, shashaygan. 

English, speak. 
Bethuck, ieroothack. 
Taculli, yaltuck. 
Cree, athemetakcouse. 
Wyandot, atakea. 



English, yes. 
Bethuck, yeathun, 
Cree, ahhah. 
Fassamaquoddy, netek. 

English, no. 
Bethuck, neicin. 
Cree, namaw. 
Ojibbeway, kavnne, 
Ottawa, kauween 

English, hatchet. 
Bethuck, dthoonanyen. 
Taculli, thynle. 

English, knife. 
Bethuck, eeiccuen. 
Micmac, uagan. 

English, bad. 
Bethuck, muddy. 
Cree, myaton. 
Ojibbeway, monadud. 

mudji. 

Ottawa, matcke. 
Micmac, matoualkr. 
MastBxAusetts, matche. 
Niirragansetts, matchit. 
Mohican, matchit. 
Montaug, mattateayah, 
Montaug, muttadeeaco. 
Delaware, makhtitsu. 
Nanticoke, mattik. 
Sack & Fox, motchie. 
maichatkie. 



The Shyeniie language was suspected to be Algonkin 
at the publication of i]ie A rchceologia Americana. In a 
treaty made between the United States and the Shyenne 
Indians in 1825, the names of the chiefe who signed 
were either Sioux, or siomifieant in the Sioux langruaore. 
It was not unreasonable to consider this as prima -facie 
evidence of the Shyenne tongue itself being Sioux. 
Nevertheless, there were some decided statements in the 
way of external evidence in another direction. There 
was the special evidence of a gentleman weU-acquainted 



456 



THE 8HYENNE 



with the fact that the names of the treaty, so significant 
in the Sioux language, were only translations from the 
proper Shyenne, there having been no Shyenne inter- 
preter at the drawing-up of the document. What then 
was the true Shyenne ? A vocabulary of Lieut. Abert's 
settled this as far as the numerals went. Afterwards a 
full vocabulary, collated by Gallatin, gave the contem- 
plated result : — " Out of forty-seven Shyenne words for 
which we have equivalents in other languages, there are 
thirteen which are indubitably Algonkin, and twenty- 
five which have affinities more or less remote with some 
of the languages of that family."* 

English. Arapalio. Other Algonkin Languages.- 

Man enanetah enainneew, Menomeni. 

Father, my nasonnah nosa\r, Miami. 

Mother, my nanah nekeah, 3fenomeni. 

Husband, my nash nah, Shyenne. 

Son, my naah nah, Shyenne. 

nikwi^AaA, Shawnee. 

Daughter, my nahtahnah netawnah, Miami. 

Brother, my nasisthsah nesawsah, Miami. 

Sister, my naecahtaiali nekoshaymank, Menomeni. 

Indian enenitah ah wainhukai, Delaware. 

Eye mishishi maishkayshaik, Menomeni. 

Mouth netti may tone, Menomeni. 

Tongue nathun wilano, Delaware. 

Tooth veathtah wi pit, Delaware. 

Beard vasesanon witonahi, Delaware. 

Back nerkorbah pawkawniema, Miami. 

Hand machetun olatshi, Shawnee. 

Foot nauthauitah ozit, Delaware. 

Bone hahunnah ohkonne, Menomeni. 

Heart battah maytah, Menomeni. 

Blood bahe mainhki, Menomeni. 

Sinew anita oh tab, Menomeni. 

Flesh wonnunyah weensama, Miami. 

Skin tahyatch xais, Delaware. 

Town haitan otainahe, Delaioare. 

Door tichunwa kwawntame, Miami. 

Sun . nishi-ish kayshoh, Menomeni. 

Star ahthah allaugwh, Delaware. 



* Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. ii. p. cxi. 1848. 





AND 


ARAPAHO. 4 


English. 


Arapaha 


other Algonkin Langnaf^. 


Day 


ishi 


kishko, Delaware. 


Autumn 


t-aliniii 


tahkoxko, Delaware. 


Wind 


assissi 


kaishxing, Delaware. 


Fire 


ishshitta 


ishkotawi, Menomeni. 


Water 


nutch 


nape, Miami. 


Ice 


wahhu 


mainquoift, Menomeni. 


Mountain 


ahhi 


wahchiwi, Shawnee. 


Hot 


hastah 


ksita, Shawnee. 


He 


enan 


enaw, Miami. 






waynanh, Menomeni. 


That {in) 


hinnali 


aynaih, Menomeni. 


Who 


Tinnatiah 


ahwahnay, Menomeni, 


No 


chinnani 


kawn, Menomeni. 


Eat 


menitisi 


mitishin, Menomeni. 


Brink 


bannah 


maynaan, Menomeni. 


Kill 


nanaiut 


o^-nainhaiay, Menomeni 



457 



Arapaho is the name of a tribe in Kansas ; occu- 
pant of a district in immediate contact with the Shyenne 
country. 

But the Shyennes are no indigencB to Kansas. Nei- 
ther are the Arapahos. The so-called Fall Indians, of 
whose language we have long had a very short trader's 
vocabulary in Umfreville, are named from their occu- 
pancy, which is on the Falls of the Saskatshewan. The 
Nehethewa, or Crees, of their neighbourhood call them 
so. Another name is Big-belly, in French Gros ventre. 
This has given rise to some confusion ; Gros-venire being 
a name given to the Minetari of the Yellow-stone Kiver, 
who belong to the Sioux family. Not so the Gros- 
ventres of the Falls. Adelung remarked that some of 
their words had an affinity with the Algonkin. Um- 
freville's vocabulary was too short for anything but the 
most general purposes and the most cautious of sugges- 
tions. It was, however, for a long time the only one 
known. The next to it, in the order of time, was one 
in MS., belonging to Gallatin, but which was seen by Dr. 
Pri chard and collated by the present writer. His en- 
quii'ies were simply to the effect that the language had cer- 
tain miscellaneous affinities. A vocabulary in Schoolcraft 



458 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



tells us more ; viz. not only that the Arapaho language 
is the same as the Fall Indian of Umfreville, but that it 
has definite and preponderating affinities with the Shy- 
enne, and, through it, with the Algonkin class in gene- 
ral, especially jv^ith the Menomeni. 



English. 


Arapalio. 


Shyenne. 


Scalp 


mithash 


metake 


Tongue 


nathun 


vetunno 


Tooth 


veathtah 


veisike 


Beard 


vasesanon 


meatsa 


Hand 


mahclietun 


maharts 


Blood 


bahe 


mahe 


Sinew 


anita 


antikah 


Heart 


battah 


estah 


Mouth 


nettee 


marthe 


Girl 


issaha 


xsa 


Husband 


nash 


nah 


Son 


naah 


nah 


Daughter 


nahtahnah 


nahtcli 


One 


chassah 


nuke 


Two 


neis 


neguth 


Three 


nas 


nahe 


Four 


yeane 


nave 


Five 


yorthun 


noane 


Six 


nitahter 


nahsato 


Seven 


nisorter 


nisoto 


Eight 


nahsorter 


nahnoto 


Nine 


siautah 


soto 


Ten 


mahtahtah 


malitoto. 



The Sioux, second in respect to the magnitude of its 
area to the Algonkin only, lies west and south, rather 
than east or north, and belongs to the prairie States, 
rather than to those of the sea-board. 





Sioux vocabularies. 








(«.) 




English. 




Mandan. 


Crow. 


God 




mahhopeneta 


sakahbocatta 


Sun 




menakha 


a'hhhiza 


Moon 




esto menakha 


minnatatcbe 


Stars 




h'kaka 


ekieu 


Rain 




h'kalioost 


hannab 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



459 



£nglish. 


Mandan. 


Crow. 


Snow 


copcaze 


makkonpah (hail) 


River 


pass&hah 


ahesu 


Day 


hampah 


maapah 


Night 


estogr 


oche 


Dark 


hampaheriskah 


chippusheka 


Light 


edayhush 


thieshe 


Woman 


meha 


meyakatte 


Wife 


moorse 


moah 


Child 


sookhomaha 


bakkatte 


Girl 


sookmeha 


meyakatte 


Boy 


sooknamohk 


shakkatte 


Head 


pan 


marsh aa 


Legs 


doka 


buchoope 


Eyes 


estume 


meishta 


Movih 


ea 


ea 


Nose 


pahoo 


buppa 


Face 


estah 


esa 


Ears 


nakoha 


uppa 


Hand 


onka 


buscMe 


Fittgers 


onkaha 


buscbie 


Foot 


sbee 


busche 


Hair 


hahliee 


masbeah 


Canoe 


menanko 


mabesbe 


Fii.h 


poh 


booah 


Bear 


mahto 


dnhpitsa 


Wolf 


haratta 


chata 


Dog 


mones waroota 


biska 


Buffalo 


ptemday 


biflha 


Elk 


omepah 


eitchericazzse 


Deer 


mahmanacoo 


ohha 


Beaver 


warrappa 


biruppe 


Shoe 


hoompah 


boompe 


Bow 


warraenoopah 


bistuheeah 


Arroio 


mahha 


ahnailz 


Pipe 


ehndka 


ompsa 


Tobacco 


mannasha 


hopa 


Good 


shnsha 


itsicka 


Bad 


k'hecnsh 


kubbeek 


Hot 


dsasosh 


abre 


Cold 


ahineehosb 


hootshere 


I 


me 


be 


Thou 


ne 


de 


He 


e 


na 


We 


noo 


bero 


They 


eonah 


mihah 


One 


mahhannah 


amatcat 


Tvro 


nompah 


noomcat 



460 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 





English. 


Mandan. 




Crow. 




Three 


namary 




namenacat 




Fov/r 


tohha 




shopecat 




Five 


kakhoo 




chihhocat 




Six 


kemah 




ahcamacat 




Seven 


koopah 




sappoah 




Eight 


tatucka 




noompape 




Nine 


mahpa 




ahmuttappe 




Ten 


perug 




perakuk. 






(2.) 




English. 


Yankton. 


Winebago. 


Dahcota. 


Osage. 


Man 


weechasha 


wongahah 


weetshahsktah 


neka 


Woman 


weeah 


nogahah 


weenowkhindgah wako 


Father 


atcucu 


chahchikal 


atag 


indajah 


Mother 


hucoo 


chahcheekah 


eenah 


enauah 


Son 


cheecheeteoo 


eeneek 


S meetshingkshee ) . . , v 
i (my) j weesiimga (my) 


Daughter weetachnong 


heenuhk'hahhah 


meetshoongksbee 


Head 


pah 


nahsuhhah 


pah 


watatereh 


Hair 


pah a 




pahkee 


pauha 


Ear 


nougkopa 


nahchahwahhah 


pohe 


naughta 


Eye 


ishtah 


ischuhsuhhah 


ishta 


eghtaugh 


Nose 


pasoo 


pahhah 


poaghay 


pau 


Mouth 


e-e-e 


eehah 


ea 


ehaugh 


Tongue 


chaidzhee 


dehzeehah 


tshayzhee 




Teeth 


hee 








Hand 


napai 


nahbeehah 


nahmpay 


numba 


Fingers 


Dapchoopai 


naap 


shake 


shagah 


Feet 


ceeha 


seehah 


seehah 


see (sing.) 


Blood 


uoai 


waheehah 


wey 




House 


teepee 


cheehah 


tea 


t,ia,h 


Axe 




mahs 


on spa (axe) 





Knife 


meena 


mahhee 


eesahng 


mauah 


Shoes 




waukootshey [sing. 


) hanipa (sing.) 


analahah 


Sky 




mahkheehah 


mahkpeea 


mahagh 


Sun 


ooaee 


'haunip {day), ) 
[ weeah (sun) J 


• weeahnipayatoc 


S haunip (day), weerah 
( meah (sun) 


Moon 


hayaitoowee 


(hahnip (night), 
\ weehah (sun) '. 


weehyayahatoo 


( hanip (night), weerah- 
I meumboh (san) 


Star 


weehchahpee 


( weehah (sun) i 
< kohshkeh (sus- ! 
( pended) ] 


1 

• weeweetheestin 

1 


\ weerah (sun), kohshkeh, 
) (susx>ended) 


Day 


aungpa 


hauinpeehah 


anipa 


hompahe 


Night 


hahaipee 




hiyetoo 


bene 


Fire 


paita 


pegdhah 


paytah 


pajah 


Water 


meenee 


nihah 


minee 


neah 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES 



461 



English. Yankton. 


Winehago. 


Dahcota. 


Osage. 


Rain 


mahajou 


neezhuh 


magazhoo 


neighshee 


Snow 


wah 


wuhhah 


tahtey 


paa 


Earth 


mongca 


mah'nan 


mahkah 


monekah 


River 


vacopa 


ohsunwah 


watapafl 


wauchiscah 


Stone 


eeyong 


eenee 


ceang 




Tree 


chaongeena 


nahnan 


tschang 




Meat 


tado 


chahhah 


tando 


tandocah 


Bog 


saonka 


chohnkeehah 


shoomendokah 


shongah 


Beaver chapa 


nahapah 


tschawjxah 


shabah 


Bear 


wahunkcaiceecha 


wauhungkseetshah wasauba 


Bird 


zeecanoo 


wahnigohhah 


zitka 




Fish 


hohnng 


hohhah 


hoa-ahug 


hough 


Great 






txingkah 


grondah 


Cold 


snee 


seeneehee 


snee 


nabatcha 


White 


scah 


skah 


skah 


skah 


Black 


sapah 


sebhah 


sahpah 


saabah 


Red 


shah 


shoosh 


shah 


shngah 


I 




neeah 


meeah 


veca 


Thou 




ney 


neeah 


deea 


He 




neeah 


eeah 


aar 


One 


wanche 


jnngklhkh 


wajitah 


minche 


Two 


nopa 


nompiwi 


nompah 


nombangh 


Three 


yameenee 


tanniwi 


yahmani 


laubenah 


Four 


topah 


tsh5plwi 


topah 


tobah 


Five 


zapta 


sahtshkh 


zahpate 


sattah 


Six 


shakpai 


ahkewe 


shakkopl 


shapah 


Seven 


shakoee 


shahko 


shahkopi 


panompah 


Eight 


shakundohuh 


a-oo-ongk 


shahundohah 


kelatobaugh 


Nine 


r nuhpeet chee- 
( wungkuh 


y jungkitshooshkooiii 


noptshi wonghah 


shankah 


Ten 


week cheeminuh 

• 


kahapahnl 

(3.) 


wiketshimani 


krabra. 




English. 


Omaha. 


HinetaTi 






Man 


noo 


mattra 






Womati 


waoo 


meeyai 






Father 


dadai 


tantai 






Mother 


eehong 


fieka 






Son 


ee jinggai 


mooarishai 




Daughter 


ee jonggai 


macath 






Head 


pah 


antoo 






Hair 


pahee 


arra 






Ear 


neetah 


lahockee 






Eye 


ishtah 


ishtah 






Nose 


pah 


apah 






Mouth 


cehah 


ee-ee-eepchappah 



462 



THE SIOUX LANGUAGES. 



English. 


Omaha. 


Minetari. 


Tongue 


theysee 


neigh jee 


Teeth 


e-e-e- {sing.) 


ee-ee 


Hand 


nomba 


sbantee 


Fingers 


shagai 


shanteeichpoo 


Feet 


see {sing,) 


itsee 


Blood 


wamee 


eehree 


House 


tee 


atee 


Axe 


mazzapai 


wee - eepsailangai 


Knife 


mahee 


matzee 


Shoes 




opah 


Sun 


meenacajai 


mahpemeenee 


Moon 


meeombah 


ohseamene 


Star 


meecaai 


eekah 


Day 


ombah 


mahpaih 


Night 


hondai 


ohseeus 


Fire 


paidai 


beerais 


Water 


nee 


meenee 


Rain 


naunshee 


harai 


Snow 


mah 


mahpai 


Earth 


moneeka 


amah 


River 


watishka 


angee 


Stone 


ee-eeh 


mee-ee 


Tree 


herabaimee 


beeraiechtoet 


Meat 


tanoka 


cuructschittee 


Dog 


sheenoota 


matshuga 


Bear 


jabai 


meerapa 


Beaver 


wassabai 


lahpeetzee 


Bird 


washingguh 


sa<!anga 


Fish 


hohoo 


boa 


Cold 


snee 


ceereeai 


White 


ska 


hoteechkee 


Black 


sahbai 


shupeesha 


Red 


jeedai 


ishshee 


I 




mee-ee 


He 




nee 


One 


meeachchee 


lemoisso 


Two 


nomba 


noopah 


Three 


rabeenee 


namee 


Fowr 


tooba 


topah 


Five 


satta 


cheehoh 


Six 


shappai 


acamai 


Seven 


painumba 


chappo 


Eight 


hrairabainai 


nopuppee 


Nine 


sbonka 


nowassappai 


Ten 


kraibaira 


peeragas. 



TUE IROQUOIS LANGUAGES. 



463 



The Iroquois falls into a northern and a southern 
division, separated from one another by a mass of appa- 
rently intrusive Algonkin. 



(1.) 



English. 


Mohawk. 


Caynga. 


Tascarora. 


Nottoway. 


Man 


oonqnich 


najina 


aineehau 


eniha 


Woman 


ooonhechlien 


konh^htie 


aitsranychkaneaweah ekening 


Head 


anoonjee 


onowaa 


ohtahreh 


setarake 


Hair 


oonooquiss 


ononkia 


oowaara 


howerac 


Ear 


wahanchta 


honta 


othnlmeh 


suntunke (pi.) 


Eye 


ookoria 


okaghha 


ookawreh 


ankohaiac (pi.) 


Nose 


geneuchsa 


onyohsia 


ohtchynhsay 


oteusag 


Moidh 


wachsacarlunt sishakaent 


oskawruhweigli 


eskaharant 


Tongue 


oonachsa 


aweanaghsa 


auwrmtawsay 


darsunke 


Tooth 


cuhnoojali 


onojia 


otoatseh 


olosag {pL) 


Hand 


oochsoochta 


eshoghtage 


ohekneh 


nunke 


Foot 


oochsheeta 


oshita (sing.) 


Qhseh (sing.) 


saseeke 


Sun 


kelanquaw 


kaaghkwa 


heetay 


abeeta 


Moon 


kilanquaw 


soheghkakaaghkwa heetay 


tethrake 


Star 


cajestuck 


ojishonda 


otcheesnoohquay 


deeshu 


Day 


wawde 


onisrate 


anwehneh 


antyeke (lime) 


Night 


aghsonthea 


asohe 


oosottoo 


asunta (time) 


Fire 


ocheerle 


ojista 


stire 


auteur 


Water 


oochnecanos 


onikanos 


auwuh 


awwa 


Stme 


oonoyah 


kaskwa 


owmniiay 


ohhoatakh 


Tree 


kerlitte 


krael 


oughruheli 


geree 


Fiih 


keiyunk 


otsionda 


kohtchyah 


kaiunta 


I 


ni 


I 


ie 


ee 


Thou 


esse 


ise 


tsthanwoh 




Ht 


longwha 


aoha 


hearooh 




One 


oohskot 


skat 


enhche (R. ) 


ante 


Two 


tekkinih 


tekni 


nakte(E.) 


dekanee 


Three 


ohson 


segh 


ahsnnk (R.) 


arsa 


Four 


kupyayrelih 


kei 


kuntoh (R.) 


hentag 


Five 


wissk 


wis 


weesk (R.) 


whisk 


Six 


yahyook 


yei 


oohyok (R.) 


oyag 


Seven 


chahtakh 


jatak 


cheohnoh (R.) 


ohatag 


Eight 


soytayhhko 


tekro 


nakreuh (R.) 


dekra 


Nine 


tihooton 


tyohto 


nereuh (R.) 


deheerunk 


Ten 


weeaykrleh 


waghsea 


wahth'sunk (R.) 


washa. 



464 



THE IROQUOIS LANGUAGES. 



(2.) 



English. 


Wyandot. 


English. 


Wyandot. 


Ood 


tamaindezue 


Fingers 


eyingia 


Wiched Spirit 


deghshurenoh 


Nails 


ohetta 


Man 


aingahon 


Body 




Woman 


utehkeh 


Belly 


undeerentoh 


Boy 


omaintsentehah 


Feet 


oclislieetau 


Girl 


yaweetseutho 


Bone 


onna 


Infant, child 


cheahhah 


Heart 


yootooshaw 


Father. 


hayesta 


Blood 


ingoh 


Mother 


aneheh 


Town, village 


onhaiy 


Wife 


azuttunohoh 


Warrior 


trezue (war) 


Son 


hoomekaxik (Jds) 


Friend 


nidanbe (brother) 


Daughter 


ondequieu 


House, hut 


nematzezue 


Brother 


haenyeha (my) 


Kettle 


yayanetch 


Sister 


aenyaha 


Axe, hatchet 


ottoyaye (axe) 


An Indian 


iomwhen (pi.) 


Knife 


weneashra 


Head 


skotau 


Canoe, boat 


gya 


Hair 


arochia 


Indian shoes 


araghshu 


Face 


aonchia 


Bread 


datarali 


Forehead 


ayeutsa 


Sky, heaven. 


caghroniate 


Ear 


hoontauh 


Sun 


yaandeshra 


Eye 


yochquiendoch 


Moon 


waughsuntayandeshra 


Nose 


yaungah 


Star 


teghshu (pi.) 


Mouth 


esskauhereeh 


Day 


ourheuha 


Tongue 


undauchsheeau 


Night 


asontey 


Tooth 


uskoonsheeau (jpl. 


Morning 


asonravoy 


Beard 


ochquieroot 


Evening 


teteinret 


NecJe 


ohoura 


Spring 


honeraquey. 


Hand 


yorreessaw 







(3) 



English. 


Onondago. 


Seneca. 


Oueida. 


Man 


etshinak 


unguoh 


loonkquee 


Woman 


echro 


yehong 


acunhaiti 


Head 


anuwara 


oonooen 


onoonjee 


Hair 


onuchquire 


onunkaah 


onanquis 


Ear 


ohucta 


waunchta (pi.) 


ohuntah 


Eye 


ogaclira 


kaka 


ohkunlau 
( onoo-oohsahonoo-ooh 
I sah 


Nose 


oniochsa 


cagonda 


Mouth 


ixhagachrahuta 


wachsagaint 


yesaook 


Tongue 


enachse 


wanuchsha 


ow-inaughsoo 


Tooth 


onotschia 


kaunujow 


onouweelah 


Hand 


luiages 


liashrookta 


snusagh 


Feet 


ochsita 


oochsheeta (sing.) 




Sky 


tioarate 


kiunyage 


ochsheecht 



THE IROQUOIS LANGUAGES. 



465 



English. 


Onondago. 


Seneca. 




Oneida. 


Sun 


garachqua 


kachqua 




escalter 


Moon 


garachqua 


kachgua 




konwausontegeak (?) 


Star 


otschischtenocqua 


cajeshanda 


yoojistoqna 


Day 


wochuta 


unde 




weeneeslaat 


Night 


achsonta 


nehsoha 




kawwossonneak 


Fire 


otschischta 


ojishta 




ojisthteh 


Water 


ochnecanos 


onekandas 


oghnacaano 


Stone 


onaja 


cosgna 






Tree 


garonta 


kaeet 






I 


I 


ee 






Thou 


his 


ees 






He 


rauh 


ahwha 






One 


skata 


skaat 




knskat 


Two 


tekinu 


ticknee 




teghia 


Three 


achso 


shegh 




hasin 


Four 


gajeri 


kaee 




cayeli 


Five 


■wisk 


wish 




haisse 


Six 


achiak 


yaee 




yahiac 


Seven 


tsoatak 


jawdock 




tziadac 


Eight 


tekiro 


tikkeugh 




tagheto 


Nine 


watiro 


teutough 




wadehlo 


Ten 


wasshe 


wushagh 




woyehlL 


The Woccon and Cataivba are two languages of the 


same group, spoken in 


North 


Carolina ; and they are 


the only two languages 


of that State, 


for which we have 


specimens 


— both short. 








English. 


Catawba.* 






English. 


Catawba. 


Man 


yabrecha 






Feet 


hepapeeah 


Woman 


eeyauh 






Blood 


eeh 


Father 


yalunosa 






Sotue 


sook 


Mother 


yasca 






Axe 


pot-tateerawah 


Son 


koorewa 






Knife 


seepah 


Daughter enewah 






Shoe 


weedah 


Head 


iska 






Shy 


wahpeeh 


Hair 


gitlung 






Sun 


nooteeh 


Eye 


doxu 






Moon 


weechawanooteeh 


Ear 


peetooh 






Star 


wahpeeknee 


Nose 


eepeesooh 






Day 


yahbra 


Mouth 


esomo 






Night 


weechawa 


Tongue 


peesoomoseh 






Fire 


epee 


Tooth 


heeaup 






Water 


eyau 


Hand 


ecksapeeah 






Rain 


cooksoreh 


Finger 


eekseeah 






Snow 


wauh 



* Slightly more akin to the Cherokee, and the Uchee, on the one side and 
the Sionx dialects on the other, than aught else. 



H H 



466 



5 


THE CATAWBA. 




English. 


Catawba. 


English. 


Catawha. 


Earth 


munn 


/ 


derail 


River 


esauh 


Thou 


yayah 


Stone 


eedee 


He 


ouwah 


Tree 


yup 


One 


dupunna 


Meal 


weedeeyoyundee 


Two 


naperra 


Dog 


tauntsee 


Three 


namunda 


Beaver 


chaupee 


Four 


purrepurra 


Bear 


nomeh 


Five 


puhte-arra 


Bird 


koching 


Six 


dip-karra 


Fish 


yee 


Seven 


wassinen 


Great 


paukteherd 


Fight 


tubbosa 


Cold 


chehuhchard 


Nine 


wunchah 


White 


saukchuh 


Ten 


pechuna. 


Blade 


haukchuh 







The old languages of the Carolinas, Georgia, and 
Florida were — 

1. The Wataree.* 

2. The Eeno — Compare this name with the 
Texiau Ini ; 

3. The Chowah, or Chowan ; 
The Congaree ; * 
The Nachee — Compare with Natchez ; word 



4. 
5. 

for word 
6. 

7. 



The Yamassee ; 

The Coosah — Compare (word for word) with 
Coosada, and Coshatta. 

In the south lay the Timuacana — of which a few 
words beyond the numerals are known. 

In West Florida and Alabama, the evidence (I still 
follow the Mithridates) of Du Pratz scarcely coincides 
with that of the account of Nunez de Vaca. This 
runs thus. 

In the island of Malhado were spoken languages of 

1 . The Caoques ; 

2. The Han. 

On the coast — 

3. The Choruico — Cherokee ? 



The name Riccarec, probably, belongs to these parts. 



THE CHEROKEE. 467 

4. The Doguenes. 

5. The Mendica. 

6. The Quevenes. 

7. The Mariames. 

8. The Gualciones. 

9. The Ygiiaces. 

1 0. The Atayos — ^Adahi ? This seems to have been 
a native name — " die sich Atayos Tiennen" 

1 1 . The Acubadaos. 
] 2. The Quitoles. 

13. The Avavares — Avoyelles? 

] 4. The Muliacone. 

1 5. The Cutalchiche. 

1 6. The Susola. 

1 7. The Como. 

18. The Camole. 

Of migrants from the east to the west side of the 
Mississippi, the Mithridates gives — 

1. The Pacana, conterminous with the Attacapas. 

2. The Pascagula ? Muscogulge. 

3. The Biluxi ? Apalach. 

4. The Appalach ? Apelousa. 

The Taensa are stated to be a branch of the Natchez. 

The Caouitas are, perhaps, word for word, the Con- 
chattas ; also the Coosa, Coosada, Coshatta. 

The Stincards are, word for word, the Tancards = 
Tuncas = Tunicas. 

The CJierokee is spoken, at the present moment, by 
more individuals than any other Indian tongue. Many 
of the Cherokees have taken up a portion of the Ameri- 
can civilization ; cultivate land, hold slaves, and increase 
in numbers. The language is also spoken by many 
who are other than Cherokee in blood. It is written, 
and that in a syllabic alphabet, excogitated by a native 
Cherokee, in Africa, named Sequoyah, or Guess. Like the 

H H 2 



468 



THE CHEROKEE. 



Vei, however, it is no evidence to the truly indigenous 
independent growth of an alphabet. Guess knew the 
English alphabet, i. e. he knew that languages could be 
reduced to writing, and the principles on which an alpha- 
bet could be formed. In this lies the real invention of 
an alphabet ; an invention which the present writer 
maintains has only been made once. 



English. 


Cherokee, 


Chocktaw.* 


Muskogulge (or Creek). 


Man 


askaya 


hottok nokni 


istahouanuah 


Woman 


ageyung 


kottok ohyo 


hoktie 


Mead 


askaw 


nushkobo 


ikah 


Sair 


gitlung 


panshe (his) 


isti 


Ea/r 


gule 


hoksibbsh 


huchko 


Eye 


tikata 


mishkin 


tolltlowah 


Nose 


koyoungsahli (my) 


iMchulo 


yopo 


Mouth 


tsiawli 


ishtS 


chaknoh 


Tongue 


gahnohgah 


issunldsh 


tolasoah 


Tooth 


tetsinatutawgung (my) 


notS 


notte (pi.) 


Sand 


agwoeni (my) 


ibbiik (his) 


inkke 


Feet 


tsulahsedane (his) 


iy6 (his) 


eili (sing.) 


Sun 


nungdohegah 


hashe 


hahsie 


Moon 


nungdohsuflgnoyee 


hushmunokaya 


halhisie 


Star 


nawquisi 


fichik 


k6otso Isonibah 


Day 


ikah 


nittok 


nittah 


Night 


sungnoyee 


ninnok 


neillhi 


Fire 


atsilung 


linok 


totkah 


Waier 


ahmah 


oka 


wyvah 


Stone 


nungyah 


.tiillS (metal stone) 


1 chatto 


Tree 


uhduh 


itte 


Utah 


Fish 


atsatih 


ntinfi 


tlakklo 


I 


ayung 


unno 


unneh 


Thou 


ne 


chishno 


cbameh 


He 


naski 




muh 


One 


saquoh 


achofee 


hommaye 


Two 


talee 


tuklo 


hokko 


Three 


tsawi 


tuchina 


toteheh 


Fowr 


nunggih 


uslita 


osteh 


Five 


hiskee 


tablape 


chahgkie 


Six 


soodallih 


hanali 


ebbah 


Seven 


gulgwaugih 


untuklo 


koolobah 


Eight 


tsunelah 


untuchina 


chinnabah 


Nine 


sohonhailah 


chokali 


ostabah 


Ten 


uhskohhih 


pokoli 


pahlen. 



* The Chikkasah belongs to this division. 



THE UCHEE, ETC. 



469 



English. 


Uchee.* 


Natchex.t 


Adaihe. 


Chetemacha.t 


Man 


cohwita 


tomknhpena 


haasing 


pautchehase 


Wiyman 


wauhnehung 


tahmahl 


quaechxike 


kithia 


Father 


chitung 


abishnislia 


kewanick 


hineghie 


Mother 


kitchunghaing 


kwalneshoo 


amanie 


bailie 


Son 


tesunung (my) 


akwalnesuta 


tallehennie 


hicheyahanhase 


Baughtertejunxmg (my) 


mahnoonoo 


quolasinic 


hicheyabankithia 


Head 


ptzeotan 


tomne apoo 


tochake 


kutte 


Hair 


ptsasong 


etene 


calatuck 


kutteko 


Ear 


cohchipah 


ipok 


calat 


urahache 


Eye 


cohchee 


oktool 


anaica 


kane 


Nose 


cohtemee 


shamats 


wecoocat 


chiche 


Mouth 


teaishhee 


heche 


wacatcholak 


cha 


Tongue 


cootincah 


itsuk 


tenanat 


huene 


Tooth 


tekeing 


int 


awat {pi.) 


hi 


Hand 


keanthah 


ispeshe 


secut 


Tinachiekaithie 


Fingers 


coonpah 




okinsin (sing.) unache kitset 


Beet 


tetethah 


hatpeshe {sing.) 


nocat {sing.) 


sauknnthe {sing.) 


Blood 


wace 


itsh 


pchack 


unipe 


Home 





habit 


coochut 


hanan 


Axe 




ohyaminoo 






Knife 


eoutchee 


pyhewTsh 






Shoes 


tethah 


popatse 






Sky 


houpoung 


nasookta 


ganick 


kabieketa 


Sun 


ptso 


wah (Jire) 


naleen 


thiaha 


Moon 


shafah 


kwasip 


nachaoat 


pantne 


Star 


ynng 


tookul 


otat 


pacheta 


Day 


Qckkah 


wit 


nestach 


wacbeta 


Night 


pahto 


toowa 


arestenet 


timan 


Kre 


yachtah 


wah 


nang 


teppe 


Water 


tsach 


koon 


holcut 


ko 


Rain 


chaah 


nasnayobik 


ganic 


kaya 


Snow 


stahae 


kowa 


towat 


nactepeche 


Earth 


ptsah 


wihih 


caput 


nelle 


River 


tauh 


wol 


gawichat 


koneatiaeshe 


Stone 




ohk 


ekseka 


nonche 


Tree 


yah 


tshoo 


tanaek 


conche 


Meat 


colahntha 


wintse 


hosing 


kipi 


Dog 


ptsenah 


waskkop 






Beaver 


sanikkeing 




culawa 




Bear 


ptsaka 


tso kohp 


solang 


hacnneche 


Bird 


psenna 


shankolt 


washang 


thia 


Fish 


potshoo 


henn 


aesat 


makche 


Great 




lehkip 


tocat 


hatekippe 


Cold 




tzitakopana 


hostalga 


kasteke 



• Slightly more akin to the Catawba and Cherokee than aught else, 
t Slightly more akin to each other and Muskogulge than aught else. 



470 



THE UCHEE, ETC. 



English, 


Uchee. 


Natcliez. 


Adailie. 


Clietemacha. 


White 


quecah 


hahap 


testaga 


mechetineche 


Blach 


ishpe 


tsokokop 


hatoua 


nappechequineche 


Red 


tshulhuh 


pahkop 


pechasat 


pinnoneche 


I 


'te 


takehah 


hicatuck 


ntecheca 


Thou 




uhkehah 




Titietmlii 


He 


coheetha 


akoonikia {this 


here) nassicon 


hatche 


One 


sah 


witahu 


nancas 


hongo 


Two 


nowah 


ahwetie 


nass 


hupau 


Three 


nokah 


nayetie 


colle 


kahitie 


Four 


taltlah 


ganooetie 


tacache 


mechechant 


Five 


chwanhah 


shpedee 


seppacan 


hussa 


Six 


chtoo 


lahono 


pacanancus 


hatcka 


Seven 


latchoo 


ukwoh 


pacaness 


micheta 


EifjU 


peefah 


upkutepish 


pacalcon 


kueta 


Nine 


'tah'thkah 


wedipkatepish 


sickinish 


knicheta 


Ten 


'tthklahpee 


okwah 


neusne 


heihitie. 



Allied one to another, the Pawni and Riccari are 
Caddo languages. 



English. 


Pawni. 


Eiccari. 


Wonum 


tsapat 


sapat 


Boy 


peeshkee 


weenatch 


Oirl 


tchoraksh 


soonahtch 


Child 


peeron 


pera 


Head 


pakshu 


pahgli 


Ears 


atkaroo 


tickokite 


Eyes 


keereekoo 


cheereecoo 


Hair 


oshu 


pahi 


Hand 


iksheeree 


tehonare 


Fingers 


haspeet 


parick 


Foot 


ashoo 


ahgh 


God 


thouwahat 


tewaroohteh 


Devil 


tsaheekshkakooraiwah 


kakewaroohteh 


Sun 


shakoroo 


shakoona 


Fire 


tateetoo 


tekieeht 


Moon 


pa 


wetah 


Sta/rs 


opeereet 


saca 


Rain 


tatsooroo 


tassou 


Snow 


toosba 


tahhau 


Day 


shakoorooeesliairet 


shacona 


Night 


eeraishnaitee 


eenahgt 


Light 


shusheegat 


shakoonah 


Da/rTe 


eeraisliuaite 


tekatistat 


Hot 


toueetstoo 


towarist 


Cold 


taipeechee 


teepse 


Yes 


nawa 


neecoola 


No 


kakee 


kaka 



THE PAWNI AND RICCARI. 



471 



^uglish. 


PawnL 


Riceail 


Bear 


koorooksh 


keahya 


Dog 


ashakish 


hohtch 


Bow 


teeragish 


nache 


Arrow 


leekshoo 


neeclie 


Hut 


akkaroo 


arare 


Canoe 


lakohoroo 


lahkeehoon 


River 


kattoosh 


sahonnee 


I 


ta 


nanto 


One 


askoo 


aaco 


Two 


peetkoo 


pitco 


Three 


tonweet 


tow wit 


Four 


shkeetish 


tcheetish 


Five 


sheeooksh 


tcheetishoo 


Six 


sheekshabish 


tcbeetishpis 


Seven 


peetkoosheeshabish 


totchapis 


Eight 


touweetshabish 


tochapiswon 


Nine 


looksbeereewa 


totchapisnahhenewon 


Ten 


looksheeree 


nahen 


Twenty 


petouoo 


wetah 


Thirty 


luksheereevretouoo 


sahwee 


Hundred 


sheekookshtaroo 


shontan. 



In a country like Texas, where the spread of the popu- 
lation from the other portions of the Union has been so 
rapid, and where the occupancy is so complete, we are 
prepared to expect but a small proportion of aborigines. 
And such, upon the whole, is the case. The displacement 
of the Indian tribes has been great. Even, however, when 
Mexican, Texas was not in the category of the older and 
more original portions of Mexico. It was not brought 
under the regime of the missionaries. 

The notices of Texas in the M IthH dates, taken along 
with om- subsequent data, are to the effect that («) the 
Caddo, (b) the Adaize or Adahi, (c) the Attalapa, and 
{d) the ChoMah are the prevailing languages of Texas ; 
to which may be added a few others of minor import- 
ance. 

The details as to the distribution of the subordinate 
forms of speech over these four leading languages are 
as follows : — 

a. The Nandakoes, Nabadaches, Alich (or Eyish), and 
Ini or Tachi are expressly stated to be Caddo ; and, as 



472 LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 

it is from the name of the last of these that the word 
Texas is derived, we have satisfactory evidence that sojne 
members, at least, of the Caddo family are truly and 
originally Texian. 

h. The Yatassi, Natchitoches, Adai^;^ (or AAoki), 
Nacogdoches, and Keyes, belong to the Caddo confede- 
racy, but without speaking the Caddo language. 

c. The Carancouas, the Attacapas, the Apelusas, the 
Mayes, speak dialects of the same language. 

d. The Tunicas speak the same language as the Chok- 
tahs. 

Concerning the philology of the Washas, the Bedies, 
the Acossesaws, and the Cances, no statements are made. 

It is obvious that the information supplied by the 
Mithridates is measured by the extent of our knowledge 
of the four languages to which it refers. 

Of these, the Choktah, which Adelung calls the Mo- 
bilian, is the only one for which the Mithridates itself 
supphes, or could supply, specimens ; the other three 
being unrepresented by any sample whatever. Hence, 
to say that the Tachi was Caddo, that the Yatassi was 
Adahi, or that the Carancoua was Attacapa, was to give 
an instance, in the way of explanation, of the obscurum 
per ohscurius. Since the publication of the Mithri- 
dates, however, we have got, as has been seen, samples 
of three more — so that our standards of comparison 
are improved. They are to be found in a tabulated 
form, and in a form convenient for collation and com- 
parison, in both of Gallatin's papers. They were all 
collected before the annexation of Texas, and they 
appear in the papers just referred to as Louisiana, rather 
than truly Texian, languages ; being common to the two 
areas. 

The later the notice of Texas the greater the promi- 
nence given to a tribe of which nothing is said in the 
Mithridates, viz. the Cumanch. As late as 1844 we 
had nothing beyond the numerals and a most scanty 



LANGUAGES OP TEXAS. 473 

MS. list of words to tell us what the Cumanch language 
really was. These, however, were sufficient to show 
that its affinities ran northwards, and were with the 
Shoshoni. 

The tendency of the Mithridates is to give prominence 
to the Caddo, Attacapa, and Adahi tongues, and to in- 
cline the investigator, when dealing with the other forms 
of speech, to ask how fej they are connected with one 
of these three. The tendency of the later writers 
is to give prominence to the Cumanch, and to suggest 
the question : How far is this (or that) form of speech 
Cumanch or other than Cumanch ? 

Working with the Mithridates, a MS. of Mr. Bol- 
laert, and Mr. Kennedy's volume on Texas before me, I 
find that the list of Texian Indians, which these authori- 
ties jastified me in publishing in 1848, contained (I) Cos- 
hattas ; (2) Towiachs, Towakenos, Towecas, and Wacos ; 
(3) Lipans or Sipans ; (4?) Aliche or Eyish ; (5) Acosse- 
saws ; (6) Navaosos ; (7) Mayes ; (8) Cances ; (9) Tonca- 
huas ; (10) Tuhuktukis ; (11) Unataquas or Anadarcos; 
(12) Mascovie ; (13) lawanis or lonis ; (14) Wico ? 
Waco; (] 5) Avoyelles ; (1 6) Washitas ; (17) Ketchi; 
(18) Xaramenes; (19) Caicaches ; (20) Bidias ; (21) 
Caddo ; (22) Attacapa ; (23) Adahi — besides the Caran- 
kahuas (of which the Cokes are made a branch) classed 
with the Attacapa, and not including certain Cherokees, 
Choktahs, Chikkasahs, and Sioux. 

A Washita vocabulary, which will be referred to in 
the sequel, concludes the list of Texian languages known 
by specimens. 

At present, then, the chief question respecting the 
philology of Texas is one of distribution. Given as 
centres to certain groups — 

1 . The Choktah, 

2. The Caddo, 

3. Tlie Adahi, 

4. The Attakapa, 



474 



LANGUAaES OF TEXAS. 



5. The Cumanch, and 

6. The Witshita languages, 

how do we arrange the tribes just enumerated ? Two 
works help us here : — 1. A letter from the Ex-president 
Burnett to Schoolcraft on the Indians of Texas. Date, 
1847. 2. A Statistical Notice of the same by Jesse 
Stem. Date, 1851. 

Stem's statistics run thus : — 



Tnbes. 








Numbers. 


Towacarros lil ) 


Wacos . 








114 [293 


KetcMes 








38) 


Caddos 








1611 


Andarcos 








202 [ 476 


loai . 








lis) 


Tonkaways 








1152 


Wichitas 








100 


Lipans 








500 


Comanches , 








20,000 



giving us several of the names that have already ap- 
peared ; giving also great prominence to the Cumanches 
— numerically at least. 

In Mr. Burnett's Letter the term Caddo is prominent; 
but whether it denote the Caddo language, or merely 
the Caddo confederation, is uncertain. Neither can I 
find from the context whether the statements respecting 
the Indians of the Caddo connection, for this is what we 
must call it at present, are made on the personal autho- 
rity of the writer, or whether they are taken, either 
directly or indirectly, from the MithHdates. The term 
that Burnett used is stock, his statement being that the 
Waco, the Tawacani, the Towiash, the Aynic, the San 
Pedro Indians, the Nabaduches, and the Nacodocheets are 
aU both Texian in origin and Caddo in stock. 

His other tribes are — 

1 . The Ketchi : a small tribe on Trinity River, hated by 
the Cumanches as sorcerers, and, perhaps, the same as — 

2. The Hitclii, once a distinct tribe, now assimilated 
with their neighbours. 



LANGUAGES OP TEXAS. 



475 



3. The Tonkaways, a separate tribe, of which, how- 
ever, the distinctive characters are not stated. 

Whatever may be the exact details of the languages, 
dialects, and subdialects of Texas, the general outline is 
simple. 

The Choktah forms of speech are anything but native. 
They are of foreign origin and recent introduction. So 
are certain Sioux and other dialects spoken within the 
Texian area. 

The GuTnanch is in the same predicament ; though 
not, perhaps, so decidedly. It belongs to the Paduca 
class, and its affinities are with the Shoshoni and Wi- 
hinast of Oregon. 

The Caddo Proper is said to be intrusive, having 
been introduced so late as 1819 from the parts between 
the Great Eafb and the Natchitoches or Red River. I 
hold, however, that some Caddo forms of speech must 
be indigenous. 

The Witshita is probably one of these ; — 



English. 


Caddo. 


Witshita. 


Head 


cundo 


etskase 


Hair 


beunno 


deodske 


Eye 


nockkochim 


kidahknck 


Nose 


80l 


dutstistoe 


Mouth 


nowoese 


hawkoo 


Tongue 


ockkotnnna 


hutskee 


Tooth 


ockkodeta 


awk 


One 


whiste 


cherche 


Two 


bit 


mitch 


Three 


dowoh 


daab 


Four 


peaweh 


dawquata 


Five 


dissickka 


esqnats 


Six 


dunkkee 


kehass 


Seven 


bissickka 


keopits 


Eight 


dowsickka 


keotope 


Nine 


pewesickka 


shercheke ite 


Ten 


binnah 


skedorash. 


obably, also. 


the following — 




English. 


Kichai. 


Hneca 


Man 


caiuquanoquts 


todekitz 


Woman 


chequoike 


cahheie 



476 



LANGUAGES OP TEXAS. 



English. 


Kichai. 


Hueco. 


Head 


quitatso 


atskiestacat 


Hair 


itscoso 


ishkesteatz 


Pace 


itscot 


ichcoh 


Ear 


atikoroso 


ortz 


Eye 


quideeco 


kidik 


Nose 


chuscarao 


tisk 


Mouth 


hokinnik 


ahcok 


Tongue 


hahtok 


hotz 


Tooth 


athnesho 


ahtk 


Hand 


ichshene 


ishk'ti 


Foot 


usinic 


OS 


Fire 


yecenieto 


hatz 


Water 


kiokoh 


kitsah 


One 


arishco 


cheos 


Two 


chosho 


witz 


Three 


tahwithco 


tow 


Fov/r 


kithnucote 


taliqultz 


Five 


xs'toweo 


ishquitz 


Six 


napitow 


kiash 


Seven 


tsowetate 


kiownitz 


Eight 


naikinukate 


kiatou 


Nine 


taniorokat 


choskitte 


Ten 


x'skani 


skittewas. 



I conclude with a language which is decidedly Texian 
-the Attakapa. 



English. 


Attakapa. 


English. 


Attakapa. 


Man 


iol 


Sun 


nagg 


Woman 


nickib 


Moon 


tegidlesh 


Father 


shau 


Star 


ish 


Mother 


tegn 


Bay 


iggl 


Son 


shka 


Night 


tegg 


Daughter 


tegu 


Fire 


cam 


Head 


ashhat 


Water 


ak 


Hair 


taesh 


Fain 


caucau 


Ewr 


ann 


Snow 


aalesat 


Eye 


uiU 


Earth 


ne 


Nose 


idst 


River 


aconstuchi 


Mouth 


katt 


Stone 


wai 


Tongue 


nedle 


Tree 


kagg 


Tooth 


ods 


Meat 


oged 


Hand 


uish 


Fear 


stigne 


Finger 


nishagg 


Bird 


tsorlagst 


Feet 


tippel 


Fish 


iagghan 


Blood 


iggt 


Great 


uishik 


House 


ank 


Cold 


tsamps 


Sky 


tagg 


White 


cobb 



LANGUAGES OF TEXAS. 



477 



^En^ish. 


Attakapa. 


English. 


AttakapL 


Blaeh 


iana 


Four 


taets 


Red 


oig 


Fine 


nilt 


I 


ne 


Six 


latst 


Thou 


natt 


Seven 


paghu 


One 


hanneck 


Eight 


tsikniaa 


Two 


happalst 


Nine 


tc^huiae 


Three 


batt 


Ten 


heissigu. 



The Attahapa is one of the pauro-sjllabic languages 
of America, by which I mean languages that, if not 
monosyllabic after the fashion of the languages of south- 
eastern Asia, have the appearance of being so. They 
form a remarkable class, but it is doubtful whether they 
form a natural one, i. e. whether they are more closely 
connected with each other in the other elements of philo- 
logical affinity than they are with the tongues not so 
characterized. 

The Adahi or Adaize (? Yatassi) and the Attakapa 
are the two most isolated languages of North America, 
each having, however, miscellaneous affinities. 

As the languages to the west of the Attakapa have 
already been noticed, so those of South America now 
come under consideration. 



478 LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Languages of South America. — New Grenada.— The Quichua. — The Aymara. 
— The Chileno. — The Fuegian. 

It may safely be said that there is no part of the 
world, of which the Comparative Philology is more un- 
certain and obscure than South America. That there 
are vast tracts elsewhere, for which our data are scan- 
tier, is not denied. Scanty, however, as they may be, 
they are, generally, better arranged ; for in South America, 
though our materials are by no means deficient, our 
classification is at its minimwm. The notices of the 
Mithridates were chiefly taken, either at first hand or 
through Hervas, from the Jesuit missionaries, whose 
communications were all of the same character. They 
gave us almost always a Paternoster, occasionally a hymn, 
sometimes the numerals, more rarely a full and copious 
general vocabulary. They also, for the most part, gave 
us a very compendious grammar or A He ; a grammar 
or AHe, in which the principles of the ordinary Latin 
Grammar of Europe were applied to forms of speech to 
which they are wholly unsuited. Besides their inherent 
imperfections, these Artes have the additional demerit of 
being amongst the scarcest of philological works. They 
are, for American books, old ; the majority being of the 



LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 479 

seventeenth century. They are printed in Lima and other 
Transatlantic towns, rather than in Madrid or Lisbon, 
Finally, th^ ai'e often in MS. That many of these 
were known to Adelung, is shown in ahnost every page 
of his great work. Perhaps he knew of most of them. 
Nevertheless, as a mere matter of bibliography some 
have been noticed, and that for the first time, since his 
death. So far, then, as this is the case, they give us new 
materials. That the main mass, however, of our fresh 
data consists of fresh observations is no more than what 
we expect ; no more than the actual fact. Still, com- 
pared with what has been done elsewhere, they are few 
Whoever goes over the elaborate bibhographical work of 
Ludwig may see this. He may see that the number of 
languacres for which there are few or no authorities later 
than Hervas is inordinately large ; so large, as to con- 
vince us that, whether by investigatoi's on the spot or by 
enterprizing traveUere, the philology of South America 
has been (as compared with that of other countries) greatly 
neglected. He will see that, for aU has been done in 
recent times, the names of Spix and Martius, Prince 
Maximihan of Neuwied, Castelnau, D'Orbigny, Sir 
Robert Schomburgh, and Wallace (each in his own 
special area), give a monopoly of authority. Where 
these wi-iters have either observed or collected, we have 
a fairly-illustrated district. Elsewhere there is sad 
barrenness. 

The parts, then, where the most has been done, are 
Brazil (a vast area), the Missions of Moxos and Chiquitos, 
along with parts of Peru, British Guiana, and the parts to 
the west of the Rio Negro ; more especially the valley of the 
Uaj)^. In New Grenada also, of the languages whereof 
the information of the Mithndates is of the scantiest, we 
have a fail- mass of new details collected by the occupants 
of the republic itself. They are, however, from the fact 
of their being chiefly published in Bogota, pre-eminently 



480 LANGUAGES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

inaccessible. To the present writer at the present time, 
the very existence of them is known almost wholly 
through Ludwig's notices. 

The parts for which our knowledge is most pre- 
eminently stationary are, Venezuela, Peru, Chili, the 
Argentine Republics, Paraguay, and Patagonia. 

Again ; as the organization of the Missions is less 
complete amongst the Portuguese than it is (or was) 
amongst the Spanish populations of the New World, the 
difference between the amount of research bestowed upon 
the aborigines of New Grenada, Peru, &c. and those of 
Brazil, is considerable. 

The details, then, of Portuguese America are more 
unsatisfactory than those of Spanish. In those parts of 
the continent which belong to England or Spain, or 
which have been Dutch, the philology has been left to 
accident — so that in respect to them we are in no 
better position than we are with the languages of the 
Hudson's Bay Territory and the English portion of 
Oregon — a worse position than we are in with respect 
to those of the United States ; where a partial investi- 
gation has been undertaken by the Government. This 
means that a list of words has been prepared which is 
filled up as new languages present themselves ; a plan 
which, whilst it stimulates and directs inquiry, makes 
classification a simple matter of inspection. 

The natural road from North to South America is by 
the way of the Isthmus. At the same time the fact of 
the West-India Islands forming a second chain of com- 
munication must not be overlooked. 

In the present chapter, the plan adopted in North 
America will be followed, i. e. the languages to the 
west of the Andes will be treated hrst The great 
block of land drained by the Orinoco, the Amazons, 
and the Rio de la Plata will follow ; and Brazil will 
come last. 



THE CORREGUAGE AND ANDAQUL 



481 



There are affinities in both directions. The first line, 
however, is the one which is most conveniently taken. 

For New Grenada, but few vocabularies are known 
to me — the Artes^ &c., referred to by Ludwig, being 
difficult of access. 

Beginning with the parts to the south of the Choi 
and Muysca (now called Chihcha) areas for which a 
few words only are known to me, we come to the — 



English. 


Correguagc. 


Andaqoi. 


Man 


emnid 




Woman 


dome 




Head 


aijope 


qninaji 


Hair 


dana 




Eye 


nancoco 


fdli 


Ear 


cajoroso 


snngnajo 


Nose 


jiniquapai 


qaifi 


Teeth 


cojini 


acoga 


Foot 


coapi 


aogm^iaaa 


Heart 


decocho 




Tontfue 




sonae 


Hand 




sacaa 


Shy 


qaeneme 




Sun 


ense 


eaqni-kebin 


Moon 


paimia 


mitae-kede 


Star 


manoco 


fisona-iTine 


Rieer 


siacha 


jiji 


Water 


OGO 




Earth 


cho* 


mijinae 


Stone 


cata 




Ego 


cuejepi 


gnaso. 



The title of the earliest grammar of the Peruvian is 
Gramatka d arte general de la lengua de los Tndios 
del Peru ; nuevamente corapuesto por el Maestor Fray 
Domengo de San Thomas de la order de Santa Domengo 
en dichos reynos. The precise date of this is A.D. 1560, 
In the Dictionary, however, bearing the same date, the 
language is called the Lengua Genercd de la PeifUy 
Llamada Quichua. The particular tribe with which 
this term originated was that of the Quichua on the 
Aymara frontier and conterminous with the Collas. 

I I 



482 THE QUICHUA AND AYMARA. 

Of the dialects, the most northern is the Quiteno 
of Quito. Then follow, the Chinchasuya, between 11° 
and 1 3° S. L. ; the Cauki of certain districts to the 
south of Lima ; the Lamano of the parts about Truxillo ; 
the Cuzcucano of Cuzco ; and, finally, the Calchaqui of 
Tucuman . 

The A ymara area has its historical centre in the parts 
about the Lake Titicaca, where the famous Peruvian 
legislator, Mango Capac, first made his appearance. 
The monuments of Tiaguanaco and Carangas belong 
to it. So do those numerous tombs containing the 
artificially flattened skulls upon which so much has 
been written by ethnologists. According to Garcillasso 
de la Vega it was the third Inca, Llogue Yupanqui, 
who brought the Aymaras under the Quichua dominion. 
They lie between 15° and 20° S. L., occupants of the 
highest range of the Andes, on both sides. Some of 
them belong to the drainage of the La Plata, being 
found on the upper part of the Pilcomayo. This 
brings them in contact with Chaco tribes ; whilst 
in the direction of Bolivia they touch the Cliiquitos. 
As a general rule, however, they are surrounded by the 
Quichua dialects, by which they have, to all ap- 
pearance, being encroached on ; indeed, the capital 
Cuzco, Quichuan as it is in many respects, is a town 
upon Aymara ground. So is Potosi ; so also a great 
portion of the Provinces of Tinto, Arequipa, La Paz, 
and Chuquisaca, with considerable parts of Tarapaea 
and Atacama. 

The Mithridates names the Lupaca as the commonest, 
and the Pacase as the most refined of the Aymara 
dialects ; amongst which are enumerated the Canchi, the 
Cana, ihe Colla, the Collagua, the Caranca, and the 
Charca ; this last being conterminous with the Guarani 
Chiriguanos. 



THE QUICHUA AND AYMARA. 



483 



English. ■ 


Qaichna. 


Aymara. 


Araacaiian. 


Man (homo) 


nma 


hake 


che 


{vir) 


ccari 




haento 


Woman 


huarmi 






Head 


uma 


pegke 


lonco 


Eye 


fiain 


naira 


nge 


Ear 


rinri 






Xose 


cenca 


nasa 


yu 


Tojiffue 


kaUu 


lagra 


gehuon 


Hair 


chuccha 


naccuta 


lonco 


Hand 


maqiii 


ampara 


CQUgh 


FoU 


chaqai 


cayu 


nainon 


Sly 


hananpacha 





hnenu 


Earth 


allpa 


urakke 


tae 


Sun 


inti 


inti 


antoigk 


Moon 


qnilla 


pagsi 


cuyem 


Fire 


nina 


nina 


k'tal 


Water 


nnn 


huma 


ko 


One 


yaca 
hue 


mai 


quigne 


Two 


ycay 


paya 


epu 


Three 


qoLnza 


kimsa 


cula. 



Mainas. — The Paternoster. 
Papampoa ya-nranso inapake; apurt nen kema muchaiinso-ni ; kema 
inapa keyavei ; kema lovanturanso lelinso-ni mompaye inapake; napupon- 
tinati isse-ke-nta ; cas-saru-mpoa taveri rosa nanni ketuke ipure ; huchampo- 
anta anis uke mompupe campoanta aloyotupe saya-pita amsere campo-anta ; 
CO apokesne tentacioneke co anotakeve ; ina-kera ateeke campa kera co loyave 
pita. 

The exact place of the Puquina of Hervas and the 

Mithridates, as well as that of the Yunga (or) Mochika, 
is uncertain ; all we have of them being a Paternoster 
in each, which runs thus : — ■ 

Puquina. 

Seniki, hanigo pacas conana ascheno pomana ujialii sohanta po capaca 
aschano senguta huachunta po hatano callacaso hanta kigori hanigopa casna 
ehe cahu cohuacasna hamp. Kaa gamenke ehe hesuma : Senguta camen sen 
tanta sen hochahe pampache sumao 'kiguiri sen, senguta huchachas keno 
gata hampachanganch cagu : Ama ehe acrosumo huchaguta sen hotonavi 
enahata entonana keipina snmau. 

Yunga {Mochika). 

Muchef, acazloo cuzianqiiic ; Zunkoc licum apmucha ; Fiican fiof zungcu- 
zias ; eyipmang zung polengnum mo uzicapuc cuzianguic mun ; Ayoineng 
inengo much sollon piicam nof alio molur; Ef kecan nof ixlllis acan mux 
efco, xUang museyo much ziomun ; Amus tocum fiof xllamgmuse iz puzereric 
Damnum ; Lesnam efcd nof pissin kich. 

I I 2 



484 



FUEGIAN. 



Languages 


of the Pampas 


i 


English. 


Puclche. 






Man 


chia 






Woman 


yamcat 






Head 


cacaa 






Cheek 


yacalere 






Eyes 


yatitco 






Ears 


yaj;yea;he 




Hand 


yapaye 






Sun 


apiucuc 






Moon 


pioo 






Fire 


aquacake 




Water 


yagup 






Mountain 


atecq 






From Tierra del Fuego — 


English. 




AKkhilip. 


Man 




ackinish 


Head 




ofchocka 


Nose 




nohl 


Hair 




ayu 


Hand 




yuccaba 


Teeth 




cauwash 


Eye 




telkh 


Bmr 




teldil 


Foot 




cutliculcul 


Shf 




accuba 


Day 




anoqual 


Earth 




barbe 


Sun 




lum 


Moon 




conakho 


Star 




conash 


Fire 




tettal 


Water 




chauash 


One 




towquiddow 


Two 




telkeow 


Three 




cupeb 





English. 


Puelche. 


Bow 


aeke 


Arrow 


quit 


Young 


yapelgue 


Old 


ictza 


I, me 


kia 


He, she 


sas 


Give me 


chutaca 


Eat 


akenec 


Sleep 


meplamvim 


I will 


kemo 


I will not 


canoa. 



Tekeenika. 

oha 

lukabe 

cu shush 

oshta 

marpo 

tuun 

della 

ufkhea 

coeea 

howucca 

tann 
lum 

anoco 

appernish 

poshaky 

shamea 

ocoale 

combabe 

mutta. 



It is needless to state that the Fuegian has affinities 
in one direction only ; and that, there, it is the point 
of a pyramid. 



YARURA, BETOI, AND OTOMAKA. 



485 



CHAPTER LXII. 



Languages of the Orinoko, Rio Negro, and northern bank of Amazons. — 
Yarura, &c. — Baniwa. — Juri. — Maipur. — Carib. — Salivi. — Warow. — 
l^mma. — Iqnito. — Mayonma. — Peba. — Ticnna, &c. 

We now move towards the head-waters of the Orinoko. 
Furthest to the west and north lie the Yarura, Betoi, 
and Otomaka. 



English. 


Yarura. 


Betoi. 


Otomaka. 


Man 


pomme 


nmasoi 


andoa 


Woman 


ibi, ain 


ro 


ondoa 


Father 


aya 


Imhi 




Mother 


aini 


maiTiA 




Head 


X>acch{k 


rosaca 




Eye 


joride 


nfoniba 




Nose 


nappe 


jusaca 




Tongue 


topono 


ineca 




Hair 


keun 


rubuca 




Hand 


icchi 


mmcosi 




Foot 


tao 


lemoco 




Day 


do 


nmnila 




Sky 


ande 


tencoca 


caga 


Earth 


dabn 


dafiba 


poga 


Water 


TU 


ocada 


ia 


Fire 


conde 


futu 


nna 


Sun 


do 


teo-umasoi 




Moon 


goppe 


teo-ro 




Beard 


tambe 




perega 


One 


caneame 


edojojoi 




Tico 


noeni 


edoi 




Three 


tarani 


ibata 





Word for word, Baniwa is, probably, Maniwa, 
Maniva, Poignavi, and Guipoignavi of other writers 
— especially does it seem to be, word for word, the 



486 THE BANIWA, ETC. 

Guipoignavi of Humboldt. Now the Baniwa districts 
are those through which runs the froDtier between Brazil 
and Venezuela. There are also those which give us the 
point where the researches of Mr. Wallace from the 
South, and of Humboldt from the North, respectively 
terminated ; the former having moved upwards from the 
Rio Negro, the latter downwards from the Orinoco. 
Now as Humboldt names the language for the parts in 
question Poignavi, giving two words of it, one of which 
{oueni-=z water) coincides with the uni and weni of 
Wallace's Banitva, the identification under notice is 
legitimate. 

There are (at least) three dialects of the Baniwa, 
eo nomine — the Baniwa of the river Isanna, the 
Baniwa of the Tomo and Maroa rivers, and the Baniwa 
of the Javita ; this last being spoken beyond the 
boundary, i. e. in Venezuela. 

The affinities between the five forms of speech 
under notice appear to run just as Mr. Wallace 
has arranged his specimens of them, i. e. Tariana, 
Baniwa of the Isanna, Barree, Baniwa of the Tomo 
and Maroa, and Baniwa of the Javita. Between 
the extremes there is a considerable difference : a fact 
which should lead us to reflect upon what would be our 
opinion if, instead of being preserved, the intermediate 
forms had been lost. This would, depend, to a great 
extent, upon the way in which these extremes were 
represented ; it being certain that, if our specimens 
represented tliose parts of the two forms of s})eech 
which differed i-ather than those whicli agreed with 
each other, we should pronounce them to be separate 
languages. 











Baniwa (Toma 


and 


English. 


Baniwa (Isanna). 


Barree. 


Baniwa (Javi(a). 


Maroa). 




Man 


atchinali 


henul 


henume 


catenemuni 




Woman 


inaru 


ineitutu 


neyau 


thalinafeini 




Boy 


mapen 


hantetchule 


irluherlib 


mathicoyou 




Oirl 


mapeni 


heineitutchi 


neyauferiuni 


mathicoyon 





THE BANIWA, ETC. 



487 











Baniwa (Toma and 


Eaglish. Baniwa (Isanna). 


Barree. 


Baniwa (Jayita). 


Maroa). 


Htad 


nhiihidea 


nodnsia 


nobie 


washio 


Mouth 


nonnma 


nonnma 


enoma 


wanoma 


Eye 


nuiti 


nnita 


nofurli 


waholisi 


Nose 


nitnra 


nuti 


nuyapeu 


wasiwi 


Teeth 


noyeihei 


nahei 


nasi 


wathi 


Belly 


noshada 


nodnllah 


paneni 


wahmdti 


Arm 


nozete 


nod ana 


nann 


wacano 


Hand 


nucapi 


nncabi 


nappi 


wacavi 


Fingers 


nucapi 


nucabi heintibe naphibre 


wacavitheani 


Toes 


nuhipa 


nisi heintilje 


geiut si sine 


watsisiculoasi 


Foot 


nupepa 


nisi 


naitsiphabe 


wat.sisi 


Bone 


noapi 


nabi 


nopuina 


warlannku 


Blood 


nnira 


niya 


miasi 


wathanuma 


Sun 


camui 


camn 


namouri 




Moon 


keri 


thekbe 


narbita 


enoo 


Star 


iweri 


wenadi 


uiminari 




Fire 


tidge 


cameni 


arsi 


catbi 


Water 


uni 


uni 


weni 


weni. 


The Ghiinanos 


is nearer to these than to aught else. 


£nglisli 


Ciiimanos. 


English. 


Cbimnnos. 


Head 


DaUa 




Sun 


somanlu 


Eye 


nuUata 


MOOH 


naniu 


Noie 


intshiaongeu 


Earth 


tocke 


Mouth 


noma 




Fire 


oeje 


Toiiffue nehna 




Water 


uhu 


Tooth 


nihi 




One 


apbulla 


Hand 


gabi 




Two 


biagma 


Foot 


noa 




Three 


mabaagmamacke 



The Uaenamheu, or Humming -Bird Indians, lie 
beyond the districts personally visited by Mr. Wallace, 
''. e. on the Lower Japura. He met, however, with 
some of them on the Rio Negro, and obtained some 
information concerning them, as well as a vocabulary of 
their language. He connects them more especially with 
the Coretu and the Jui'i. The point, however, of most 
importance concerning this Uaenambeu vocabulary is the 
fact of its representing the language of a group of tribes 
already known to us — ah'eady known to us under the 
name Mauhe. 

The Coi'etu lie on the Apaporis, between the Uapes 
and the Japura. The Tucauo belong to the same rivers : 



488 



CORETU, ETC. 



the Cobeu to the main stream of the CJapds. The 
Oobeu, Tucano, and Coretu, are members of the same 
class ; the exact value of it being uncertain. The 
Cobeu bore their ears, and enlarge the hole until it will 
take in a bottle-cork ; hereby illustrating our remarks 
on the word Orejones. The reason for writing Coretu 
of Wallace lies in the fact of there being in Balbi 
another Coretu vocabulary : which, with the exception 
of one word Qiaie — aouezzsun) is not the language of 
the vocabularies more especially under notice. 

The Juri lie between the lea and the Japura, and 
are called, also, Juripixunas =z Black Juri, and Boca- 
prietos z= Blackmouths from the custom of tattooing the 
parts about the mouth in such a manner as to resemble 
the black-mouthed squirrel- monkeys (Callithrix sciureus). 
A portion of them has migrated to the Rio Negro, settled 
there, and become more or less civilized. 



English. 


Uaenambeu. 


Juri. 


Coretu. 


Man 


achijari 


tchoucu 


ermeu 


Woman 


inaru 


tcliure 


nomi 


Boy 


maishu 


raiute 


ingigu 


Girl 


maishu 


nitemi 


nomi amanga 


Head 


eribida 


tchokireu 


cuilri 


MotUh 


erinuma 


tchoia 


diishi 


Eye 


eridoe 


tchoit 


yealluh 


Nose 


nuetacu 


youcone 


ergilli 


Teeth 


nuaei 


tchatikou 


gohpecu 


Belly 


nucutu 


turaeh 


tohtono 


Arm 


eribedo 


tchoua 


dicah 


Hand 


erikiapi 


tchoupumau 


muhu 


Fingers 


nucapi 


tchoupei 


muetshu 


Toes 


nuipamena 


tchoupomoru 


giapa muetshu 


Foot 


eriipa 


tchouoti 


giapa 


Bone 


nuapi 


tchouino 


gnueh 


Blood 


nuiri 


echonieri 


du 


Sim 


camui 


iye 


auoue 


Moon 


can 


noimo 


iamimiaga 


Star 


ibidji 


ouca 


omoari 


Fire 


itchipa 


u 


piuire 


Water 


una 


coora 


deco. 



That neither Juri nor Juripixunas are native names 
will be seen in the sequel. 





MAIPUR, ETC. 


4S 


riie following 


is the Coretu of Balhi. 




English 


Coretu. 


English. 


Corel u- 


Eye 


siroho 


Foot 


namaigo 


Head 


canmeo 


Sun 


haie 


Xose 


liissapo 


Moon 


haio-pucku 


Mouth 


hiamolocko 


Earth 


gaira 


Tongue 


coahuro 


Water 


cootabu 


Tooth 


simahapo 


Fire 


aegace. 


Hand 


coholo 







The Baniwa of the Tomo and Maroa is more 
especially J^faipur ; that of the Isanna Ciirib ; whilst 
that of the Javita leads, more especially towards the 
languages of Ecuador. Meanwhile, it is generally 
recognized that (whether the affinity be great or small) 
there has always been one between the Maipur and the 
Carib, en Tnasse. 



English. 


Haipnr. 






English. 


Maip4i. 


G^d 


pxirruna 


mlnari 




River 


ueni 


Man 


cajarrachini 




Lake 


cavia 


Woman 


tiniochi 






Mountain 


japa 


Sly 


eno 






Roclc 


chipa 


Earth 


peni 






Tree 


aa 


Sun 


cliie 






Head 


nuchibuca 


Moon 


chejapi 






Ear 


nuachini 


Star 


urrupu 






Eye 


nupurichi 


Day 


pecumi 






Nose 


nuchirri 


Night 


jatti 






Mouth 


nunoinaca 


Wind 


chipocn 






Tooth 


nati 


aoud 


tamana 






Tongue 


nnare 


Rain 


tia 






Arm 


nuana 


Fire 


catti 






Hand 


nucapi 


Water 


neni 






Foot 


nuchii. 


The Achcigua is akin to i 


Jiis. 






English. 




Maipur 






A^cbagna. 


/ 




nora or 


cana 




nnya 


Thou 




pia — 


capi 




qiya 


He 




ia — 


he 




piya 


She 




j>>a — 


caa 




rnya 


We 




uaya — 


cavi 




qnaya 


Ye 




nia — 


cani 




iya 


They 




nia — 


cani 




naya. 



490 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



So is the Pareni. The next twenty vocabularies 
belong to the great Carih group. 

(In New Grenada.) 



English 




Guaque. 




English. 


Gtiaquc. 


Bead 




jutuye 




Tongue 


inico 


Hair 




jutuyari 




Hand 


ninare 


Eye 




emuru 




Sun 


vehi 


Ear 




janari 




Moon 


nana 


Nose 




onari 




Star 


cliirique 


Teeth 




yeri 




Fire 


majoto 


Foot 




ijupuru 




Earth 


neno 


Bone 




yetije 




Stone 


jefu 


Mouth 


indare 




Egg 


ismu. 




(In Demerara and Venezuela 


) 


English. 


Wapisiana 




English. 


Wapisiana. 


Head 




unniai-aitana 


Earth 


emu 


Eye 




ungwawh 


en 


Fire 


tegherre 


Nose 




ungwiitippa 


Water 


tuna 


Mouth 


untaghu 




Bow 


sumara 


Hand 




ungwaipanna 


Arrow 


urreghuri 


Foot 




unketewi 




Dog 


arimaragha 


Sun 




kamo 




One 


peiteieppa 


Moon 




keirrh 




Two 


tiattang 


Star 




\veri 




Three 


itikineita. 


English. 


Waiyamera. 


Guin;iu. 


Maiongkong. 


Woyawai. 


Head 


ipawa 




intshebu 


hohuha 


igteburi 


Eye 


yenuru 




nawisi 


uyenuru 


eoru 


Nose 


yonari 




intshe 


yoanari 


younari 


Mouth 


tshuaduru 


noma 


andati 


emdare 


Hand 


yanaroru 


inkabe 


yamutti 


yamore 


Foot 


kiporu 




intshibe 


ohutu 


horori 


Sun 


■vveyu 




kamuliu 


tshi 


kamu 


Moon 


numa 




kewari 


niina 


nuni 


Star 


serrika 




yuwinti 


yetika 


serego 


Earth 


nono 




kati 


nono 


rooa 


Fire 


wata 




tsbeke 


wato 


wetta 


Water 


tuna 




oni 


tuni 


knishamiuH 


Bow 


uraha1)eragha 


tshimari 


-tshebi tsimare-huru klaffa 


Arrow 


parau 




tshimari 


tsimarei 


woiyu 


Dog 


okheri 




kwashi 


tsefete 


tsawari 


One 


tuwine 




pareita 


toni 


tioni 


Two 


asare 




yamike 


ake 


asako 


Three 


ware 




piampat 


yam airtuabii 


soroau. 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



491 



English. Caribisi. 


Accaway. 


Macosi. 




Arecuna. 


Socrikong. 


Head yububo 


yubobo 


pupei 




opuwei 


ipei 


Eye yenuru 


yenam 


uyenu 




yenuru 


itaana 


Nose yenetari 


yen 


uyeuna 


uyeuna 


akone 


Mouth 


yubotani 


hunta 




undek 




Hand yennan 


yenarru 


huyenya 


uyena 


omamiara 


Foot pupu 


yubobo 


hupu 




uta 


itoa 


Sun wehu 


weyeyu 


well 




wae 




Moon nuno 


nuno 


kapoi 




kapui 




Star siriko 


irema 


siriko 




serrika 




Earth yoporo 


ito 


nung 




nunk 




Fire watto 


watu 


apo 




apok 




Water tuno 


tuna 


tuna 




tuna 




Bow hurapa 


ureba 


hurapa 


urapa 




Arrmc purrewa 


pnlewa 


paian 




purrau 




Dog keikutshi 


piro 


arimagha 


arimaragha 


One owe 


tigina 


tiwing 


tanking 




Two oco 


asakre 


sakene 


atsakane 




Three orwa 


osorwo 


etseberanwani 


eserewe 




English. 


Mawakwa. 


Fianoghotto. 


Ti 


•erighotto. 


Head 


nnkaua 








oputpa 


Eye 


ngnoso 




yenei 




obeama 


Nose 


ngndewa 




yoanari 






Mouth 


ngnomiti 




yefiri 




opota ' 


Hand 


ngnkowa 




yenari 






Fo<A 


nngeopa 




putu 




npti 


Sun 


kamu 




well 




weh 


Moon 


kirsu 




nuna 




niano 


Star 


wisbi 




siriko 




seriko 


Earth 


tsUmari 










Fire 


tshikasi 




matto 




apoto 


Water 


wane 




tuna 




tuna 


Bow 


thseye 




urapa 






Arrow 


kengye 




purau 






Dog 






keikne 






One 


apaura 










Two 


woaraka 










Three 


tamarsi 










English. 


Atoiia. 




DauTdi. 


Head 


unruai-etema 


waunnbarra 


Eye 


wawanumte 




wauuni 


Nose 


wauuni 




opebe 


Mouth 


otaghn 




otagho 


Hand 


nnkoai 




oke 




F<M 


unkheti 




okheti 


Sun 


kamoi 




tamoi 


Moon 


k^irrhe 




kairra 



492 



THE CARIB GROUP. 



English. 




Atoria. 




Daurai. 


Star 




watsieirhe 




wonari 


Earth 




tari 




dari 


Fire 




tegherre 




tekeri 


Water 




tuna 




onabo 


Bow 




parauri 




parauri 


Arrow 




peiiri 




werakure 


Dos 




teni 




teni 


One 




peitaghpa 




weitappn 


Two 




pauiteitegh 




peitategh 


Three 




ipiketaub 




hikeitaba. 


English. 


Tamanak. 


Carib. 


Jaoi. 


Arawak. 


Man {homo) 




oquiri 




lukku 


{vir) 


nuani cMvacane yon 






Woman 


aica 






hiaru 




puti 


apouitime 






Head 


prutpi 


upupu 


boppe 




Eye 


januru 


enuru 


voere 




Ear 


parani 


pana 


pannai 




Nose 


jonnari 


enetali 


hoenali 




Tongue 


nuru 


nuni 






Hair 


cipoti 






ubarrahu 


Hand 


janignari 


amecu 




ukkabuhu 


Foot 


ptari 


ipupu 






Sky 


capu 


cabo 


capu 


munti 
kassaku 


Ea/rth 


nono 


nono 


soye 


wunnabu 


Sun 




wey 


weyo 


haddalli 


Moon 




nuno 


nonna 




Fire 




wato 


uapoto 


elelulun 


Water 


. 


tuna 




•wuniabu 


One 


ovin 


aunik 


tewyn 


abba 


Two 


oco 


wecu 


tage 


biarna 


Three 


ooroo 


wua 


terewaid kabbuin. 



For these latter dialects our chief authority is Sir R. 
Schomburgh, The number of vocabularies as collected by 
him during his expeditions into the interior, is eighteen, 
none of which, he states, bear a closer affinity to each other 
than the French and Italian. This statement, however, 
is one which the present writer is not prepared to adopt. 
Of these eighteen vocabularies, only one or two have 
been published in extenso. From the report, however, of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
A.D. 1848, the foregoing short extracts have been taken. 



WAROW, SALIVI, AND TARUMA. 



493 



(!•) 



English. 


Salivi. 


English. 


SalirL 


Sly 


mumeseche 


Eye 


pacute 


Sun 


mumeseche cocco 


Ear 


aicupana 


Moon 


vexio 


Nose 


inam 


Star 


sipodi 


Mouth 


aaja 


Earth 


seche 


Neck 


uncua 


Water 


cagua 


Arm 


ichechee 


Fire 


equssa 


Hand 


immomo 


Man 


cocco 


Finger 


endecce 


Woman 


gnacu 


Belly 


teacce 


Bird 


gnendi 


HeaH 


omagnaa 


Fish 


paji 


Thigh 


icooco 


River 


ochi 


Knee 


gnnjui 


Lake 


iboopu 


Leg 


injua 


Tree 


nonhae 


Foot 


caabapa. 




(2.) 




English. 


Warow. 


English. 


Warow. 


Man 


niburfi 


Feet 


mdmu 


Woman 


tida 


Blood 


hotnh 


Boy \ 
Girl 


noboto 


Sun 
Moon 


yah 
wanehnb 


Bead 


makwan 


Star 


keorah 


Neck 


mahaabey 


Rain 


naahaa 


Eyes 


maama 


Wind 


ahaaka 


Nose 


mayhecaddy 


Fire 


ikkonah 


Mouth 


maroho 


Water 


he 


Hair 


maaheo 


Earth 


hotah 


Ear 


mahohoko 


Sky 


nahaamlitii h 


Arms 


mahaara 


Hill 


hotaqoay 


Hand 


maamahoo 


Wood 


dannah 


Fingers 


mamalioo 


Rock 


hoeya 


B'yne 


malia 


Sand 


kahemrah 


SHn 


mahoro 


Island 


bulohoh 


Flesh 


matamah 


One 


hesacha 


Back 


maahuh 


Two 


monaraa 


Belly 


mobunuh 


Three 


dianamu 


Breast 


maameyhu 


Five 


mahabass 


Thighs 


marolo 


Ten 


moreycooyt. 


Leg 


maahah 


J.) 


■ 


English. 


Taranw. 


English. 


Tamma. 


Head 


atta 


Hand 


aha 


Eye 


atzi 


Fool 


appa 


Nose 


assa 


Sun 


ooang 


MtnUh 


memkukanaa 


Moon 


piwa 



491 



MUUA. 



English. 


Tanima. 






English. 


Taruma. 


Star 


wingra 






Arroto 


kupa 


Fire 


hua 






Dog 


hi 


Water 


tza 






One 


oshe 


Earth 


toto 






Two 


tyuwa 


Bow 


tzeika 






Three 


ungkehah 






(4.) 






English. 


Mura. 






English. 


Mura. 


Head 


abbaih 






Foot 


aai 


Eye 


gossa 






Sun 


hoase 


Nose 


itauhaing 






Moon 


cahaiiang 


Mouth 


abbassah 






Earth 


mettie 


Tongue 


abboa 






Fire 


huaing 


Tooth 


aithoa 






Water 


pae. 


Hand 


uhna 











The next three lists from the occupancies bearing 
the names at the head of the several columns, re- 
present the dialects not of the Juri of Wallace (who 
seem to be the true Juripixunas or Blackmouths) but 
of the people who apply that name and in whose lan- 
guage it is significant. 



English. 


S. Pedro & Almeida. 


S. Pedro. 


Man 


apiaba 


apuava 


Woman 


cunha 


cunha 


Head 


acang 


nhacang 


Hair 


aba 


Java 


Eye 


ceca 


ceca 


Ear 


namby 


namby 


Mouth 


jurv, 


juru 


Foot 


py 


iporong ava 


Arm 


jyba 


juva 


Hand 


po 


ipoha 


Shy 


ybake 


yuTacca 


Star 


jacytata 


chacauma 


Fire 


tata 


tata 


Water 


yge 


yg 


Tree 


ymyra 


vuyra 


House 


oca 


joca 


Wind 


ybutu 


ynutu 


Black 


pixunauna 


sum 


One 


oyepe 


oyepenho 


Two 


mocoi 


moca 


Three 


mozapyr 


mozapu 



Almeida. 



yg 



evatu 



oyepe 



IQUITO, ETC. 



4)95 



The Iqidto, akin to the preceding — 



Engbsh. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eye 

Nose 

Mouth 



Iquita 

iconan 

icoaan 

manaca 

panami 

cachirica 

kain^ 



English. 

Ear 

Hand 

Foot 

Sun 

Moon 

Water 



Iqnito. 

quiatoum 

yanamaca 

quiainoi 

janamia 

cashi 

aqua. 



Of the Xumano or Chomano, I only know the fol- 
lowinor words. 



Eng^Ii. 
Sun 
Moon 
Star 



Xamano. 
sima 
vueta 
Tuete. 



For the Mayoruna Castelnau has given two voca- 
bularies, one representing the language of the converted, 
the other that of the unconverted, tribes. 



English. 


Mavonma (1). 


Hayomna (2) 


Man 


dara 


dara 


Woman 


shirawa 


tirahna 


Head 


moho 


macho 


Eye 


bedo 





Nose 


deban 


dizan 


Mouth 


ibi 


ira 


Ear 


pabaoan 


pahiaran 


Hand 


macoa 


poro 


Foot 


taca 


tahi 


Sun 


Inii 


bari 


Moon 


onen 


houiji 


Water 


waca 


hoaaca. 



Mayoruna is a name which occurs in the Mithridates ; 
the ilayoruna language being said to belong, with the 
Barbudo, Iturale, and Musimo forms of speech, to the 
Urarina class. 

It is safe to say that the Peha, Yagua, and the Ore- 
joTies forms of speech are more closely connected with 
each other than any of them is with anything else. The 
exact amount of aflSnity is uncertain, though there can 



496 



PEBA, YAGUA, ETC. 



be but little doubt that the tliree languages are mutually 
unintelligible. The Aissuari, the Yurumagua, and the 
Cahumari languages, mentioned in the Mithridates, 
but not represented by any specimen, are likely to 
have belonged to this class. It may easily, however, 
be imagined that the distribution of unrepresented 
languages over classes like those before us is doubtful. 
What may probably have been Peba, or Urarina, may, 
with nearly equal probability, have been Omagua, 
Iquito, or aught else. 

As Orejones means large-eared, it must be dealt with 
as a common rather than a proper name. If so, it may 
occur in more quarters than one ; i. e. whenever ears 
are either naturally large or artificially enlarged along 
with a language in a neighbourhood where orejo = ear. 
The same applies not only to Barhudo, EncaheUado, 
(?) Zapara (Xeherro ?), and other names of European, 
but to many of even American origin ; as may be seen 
by paying attention to the manner in which {inter alia) 
certain words ending in -rtiayo, and -agua, present 
themselves at long distances fi-om each other — these 
words being Guarani, 



English. 


Oregones. 


Peba. 


Yagua. 


Man 


comai 


comoley 


huano 


Woman 


erigno 


■watoa 


huatarunia 


Head 


huha 


raina 


firignio 


Eye 


oi 


vinimichi 


huirancai 


Nose 


hoho 


vinerro 


unirou 


Mouth 


huai 


rito 


huicama 


Ear 


kinoleo 


mitiwa 


ontisini 


Hand 


onokui 


vinitaily 


huijanpana 


Foot 


etaiboi 


vinimotay 


moumoumatou 


Sun 


idoma 


wana 


ini 


Moon 


hiutsara 


remelane 


alemare 


Water 


ainoe 


ain 


haha. 



Wherever the ticuna poison is used, with a popu- 
lation in the neighbourhood which uses the name, Ticuna 
Indians may be expected ; and any two groups of such 
may be in any degree of relationsliip. One of Cas- 



TICUNAS, ETC. 



497 



telnau's vocabularies gives us a language under this 
name. It stands well apart fi-om the ones that have 
already been noticed ; but, as the samples are short, we 
should remember that Hervas states that the Peba and 
Ticuna (also called Xumano) are connected. 



English. 


Ticnnas. 


English. 


Ticnnas. 


Man 


iate 


Ear 


nachinai 


Woman 


niai 


Hand 


tapamai 


Head 


nahairou 


Foot 


nacontai 


Eye 


nehaitai 


Sun 


iakai 


Nose 


naran 


Moon 


tahoaimaika 


Mouth 

Further s 


naha 

outh on the : 


Water 
xontier of th 


aaoitchu. 

e Quichua \^ 



have, from a longer list of Osculati's, the following 
words for the Zapara. 



English. 


Zapara. 


English. 


Zapan. 


31 an 


taucko 


Sun 


janockna 


Head 


anackaka 


Star 


naricka 


Ear 


taurike 


Moon 


cacikaa 


Eye 


namisia 


Fire 


anamicukacia 


Nose 


mihucua 


Water 


muriccia 


Tongue 


ririccia 


Tree 


nackona 


Teeth 


icar6 


Sand 


hiocka 


Mouth 


atuapama 


Bird 


piscko 


Beard 


ama 


^ 


ickuqua 


Arm 


curemasaca 


Belly 


marama 


Hand 


hickoma 


Foot 


hinocka 


Day 


nuackate 


Blood 


nnnacke. 


Night 


nig^iacka 







To these parts belongs the following Paternoster of 
the— 

Yamea. 
Neike ahen arrescania abecin ; termd atiahua renamuclia hoe taola ; habecia 
nei-nin ; anto nein arresiuma hoe baceiada renua nanca naerra ino popo nin ; 
mirletermd pahoinlama neiamiziari aintanei errama ; halayan nei nei huchanla 
tirra nei holayan lobua remorezio-nei ; lara hiamnerra nei han hucha-nen ; 
tiarre ala ninze harramale nei. 

These languages belong to Ecuador ; south of which 
is a great gap. Hence the next chapters begin on the 

R K 



498 ZAPARA, ETC. 

eastern Andes at the sources of the Beni and Mamore, 
and (crossing the watershed) of the Vermeyo and Pilco- 
mayo. The division of these into the languages of 
(1.) the Missions, and (2.) the Chaco, is, more or less, 
artificial ; as is the secondary division of the Missions 
into those of (a) Moxos, and (6) Chiquitos. For the 
Peruvian affinities of tliis class the Aymara, from its 
being in situ, is more important than the Quichua. 



4 




THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



499 



CHAPTER LXIII. 



Tlie Moxoa, Chiquitos, and Chaco Langoages. 



In the following list, the first language is in contact 
with the Quichua and Ayraara, with which it is, proba- 
bly, more closely allied than the present classification 
makes it. Here it is treated as transitional to the 
Pemvian and the languages of the Missions. 



English. 


Taracaies. 


Man 


sufle 


Woman 


yee 


Head 


dais 


Cheek 


pune 


Eyes 


tanti 


Ears 


meye 


Hand 


bana 


Sun 


puine 


Moon 


subi 


Fire 


aima 


Water 


sama 


Mountain 


monono 


The Sapiboconi has simila 


£iiglish. 


Sapibocom. 


Man (homo) 


reanci 


Woman 


anu 


Head 


echuja 


Eye 


etuachuru 


Nose 


evi 


Tongue 


eana 


Hair 


echan 


Hand 


eme 


Foot 


ebbachi 



English. 


Yaracarcs. 


Bow 


momata 


Arrow 


tomete 


Young 


sebebonte 


Old 


calasone 


I, me 


se 


He, she 


laid 


Give me 


timbncke 


Eat 


tiai 


Sleep 


atesi 


I mil 


cosn 


I wUl not 


niscnsa. 



English. 

Day 

Shy 

Earth 

Moon 

Fire 

Water 

One 

Two 

Three 



Sapiboconi. 

chine 

enacnepana 

mechi 

bari 

cuati 

eubi 

carata 

mitia 

caiapa. 

K K 2 



500 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 







(1 


•) 








Moxos Languages. 






Englisli. 


Saraveca. 




Englisli. 




Saraveca. 


Man 


echeena 




Bow 




ecbote 


Woman 


acunechu 


Arrow 




maji 


Head 


noeve 




Young 




inipia 


Cheeh 


nunaapa 




Old 




vuchijari 


Eyes 


nol 




I, me 




nato 


Ears 


nuniije 




He, she 




echecbe 


Hand 


aniquaichi 


Give me 




ich a munazii 


Sun 


caame 




Eat 




inucha 


Moon 


cache 




Sleep 




itie meia 


Fire 


tikiai 




I will 




areaca nojajai 


Water 


line 




I will no 


, 


maicha nojari. 


Mountain 


uti 










English. 


Chapncui'a. 


Erglish. 




Chapacura. 


Man 


kiritian 


Bow 




parami 


Woman 


yamak« 




Arrow 




chininie 


Head 


npachi 




Young 




isohuem 


Cheeh 


urutarachi 


Old 




itaracun 


Eyes 


tucuche 


I, me 




huaya 


Ewr 


taitataichi 


He, she 




aricau 


Hand 


umichi 




Give me 




miapache 


Sun 


huapirito 


Eat 




cahuara 


Moon 


panato 




Sleep 




huacHa^ 


Fire 


isse 




I will 




mosichacum 


Water 


acum 




I will no 




masicbacurii. 


Mountain 


pecun 










Euglish. 




Movima. 




Cayuvava. 


Man (home) 




itlacua 




jadsi 




Wom,an 




cucya 




itorene 




Head 




bacuacTj 


a 


abaracama 


Eye 




chora 




iyocori 




Nose 




chini 




ebarioho 


Tongue 




rulcua 




ine 




Hair 








apotacame 


Hand 




chopa 




arue 




Foot 




zoipoh 




aliei 




Day 




ernes 




iriarama 


Sky 




benra 




idah 




Earth 




llacaml] 


u 


idatu 




Sun 




mossi 




itoco 




Moon 




ychcho 




yrare 




Fire 




vee 




idore 




Water 




tomi 




ikita 




One 








pebbi 




Two 








bbera 




Three 








kimisa 





THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



501 



English. 


Mosos. 


English. 


Moxos. 


Man {homo) 


acciane 


Sky 


anrmio 


Woman 


eseno 


Earth 


moteji 


Head 


nnciuti 


Sun 


sacce 


Eye 


nuchi 


Moon 


coje 


Ear 


nicioca 


Fire 


une 


Nose 


nusuri 


Water 


jucu 


Tonffue 


nunene 


One 


etona 


Hand 


nubu 


Two 


apina 


Foot 


nibope 


Three 


mopona. 


Day 


saccerei 






EngUsh. 


Itonama. 


English. 


Itonama. 


Man 


mno 


Bow 


hualicAkut 


Woman 


caneca 


Arrow 


chere 


Head 


uchu 


Young 


tietid 


Cheek 


papapana 


Old 


viayachne 


Eyes 


icachi 


I, me 


achni 


Ear 


mocAtodo 


He, she 


oni 


Hand 


malaca 


Give me 


macano 


Sun 


apache 


Eat 


ape 


Moon 


tiacaca 


Sleep 


conejna 


Fire 


bari 


I will 


ichavaneve 


Water 


huanuve 


I will not 


huachichTaco 


Mountain 


iti 






English. 


Canichana. 


English. 


Canichana. 


Man 


enacu 


Bow 


nlescatop 


Womaii 


ikegahui 


Arrow 


ichohuera 


Head 


eucucu 


Young 


ecokelege 


Cheek 


eicokena 


Old 


enimara 


Eyes 


eutot 


I, me 


ojale 


Ear 


eucomete 


He, she 


enjale 


Hand 


eatijle 


Give me 


sichite 


Sun 


nicojli 


Eat 


alema 


Moon 


nimilacu 


Sleep 


agaja 


Fire 


nichucu 


I will 


haarehoa 


Water 


nese 


I vrill not 


nolmacA. 


Mountain 


comee 






English. 


Pacagnaia. 


English. 


Taragaara. 


Man 


nni 


Hand 


mupata 


Woman 


yucha 


Sun 


vari 


Head 


mapo 


Moon 


ocAe 


Cheek 


tamo 


Fire 


chii 


Eyes 


hairo 


Water 


jene 


Ear 


paoki ] 


Mountain 


macliiva 



502 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



English. 


Pacaguara. 


Eiigiisli. 




Pacaguara. 


Bow 


canati 


(rive me 




ekiahue 


Arrow 


pia 


Eat 




hihue 


Young 


huakehue 


Sleep 




ocAahuan 


Old 


chaita 


I will 




akekia 


/, me 


ea 


I will no 




ojeamakea. 


He, she 


aa 








Euglish. 


It6nfes. 


English. 




It6ufes. 


Man 


huataki 


Bow 




pari 


Woman 


tana 


Arrow 




kiTO 


Head 


mahin 


Young 




iroco 


Cheek 


buca 


Old 




ucati 


Eyes 


to 


I, me 




miti 


Ear 


iiiiri 


He, she 




comari 


Hand 


uru 


Give me 




huiti 


Sun 


mapito 


Eat 




caore 


Moon 


panevo 


Sleep 




upuiira 


Fire 


iche 


I will 




imer^ 


Water 


como 


I will not 




inimere. 


Mountain 


pico 

Chiquitos 2 




Languages. 






English. 


Paioconeca. 


English. 




Paioconeca. 


Man 


uchanenuve 


Bow 




tibopo 


Woman 


esenunuve 


Arrow 




coriruco 


Head 


ipe 


Yowng 




umono 


Cheek 


ipiki 


Old 




ectia 


Eyes 


ihuikis 


I, me 




neti 


Ear 


isenoke 


He, she 




piti 


Hand 


iruake 


Give me 




pipanira 


Sun 


isese 


Eat 




ninico 


Moon 


kejerd 


Sleep 




pimoco 


Fire 


chaki 


I will 




nikeniao 


Water 


ina 


I will not 




isiiii kinovo 


Mountain 


iyepe 








English. 


Chiquito. 




Zamucu. 




Man {homo) 


noneis 




nani 




Woman 


pais 




cheke 




Head 


taanis 




yatoitae 


Eye 


sutos 




yede 




Ear 


uma2>us 









Nose 


ifias 




yucunachu 


Tongue 


otus 









Hair 


taanis 









Hand 


ees 




yumanai 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



503 



English. 


Chiqnito 




Zamncn. 




Foot 


popez 




irie 




Day 


anenez 




dire 




Sky 


apes 




gnieate 




Earth 


qnos 




nap 




— — 






nnmi 




Sun 


suus 




guiedde 


Moon 


paas 




hetoxei 




Fire 


tans 




yot 




Water 


peez 




pioc 




One 







chomara 


Two 






gar 


• 


Three 






gadioc. 




Eoglish. 


Otuke. 


English. 




Otuke. 


Man 


vnani 


Bow 




revica 


Woman 


Tuaneti 


Arrow 




tehna 


Head 


ikitao 


Young 




ichaoro 


Cheek 


irenara 


Old 




eadi 


Eyes 


ichaa 


I, me 




iki chaocho 


Ear 


ichaparara 


He, she 




iki choano 


Hand 


seni 


Give me 




iynra 


Sun 


neri 


Eat 




oaketa 


Moon 


ari 


Sleep 




anntake 


Fire 


rera 


IwiU 




wia sike 


Water 


uru 


I will not 


oraebieacate 


Mountain 


batari 









In 1831 the number of the Cayuvava was 2073, all 
of whom were Christians of the Mission of Exaltacion. 
Their original locality lay about 12° S. L. where they 
were conterminous with the Movima, and Itenes. 

In 1830, the number of the Movima was 1238, all 
of whom were Christians in the Mission of Santa Anna. 
Their original locahty was about li° S. L. where they 
were conterminous with {inter alios) the Cayuvava and 
the Moxos. 

In 1830, the number of the Itonama was, at 
The Mission of Magdalena . . . .2831 
• San Kamon . . . . 1984 



Total . . .4815 
All ChrLstian. 
At the junction of the Itenes with the Mamor^ the 



504 THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 

Itenh language is spoken by 1000, or 1200 individuals, 
whose name (lyn^s or Ite) is native. 

Chiquitos is no native, but a Spanish name ; . the name 
which the chief divisions of the group give themselves 
being J^agiutianeis = men. It is from them that the 
Mission of Chiquitos takes its name, in the centre of 
which the Chiquito ^wper is spoken by some 14,000 
souls. The language is important now, and was im- 
portant originally. At the present time it serves as a 
sort of Lingua Franca, being the- form of speech which 
numerous other tribes who, without learning Spanish 
have unlearned their own language, have adopted. It was 
important in the time of Hervas, when it fell into two 
dialects, three older ones having previously become ex- 
tinct, or nearly so. Of these one was the Manaz ; the 
tribes that spoke it being — 

The Manzica The Quimomoca 

— Yuracareca — Tapacuraca 

— Sibacca — Yirituca. 

— Cuzica 

The existing dialect of the Tao is spoken by — 

The Tao The Peguica 
— - Boro — Bocca 

— Tabiica — Tubaciaca 

— Taiiepica — Aruporeca.. 

— Xuhereca 

and part of the Piococo — the Pinoco being the language 
of 

The Pirioco Proper The Poxisoco 

— ■ Quimeca — Motaquica 

— Guapaca — Zamaquica 

— Quitaxica - — Taumtoca 
and part of the Piococo. 

The termination -ca is specially stated to be a Chi- 
quito plural. It does not, however, follow that every 
tribe bearing it was Chiquito. All that is actually! 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



505 



ueedfiil to account for the term is a Chiquito neighbour- 
hood in which the name may have originated. 

Of the tribes that speak the language known by the 
general name of Zamucu, or Samucu (this particular 
form of speech being only one out of several) some are 
settled in the Missions of San Giovanni, San lago de 
Chiquiti, and San Ignacio, while some nin wild in the 
more impracticable districts of the forest country around 
them — conterminous in some part, at least, of their 
fi'ontier wdth the Chiriguanos. Hervas gives us three 
main dialects, 

1. The Zamucu, in the limited sense of the term, 
spoken by the Zamucu Proper, the Satienos, and per- 
haps, the Ugaraiios — the testimony as to these last 
being doubtful ; since, according to some, they have a 
peculiar language of their own. 

2. The dialects of the Caipotocado, Tunachas, Imo- 
mos, and Timinahas. 

3. The Morotoco of the Morotocos Proper, the 
Tamoenos, the Cucurates, or Cucutades, the Panonos, and 
(perhaps) the Careras and the Ororebates. 

Such is the list of Hervas of the Zamucu tribes as they 
stood in his time. The names that I find in D'Orbigny 
are Zamucu, Morotoco, Potarero, and Guaraneco. 

(3.) 
Chaco Languages. 



English. 


Matagnaya. 


English. 


Matagnaya 


Man 


inoon 


Bow 


lachang 


Woman 


kiteis 


Arrow 


lotec 


Head 


litec 


Young 


magse 


Eyes 


notelo 


Old 


chiut 


Ears 


nokeote 


I, me 


yam 


Band 


noqnec 


He, she 


atachi 


Sun 


ijnaba 


Give me 


maletuec 


Moon 


guela 


Eat 


tec 


Fire 


itag 


Sleep 


nobina 


Water 


gaag 


I vnll not 


ykite. 


Mountain 


lesug 







506 



THE MISSIONS AND THE CHACO. 



Toba Paternoster, 
Co-taa adoonata keda piyuem ; 
Yaiiateton adenagati ; 
Llaca-anac comi abogot ; 
Contidi-neco ked^ piguem nacaeno en^ alua ; 
Canadena cadimeza naax sinaax ocom uadom 
Caditca mantiguema aditi-ogoden emeke comi scauema sitiogodenax 
Tacame catino 
Calac sanem comi. 



English. 


Mbaya. 


Abiponian. 


Mbokobi. 


Vilela. 


Lule. 


Man (Aomo) uneleigua 


joale 


yoale 


nitemoi 


pele 


(vir) 






cualegzac 


quima 


cumueptito 


Woman 


igualo 




aalo 


kisle 


vacae 






canelma 


coenac 




lucueptito 


Head 


naguilo 


napanik 


icaic 


niscone 


tocco 


Eye 


nigecogee 


natoele 


nicote 


toque 


zu 


Ear 


napagate 


[gal 




maslup 


cusp 


Nose 


nionigo 


ncaatagau- 


yimic 


limic 


nus 


Tongue 


nogueligi 




lagra 


lekip 


lequi 


Hair 


namodi 


neefcequic 


na«cuta 




caplhe 


Hand 


nibaagadi 


napakena 


napoguena 


isip 


is 








ycaelgrat 






Foot 


nogonagi 


■ 


capiate 


ape 


elu 


Sky 


ytitipigime 


ipigem 


ipiguem 


laue 










chajenk 








Earth 









basle 


a 


Sun 


alilega 


grabaulai 


daazoa 


olo 


ini 


Moon 


epenai 


grauek 


chidaigo 


copi 


alit 


Fire 


nuledi 


nkaatek 


anodek 


nie 


icue 


Water 


niogodi 


enarap 


ebagyac 


ma 


to 


One 


uninitegui 




ifiiateda 


yaguit 


alapea 


Two 


itoata 





iftabaea 


uke 


tamop 


Three 


dagani 




iflabacacaocaini 


nipeluei 


tamlip. 



Of the Chaco languages, the Mataguaya is tlie most 
akin to the Chiquitos ; the Vilela and Lule to the 
Aymara. 



« 



• 



THE GUARANI, ETC. 507 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

Languages of BraziL — Guaram. — Other than Goaiani. — Botocndo, &c. — Lan- 
guages neither Guarani nor Botocado. — The TSmbiras. — The Sabuja, &c. 

The Lingua Gteral, or current Indian of the Empire, is 
Guarani ; a language which is not only spoken by many 
Portuguese, but one for which several native tribes of 
comparatively smaU importance have exchanged their 
own. Little, however, will be said about the Guarani, 
the general phenomena connected with its remarkable 
distribution being commonly known. A form of speech 
akin to it is spoken on, or ' even within, the frontier of 
Ecuador ; whilst others are spoken on the Rio Negro, 
on the lower Amazons, along the coast of the Pacific 
as &r as the neighbourhood of Monte Video, in Para- 
guay, and by the Chiriguanos and Sirionos on the 
frontier of Peru. That the tribes which use this toncnie 
are numerous we readily believe : nor are there wanting 
long lists of them. The present writer has collected 
more than forty. The statement, however, that 
such and such populations speak the same language is 
one thing; an actual specimen of the language itself 
eo nomine, is another. This is often wanting, or, at 
any rate, the specimen is a short one. Yet it may consist 
of only a single word and stUl have its value. The 
chief Guarani languages are — 

1. The Omagua. 

2, 3, 4. The Tupi, Tupinambi, and Tupinaquin. 

5. The Guarani Proper of Paiaguay and the South- 
west. 



508 



THE GUARANI, ETC. 



6. The Chiriguano of the South-west on and within 
the frontier of Peru. 



English. 




Guarani. 




Tupi. 


Man (homo) 


aba 




aba 


(vir) 




me 






Woman 




cugna 




cunha 


Head 




acang 




acanga 


Eye 




tesa 




teca 


Ea/r 




namhy 






Nose 




te, tu, hu 


un 


Tongue 




cu 




apecu 


Hair 




og 




oca 


Hand 




po 




pu 


Foot 




pi 




pi 


Day 




ara 




ara 


Sky 




ibag 




iba<5a 


Earth 




ibi 




ibi 


Sun 




quarassi 




coaracy 


Moon 




yasi 




iacy 


Fire 




tata 




tata 


Water 




i 




i. 


Englisli. 


Omagaa. 




English. 


Omagua. 


Man (homo) 


ava 




Sky 


ehuatemai ritama 


(mr) 


mena 




Earth 


tujuca 


Woman 


huaina 




Sun 


huarassi 


Head 


yacae 




Moon 


yase 


Eye 


ssissa zaicama 


Fire 


tata 


Ear 


nami 




Water 


uni 


Nose 


ti 




One 


uyepe 


Tongue 


camuera 




Two 


mucuica 


Hand 


pua 




Three 


iruaca. 


Foot 


pueta 









East of the Murus on the Madera, extending east- 
wards still in the direction of the Tapajoz, lie the 
Mundrucus. 



English. 


Mundrucn. 


English. 


Mundrucn. 


Eye 


ueta 


Foot 


worcanaputa 


Head 


ija 


Sun 


uasM 


Nose 


heinampo 


Moon 


uashiat 


Mouth 


woropi 


Earth 


ipu 


Tongue 


waico 


Water 


hu 


Tooth 


womo 


Fire 


tasha. 


Haiid 


woipo 







I 



BRAZILIAN LANGUAGES. 



509 



I conDect the Mura with the Mundrucu, notwith- 
standing its place in a previous chapter. I also make 
them both Guarani (raising the value of the class) — 
but Guarani with Carib affinities. The following voca- 
bularies from Castelnau, e\ddently, represent languages 
of the great Guarani class ; though their exact place in 
it is uncertain. 



EngUsh. 


A.piaca. 


Cayowa, 


Man 


conimahe 


awa 


Woman 


cogna 


coniah 


Head 


ai-acana 


siakan 


Hair 


ai-ava 


siawon 


Eye 


ai-re-coara 


chercisa 


Nose 


a-si-gna 


chanl 


Tooth 


ai-ragna 


ioway 


Tongue 


ai-cona 


iocalike 


Ear 


ai-nembia 





Hand 


ai-pore 




Foot 


arpia 




Sun 





quara-ou 


Moon 


jahi 


yaseu 


Star 




yotete 


Fire 


tatan 


tata 


Water 


equat-daramau 





To the Botodtdo class belong (1.) the Botocudo 
Proper, spoken between 18" and 20° S. L. (2.) The 
Jupuroca, spoken on the Mucury near the town of 
Caravellas, apparently, but not necessarily, falling into 
sis sub-divisions. Such at least is the inference from 
the statement that the names of the heads of the 
several Jupuroca chiefs are (1.) Guiparoca, (2.) Potica, 
(3.) Tupi, (4.) Mechmech, (5.) Megwi Megu, (6.) Uroue. 
(3.)? Mucury. 

(1.) 

Mucury. 



English. 
Man 


Botocudo. 
onaba 


Jupuroca. 


Woman 
Brother 
Hair 
Head 


jokoanang 

kgipack 

kerang 


giaecana 
euqnijacca 
carenqueti 
enelem 



510 



BOTOCUDO CLASS. 



English. 


Botocudo. 


Jupuroca. 


Mucury. 


Eye 


ketom 


equitongh 




Ear 


uniaknom 


gioni 




Tooth 


kiiomir 






Beard 


giakiiot 






Blood 


comtjaack 






Hand 


po 


impo 


impo 


Foot 


po 


impo 


impo 


Bone 


kiock 






Belly 


conang 








Moon 


concang-eion 


caratuti 




New 


etran-him 






Star 


more 






Fire 


ghompeck 


giompequi 


jampec 


Water 


magnar 


ninhanga 




Tree 


tachoou 







Egg 


bacan-nigcon 







Fish 


impock 


eimpoca 


ep 


Devil 


lantchong 




lanchou 


One 


mekenum 








(2.) 




English. 


Naknanuk. 


Euglish. 


Naknanuk. 


Head 


kraine 


Tooth 


kiijounne 


Nose 


kujink 


Hand (foot) 


po. 



About the languages of the next class little is said in 
the Mithridates ; more in the Travels of Spix and Mar- 
tius, and of Prince Maximilian of Neuwied. Balbi throws 
them all into a single group, which he calls the Macha- 
cari-Camacan. The area of this group is conterminous 
with that of the Botocudos ; whilst the author from 
whom these vocabularies are taken, commits himself to 
the statement that the Machakali bears a decided 
similarity to the Botocudo, having both a guttural and 
a nasal pronunciation. At any rate the Rio Mucury is 
occupied by both the Proper Mucury tribes and the 
Machakali, or Machakaris ; though the present writer, 
who, without hesitation, treats the Machacari-Camacan 
of Balbi and the Botocudo as separate sections of the 
same group, considers that the nearest congeners to the 
Botocudo are the Mongoyos and Malali. 



i 



BOTOCUDO CLASS, 



611 



(1.) 



English. 


Mongoyos 


God 




Man 


hoiema 


Woman 




Head 


hero 


Hair 


ke 


Eye 


kedo 


Ear 


nikobko 


Hand 


ninkre 


Arm 


nikhona 


Foot 




Beard 


nikhran 


Blood 


kedio 


Sun 


hoiseu 


Fire 


diakhkeo 


Water 


sa 


River 




Tree 


hanoafe 


Egg 




White 


hoai 


Black 


khokada 


Fish 


hona 



HaconL 


MachalnlL 


amleto, toupa 


toupa 


atempeep 


idijun 


aiento 


abation 




etation 


epotoi 




endaen, aen 




ideal 


ideal 


impeoi 




aimke 


aqnitktain 


agnim 


niponoi 


ingpata 


idapata 


aqaedhnm 




inken 


kechiniong 


abcaai 




coen 


chechan 


connaan 


coanaana 




idakeng 


abooi 


abaai 


amnietim 


nipitim 




crebran 


immetan tanmoa 


tapagnon 


maan 





(2.) 



English. 

God 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Hair 

Eye 

Ear 

Hand 

Arm 

Beard 

Blood 

San 

Fire 

Water 

Tree 

Egg 

WhiU 

Blade 

Fish 



Patacho. 


Camacan. 


ninilssonm 





monactun 


cahe 




achonn 


tot» 


inro 


epotoi 


ining^ 


angona 


inglento 




Ineoca 




incrou 


agnlpeaton 


igihia 




loghe 


eughem 


iso 


mayon 


chion 




jaron 




sin 


mawmipticau 


he 


petitieng 






hai 


tomeningna 




micai 





512 





BOTOCUDO CLASS. 




English. 


Menieng. 


Malali. 


Head 


inro 


akea 


Eye 


imgutu 


keto 


Nose 


inchivo 


aseie 


Mouth 


iniatago 


aietoco 


Tongue 




gnocgno 


Tooth 


io 


aio 


Hand 


iniru 


aiimke 


Foot 




apao 


Sun 


chioii 


hapem 


Earth 


e 


am 


Fire 


iaru 


couia 


Water 


sin 


keche. 



Of the languages neither Guarani nor Botocudo, I 
begin with those on the drainage of the Tocantins. 



English. 


Timhirai'. 






English. 


Tirabiras. 


Head 


jora 






Sun 


puttu 


Eye 


intho 






Moon 


putturagh 


Nose 


ingniakra 






Earth 


pia 


Mouth 


sharicoa 






Fire 


cochto 


Tongue 


ingnoto 






Water 


CO 


Tooth 


itzoa 






One 


itaputshitti 


Hand 


ingniucrahy 






Two 


ipiacruttu 


Foot 


babalneci-ahuk 




Three 


ingere. 


English. 


Ge. 






English. 


Ge. 


Head 


grangbla 






Sun 


chughera 


Eye 


alepuh 






Moon 


paang 


Nose 


aenocopioh 






Earth 


chgku 


Mouth 


aingco 






Fire 


ping 


Tongue 


aenetta 






Water 


aeco 


Tooth 


aijante 






One 


gumtung 


Hand 


senaenong 






Two 


uaeu 


Foot 


aepahno 






Three 


balipe. 


English. 




Car^ja. 




Apinages. 


Man 




abou 




iprid 


Woman 




awkeu 




iprom 


Head 




woara 






Hair 




woara-day 






Eye 




wa-a-rouwai 




Tooth 




wa-a-djou 






Tongue 




wa-darato 






Hand 




wa-debo 







Foot 




wa-ai? 


fa 







TOCANTINS LANGUAGES. 



13 



Enslisb 




Caraja 




Apiuages. 


Water 




beai 




piacom 


Fire 




eatou 




coaconooa 


Sun 








bore 


Moon 








burua. 


English. 


Tocantin?. 


Caraho. 


Cherente. 


Chavaute. 


}fan 


papay 




ambeu 


ambei 


Woman 


mentija 


meca-ouare picon 


picon 


I/ead 


iscran 


icran 


dicran 


dicran 


Hair 


itki 


ikei 






Eye 


into 




datoi 


datoi 


Nose 






danescri 


danescri 


Tooth 


ninhloa 


itchoua 


dagaoi 


daguoi 


Tongue 


gnoto 


ioto 






Hand 


gnoDcra 




danicra 


dai-iperai 


Foot 


it-pari 




dapra 


dapra-canoo. 


Water 


inko 


ko 






Fire 


couvou 




congeu 


congeu 


Sun 


kathoa 


put 


binden 




Moon 


badouTTou 




ooa 


oua. 


Eng'isli. 


Chuntaquiro. 


Engliah. 


ChnDtaqniro. 


Eye 


weari 




Sun 


katchi 


Noite 


weiri 




Moon 


ceri 


Tooth 


weii 




Star 


catahiri 


Foot 


wait! 




Water 


une. 



Spoken in Bahia. 



English. 


Kiriri. 


Sabuyah. 


Head 


tzambu 


zabuk 


Eye 


po 


poh 


Xose 


nembi 


nabitzeh 


Mouth 


waridga 


oriseh 


Tongue 


nana 


nunu 


Tooth 


dza 


zah 


Hand 


mysa-baanghe 


mussoh 


Foot 


by 


puih 


Sun 


ache 


utsheh 


Moon 


cayacu 


gayacu 


Day 


cayapri 




Earth 


rada 


rattah 


Fire 


isujiuw 


essa 


Water 


dzu 


tzoh 


One 


bibe 




Two 


wachana 




Three 


wachanidikie 





L L 



514 



PURUS, ETC. 



Spoken in Rio Janeiro and Minas Geraes, 



English. 

Head 

Eye 

Nose 

Mouth 

Tongue 

Tooth 

Hand 

Foot 

Sun 

Moon, 

Bay 

Earth 

Fire 

Water 

One 

Tioo 

Three 



Purus. 

n'gue 

miri 

nhe 

jora 

tope 

dje 

core 

jupre 

ope 

petara 

bricca 

aje 

pote 

nhama 

omi 

curiri 

prica 



Coroato. 


Coropo. 


gue 


pitao 


mere 


ualim 


nhe 


shirong 


tshore 


tshore 


tompe 


tupe 


tshe 


shorim 


tshopre 


tshambrim 


kakora 


tshambrim 


hope 


nasceun 


petahra 


nashe 


uasche 


bame 


pohe 


ke 


nhaman 


teign 


scombriuan 


nam 


tshiri 


gringrim 


patapakon 


patehackon(?) 



Spoken in Matagrosso and in the direction of the 
Chaco. 



English. 


Guana. 


Englisli. 


Guana. 


Man 


tahanan 


Ear 


guiaibaino 


Woman 


zeeno 


Hand 


no 


Head 


kom baipoi 


Foot 


djabawai 


Hair 


dooti 


Sun 


katbai 


Eye 


onguei 


Moon 


kobaivai 


Nose 


agueiri 


Star 


ickerai 


Tooth 


onhai 


Water 


bouna. 


Tongue 


nahainai 






English. 


Guato. 


English. 


Guato. 


Man 


matai 


Tongue 


chagi 


Woman 


monnagai 


Ear 


mavi 


Head 


dokeu 


Hand 


ida 


Hair 


maeu 


Foot 


apoo 


Eye 


marei 


Fire 


mata 


Nose 


taga 


Water 


maquen. 


Tooth 


maqua 






English. 


Guachi. 


English. 


Guachi. 


Man 


chacup 


Hair 


ioatriz 


Woman 


outie 


Eye 


iataya 


Head 


iotapa 


Nose 


ianote 



PAYAGUA, ETC. 



515 



English. 


Gaaclii. 


English. 


Guachi. 


Tooth 


iava 


Sun 


oes 


Tongue 


iteche 


Moon 


oalete 


Ear 


irtamnete 


Star 


aate 


Hand 


iolaimason 


Water 


euak. 


Foot 


iacalep 






Erglisli. 


Bororo. 


English. 


Bororo. 


Eye 


itai 


Sun 


cuerou 


Nose 


kinamalo 


Moon 


ari 


Mouth 


noiri 


Star 


ikai 


Tooth 


ita 


Fire 


toln 


Hand 


chetara 


Water 


ikotowai. 


Foot 


igoolai 






English. 


Fayagna. 


English. 


Payagna. 


God 


haasum 


Leg 


yehega 


Father 


iralgwah 


Water 


waaac 


Brother 


yagtiwah 


Bread 


asyah 


Child 


dfiawat 


Bow 


sua 


Mother 


yosawsah 


Truth 


sahc 


Wife 


elmhirah 


Pretty 


laaa 


Sister 


yagubira 


Ugly 


thlak 


Face 


igwetshogra 


One 


petshaah 


Hand 


sumahyah 


Two 


seradi 


Foot 


sewli 


Pour 


p^as. 


Finger 


igutsan 







The Guanans of Martius live between the Paraguay 
and the SieiTa de Chainez and are stated to be related 
to the Cahans, Coahunas, or Men of the Wood, whom 
the Guacurus call Cayubabas. To this add that the 
Guana vocabulary of Gastelnau is given by Ludwig 
to these same Guanans. If so, we may compare it 
to the Cayubaba, or Cayuvava, of the mission of 
Moxos. Doing this we shall find that the resemblance 
is of the slightest, consisting chiefly (perhaps wholly) in 
that between 



English. 
Tongue 



Gnann. 
na-hanai 



CajTibaba. 
ine 



But what if there are two Cayubabas ? 



L L 2 



516 



THE GUANA. 



The following languages belong to Peru and Bolivia 
rather than Brazil. The former is spoken on the west 
of the Moxos frontier, the latter on the Ucayale. 

(1.) 



English. 


Antes. 






English. 


Antes. 


Eye 


nocki 






Sun 


kisiti 


Nose 


nogiurimasi 




Moon 


casiri 


Mouth 


notseura 






Star 


impokiro 


Tooth 


nai 






Fire 


chichi 


Hand 


nako 






Water 


nia. 


Foot 


nokuti 














(2.) 










Glosses 






English. 


Panos. 






English. 


Panos. 


Eys 


bouero 






Sun 


vari 


Nose 


raiki 






Moon 


ouche 


Mouth 


kaishra 






Star 


ouisti 


Tooth 


schaita 






Fire 


chi 


Hand 
Foot 


moique 
tarri 






Water 


umparse. 




/ 


nfiections. 




I 


evi 






I love 


evi nai 


Thou 


mevi 






Thou lovest 


mevinoui 


He 


avi 






He loves 


avinoui 


We 


novombi 






We love 


novombinoui 


Ye 


mivombi 






Ye love 


mivombinoui 


They 


avombi 






They love 


avombinoui 


My 


mocouna 






One 


achupe 


Our 


novombina 






Two 


raboe. 


Their 


mitombina 











In Paraguay, the Gaarani is the chief native lan- 
guage ; the obliteration of other native tongues being 
very great. 




THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL 517 



CHAPTER LXV. 

General Remarks on the American Langaages. 

The primary division is that between North and South 
America ; the difference between them being partly 
real and partly what may be called subjective. It is 
real, because the Isthmus of Darien is a narrow neck of 
land, and the points of contact between the two penin- 
sulas are few ; nor are they notably increased by taking 
in the West- Indian Islands as a second passage. 

It is subjective (by which I mean that it is referable 
to our want of knowledge) through the scantiness of 
our materials for Nicaragua, Costarica, Honduras, and 
St. Salvador on the one side, and for New Grenada on 
the other. There is, then, a true want or deficiency 
of investigation, and there is, also, the fact of the 
displacement and obliteration of the native tongues 
having been great. Nev^ertheless, the coincidences be- 
tween the two classes are numerous. 

In North America the connection with Asia is de- 
cided. Through the Aleutian dialect of the Eskimo, 
and the Kamtshatkan, it is direct. Thi'ough the Yuka- 
hiri and other tongues it is indirect. That this affinity 
was concealed so long as we took the Eskimo in the At- 
lantic portion of its area, and compared, or contrasted, 
it wdth the Algonkin — itself on its Atlantic side also — 
has already been stated ; and it may be added that, even 
on the side of the Pacific, it is, by no means, apparent 



518 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

on a mere cursory and superficial inspection. The Es- 
kimo is a definite class, with its maximum of difierence 
on the side of the Atlantic. The Athabaskan is also a 
definite class when compared with the Algonkin, which 
underlies it when we pass the Rocky Mountains. On 
the side, however, of the Pacific, the phenomena of 
ti'ansition present themselves. The Kenay was not 
generally recognized as Athabaskan, until compared with 
the Loucheux ; and, as long as the Kenay was unfixed, 
the Ugalents and its congeners were unfixed also. As 
it is, they form a definite sub-class, with Eskimo affini- 
ties on one hand, and Atna affinities on the other ; the 
Kolush being truly transitional. The Chesmesyan, the 
Hailtsa, the Wakash, and the Chinuk, are connected 
through their miscellaneous affinities, and are all 
characterized by their harsh phonesis. The Jakon and 
Kalapuya lead to the languages of the Sahaptin and 
Shoshoni phonesis — among the congeners of which the 
sound of tl appears and reappears. In the Mexican, 
this becomes prominent ; and in the Maya, to say the 
least, has no inordinate prominence. 

Between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, the 
Aloronkin, with its intrusive character and wide diflfusion, 
has done so much in the way of the displacement and 
obliteration of such forms of speech as may have shown 
signs of transition that it is the best-marked class on 
the continent. Its spread, however, appears to have 
been from west to east, and the result of it has told most 
on the iragmentary and isolated languages of the Iroquois 
family, which it has affected in the way that the Tui'k 
and Russian have aflfected the Ugrian. In its ordinal value, 
it is, apparently, higher than the Turk, the Mongol, or 
the Tungus ; lower than the Fin. Taking it along with 
the Athabaskan and its congeners as far as American 
Oregon, and with the Eskimo, it probably forms a class 
to which the Iroquois, the Sioux, the Catawba, the Uche 
(with its congeners), and (perhaps) the Caddo, form a 



IN GENERAL. 519 

co-ordinate. At any rate, the Athabaskan and Algon- 
kin, the Sioux and Iroquois, belong to the same class 
with one another, and to different ones when compared 
in mass — whatever the value of those classes may be. 

The South Oregon languages graduate into the Cali- 
fomian, and the Califomian into those of the Paduca 
class and those of Sonora ; until we come to the two 
great divisions of the Mexican and Maya ; the former 
of the greater historical importance, the latter impoi-tant 
from the multiplicity of its dialects — dialects which 
simulate separate substantive languages. 

The Moqui, a Pueblo language, has decided Paduca 
affinities. 

If the Attakapa seem to be pre-eminently isolated, the 
vast displacements which have occurred all around may 
account for it. It has, for an American language, a 
monosyllabic look. So has the Otomi, which has been 
compared with the Chinese. So have some of the 
Athabaskan tongues. So have some of the Algonkin, in 
certain vocabularies ; their congeners, meanwhile, being 
as polysyllabic as the American languages in generaL 
This leads to the consideration of certain doctrines con- 
cerning what is caUed the general grammatical structure 
of the languages of the New World ; in which, we are 
told, that they all agree in grammatical, though differing 
in glossarial, detail. The term expressive of this general 
character is jx>ly synthetic. Wliat is its import ? 

It is a fact that in an American sentence the term 
denoting the object coalesces with the verb ; so that, 
while a Roman delivered the equivalent to I call in the 
single word voco, the American can, in a single word, 
say / call hiTii, her, or them, as the ease may be. 

It is also a fact that there are certain very long 
words expressive of what in Europe is expressed by 
short ones, and that out of these long words compounds 
may be made which are no longer than either of the 
single elements. This looks as if each were picked 



520 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

to pieces, and a part alone taken. There is something 
in each (d, fortiori in both) of these processes which 
bears out the term polysynthetic. Valeat qvxintura. 

The former process is quite as European as American, 
and is, to a certain extent, a piece of printer's philology. 
In catch 'em, in je Vairae, &c., there is a true incorpo- 
ration of the objective pronoun with the verb : which, 
in the Norse, Lithuanic, and other languages, has given 
us a passive voice developed out of a middle, itself deve- 
loped out of the amalgamation of the verb with the 
pronoun. In the Magyar this incorporation has com- 
manded no little attention. 

In respect to the other phenomenon — the phenomenon 
of a composition with a decomposition to precede it — 
it would be important if proven. The fact, however, of 
the decomposition is more than doubtful. It is not out 
of the full-formed pair of primary compounds that the 
secondary compound is made, but out of the original 
parts which existed while they — the apparent primary 
compounds — were merely compounds in posse. 

Another fact which suggests the term is the incor- 
poration of the personal pronoun with the names of cer- 
tain parts of the body, as shown in the difficulty there 
is in getting an American to say eye or head, &c. purely 
and simply. He always says my-eye, your-head, or 
something of the kind.* But this is Papuan, not to 
say Kurd and Gipsy, as well. 

The same criticism applies to the inclusive and ex- 
clusive plurals ; which are, by no means, American : nor 
even Asiatic. The Spanish nosotros has already been 
alluded to. 

Still there is polysyntheticism to a certain degree — . 
though much of it is of the grammarian's making. Ex* 
isting, however, as it does, it may occur in every degr 



sen 

4 



* This may be seen in almost any one of the vocabularies, wherein tlie most 
cursory inspection tells us that the parts of the human body nearly always 
begin with either the same syllable or the same letter. 



4 



IN GENERAL. 521 

Where the amalgamation is perfect we have such voca- 
bularies as the Iroquois aud such paternosters as the 
Tarasca. Where it is incomplete we have the show of 
a monosyllabic language. 

The doctrine, then, that the differences in gi'ammatical 
structure are differences of degree rather than of kind, 
aud that there is uothinor in one languaore which, either 
as a fragment or a rudiment, is not to be found in 
another, is contravened by nothing from America. 

The languages to which those of America are the nearest 
equivalents in the way of development are, by no means, 
their nearest congeners in the way of actual affinity. 
These are the languages of the Papuan and Australian 
areas ; and, to a certain extent, those of Polynesia. The 
limited numeration and the concrete view of plurality 
are points in which they have a decided likeness ; and 
it is scarcely necessary to add that the culture of the two 
families is on a like low level. 

' In North America the phenomena in the way of dis- 
tribution and diffusion which presented themselves in 
Asia re-appear ; and in South, there is a re-appearance 
of the phenomena of North, America. Small areas 
with a multiplicity of mutually unintelligible forms of 
speech stand in strong contrast to large ones with a 
TiiinimuTn of dicdectual difference. What the Atha- 
baskan and the Algonkin are in the one peninsula, the 
Quichua, the Carib, and, above all, the Guarani, are in the 
other. From the want, however, of details, the direction 
of the several movements by which they spread is, for 
the most part, undetermined. 

With any South American vocabulary of adequate 
length, some North American root presents itself — .some, 
indeed, from the extreme north, e. g. the Eskimo area. 
Now, as borrowing is out of the question (whilst the 
words are not of the sort to be independently excogi- 
tated by distant speakers), this, along with the phe- 
nomena of transition, is the chief philological argument 



522 THE AMERICAN LANGUAGES 

in favour of the fundamental unity of the two classes. 
That the transitions are obscure is, from the scantiness 
of our data for the most important points, what we 
expect, a priori. 

When well within South America — for New Granada 
gives us but few materials — however difficult it may be 
to give a systematic classification of definitely affiliated 
languages, it is much more difficult to find a language 
wherein miscellaneous affinities are wanting. The stu- 
dent from Peru finds Quichua words in every vocabulary 
he lights upon : whilst the student from Brazil finds 
Guarani ones. These languages are, certainly, the most 
widely spread of any : but the same coincidences — 
allowance being made for the difference in the number 
of the words compared — occur in all the other tongues ; 
even those of which our knowledge is the slightest. 

The details of the classification are given in the pre- 
liminary table. The ordinal value, however, of the 
whole American class requires a brief notice. I doubt* 
whether, on the whole, it is higher than that of tlie so- 
called Indo-European in its most restricted form, i. e. 
in the form to which it is limited in the forthcoming 
chapters of the present work. 

However, in order that this statement may not pass 
for a paradox, it must be remembered that the value of a 
class depends not upon the number of the minor divisions 
and sub-divisions which it may contain, but upon the 
amount of difference between the extremes. If, (the 
limits of the English, the Germ.an, the Russian, the 
Latin, the French, and their congeners being limited to 
areas no larger than tlie county of York,) the remainder 
of Europe were filled-up with some scores or hun- 
dreds of languages, each as different (and not more 
different) from one another as the above-named languages 
are among themselves, the value of the class at large 
would be the same ; though that of its subordinate 
sections would be less. Instead of some three primary 



m 



IN GENERAL. 523 

divisions with a mass of divisions there would be some 
scores of genera consisting of either a single species or 
of few. There would be, in short, a bundled languages 
resembling the Kussian and the German, in their differ- 
ence from each other, but not resembling them in being 
spoken over large areas. Tested by the diflferenee be- 
tween its extreme membei-s (say the Eskimo and the 
Fuegian) the American class, in my mind, is one of a 
very moderate ordinal value ; for, with a view to the thne 
required to effect change, a little consideration tells us 
that the period which will modify one form of speech 
may just as easily modify a hundred. 



524 THE PHENICIAN. 



CHAPTER LXVI. 

The Semitic Languages. — The Phenician and Punic. — The Hebrew and Sa- 
maritan. — The Assyrian and Chaldee. — The Syriac. — The ^thiopic and 
Aniharic. — Gafat. — Arabic. — Hururgi, The Amazig or Berber. 

The Phenician of Tyre and Sidon and the parts 
around is known only by inscriptions ; and as these 
are without date the exact state of language which 
they indicate is uncertain. They are spread over a 
wide tract of country ; a tract which agrees with the 
notions suggested by the ordinary historical accounts 
of the commercial and colonial relations of those two 
cities. They are either rare or non-existent beyond 
the range of Mount Taurus, They are rare or non- 
existent along tlie eastern parts of Africa. They are nume- 
rous in Spain, and they have been found in Sicily and 
Malta. Between those which represent Carthage and 
tiiose that represent Phenicia the line of demarcation is 
partly uncertain, partly conventional. Nevertheless, it 
is convenient to separate, so far as it can be done, the 
Phenician from the Punic — allied or identical as they 
may be. 

In the way of language the Phenician inscriptions 
are unimportant. In the history of the alphabet they 
are of interest. It was from Phenicia that the Greeks 
took their letters : the Old Italians theirs ; and from 
these two all the alphabets of the West have originated. 
Those of the East (in the mind of the present writer) 
have, also, a like origin. The j)roof, however, is less patent. 



THE PHENICIAN. 525 

The Phenician alphabet consisted of signs for the mutes 
and liquids. Then comes what are considered signs for 
certain breathings, as h and its congeners ; along with 
certain semi-vowels and nasals. In the Phenician itself, 
and in its immediate eastern descendants, these are 
treated as consonants — so that the alphabets under the 
ordinary doctrine are alphabets without vowels. If 
so, such a word as inUk is written ralh ; the context 
being held sufficient to say whether the actual word was 
Ttielek, or railik, or rtiuluk, or melik, or Tnilek, or milk, 
or melk, or mlik, or mlek, or what not. Meanwhile, 
the semi- vow els, in many instances, were vowels also, so 
that stul might stand for sul, or syl for sil. In like 
manner the sound of what, as a consonant (or rather as 
a non-vowel), has been compared with the lene breath- 
ing of the Greeks is, in certain cases, represented by 
the equivalent of a. 

In the Phenician stage, then, of the alphabet all that 
can be said of certain letters is that they were occasion- 
ally vowels. In the Greek and Latin, however, they be- 
came real ones. This is a definite fact. Whatever difficul- 
ties we may have in reconciling the powers of certain 
letters on the Phenician inscriptions with the doctrine 
that they partook so much of the nature of consonants, 
and so little of the nature of vowels as to be equivalent 
to the lene and aspirate breathings of the Greeks {' and *), 
the semi- vowels of the English {y and w), and the na- 
sals of the Portuguese (a o), it is beyond all doubt that 
in the Greek and Latin they became a, tj, e, and o, all 
trace of their consonantal power having been lost at 
an early period. This change, however, they underwent 
only in their progress w^estward. 

They also underwent another — this, too, in their pro- 
gress westward. In Phenicia they were written from 
right to left ; in Greece and Italy (after a time) from 
left to ricrht. 

Again — the Phenician alphabet, as far as it is known 



526 THE PHENICIAN. 

to us, is known to us from inscriptions only. Hence, 
it consists of capital letters only, and these in a form 
that suits the carver on stone rather than the writer 
on paper or parchment. 

The Phenician of Carthage is conveniently called Punic, 
and, like the Phenician Proper, it is known through in- 
scriptions. Unlike the Punic it is known by something 
more than inscriptions. In the Little Carthaginian 
(Poenulus) of Plautus one of the characters is a Cartha- 
ginian, who speaks his own Punic. 

On the east the Phenician, in the limited sense of 
the term, came in contact with the Galilean, into 
which it probably graduated ; as the Galilean itself did 
into the Syrian, the dialects of the country beyond 
Jordan, and (on the south) the Samaritan. That there 
was some difference between the Galilean and the 
Hebrew of Jerusalem we learn from the New Testa- 
ment : the Galilean being, nevertheless, a Hebrew 
dialect ; indeed, between the Phenician and the Hebrew 
the difference was political rather than philological. It 
is the Hebrew into which the Punic of the Poenulus has 
been more especially transliterated. 

Concerning the Samaritan, of which the chief original 
speakers were of the tribe of Ephraim, we know that 
it wanted the Hebrew sound of either sh or th ; so that 
Sihboleth, Shibbolet, or Sibboleth, was the Samaritan form 
of Shibboleth. 

The Samaritan alphabet was older, and more like the 
Phenician than the Hebrew. That a copy of the Pen- 
tateuch is written in it, that it still exists, and that it 
gives some important variations from the Hebrew text, 
is well-known, though its age is uncertain. The re- 
mainder of the literature consists in a chronicle and 
some private letters, written in Arabic with Samaritan 
characters. In the neighbourhood of Nablus, fragments 
of the Samaritans still exist ; some others, I believe, in 
Cairo. It is the Samaritan characters that give the 



THE HEBREW. 527 

legends of the Maccabean coins. That the blood in 
Samaria difi'ers notably from the language, is an infer- 
ence from the statement in Ezra, that the men and 
women who retmned to Samaiia after the removal of 
the population by Nebuchadnezzar, were (amongst 
others) Babylonians, Susanites, and Elamites : i. e. Assy- 
rians, or Arabs, or Persians, or a mixture. 

The Hehrev: of Judea now follows ; the slight differ- 
ence between which and the Samaritan is enhanced by 
the difference of alphabet. 

The fundamental date in our criticism of the Hebrew 
language in respect to its history is the second year of 
the reign of Darius II., in which were delivered the pro- 
phecies of Haggai and Zechariah. Though Malachi, as 
the last of the prophets, is generally, and perhaps rightly, 
held to foUow these two in time, we have no exact dates 
for him. On the other hand, those of Haggai and Zecha- 
riah (more or less) are precise. Their compositions cannot 
be older, though they may be later. This coincides with 
the time of Thucydides, and Aristophanes in Greece, the 
culmination of the Attic period. The language of these 
is essentially that of the oldest composition in the New 
Testament. Such being the case, one of three things is 
the inference. 

1. That the older writings, in their transcription, 
were accommodated to the newer medium, just as was 
the case with the older compositions in English, where 
we have not only differences of dialect, but differences 
of time as well. 

2. That the newer writings were written upon the 
model of the old, just as Ciceronian Latin is written by 
late Italians. 

3. That the language actually remained unchanged, 
just as, to some extent, and for some time, and as, com- 
pared with certain other languages which changed quickly, 
the Old Norse of Iceland did. It is unsafe to lay down 
any general rule for particular cases of this kind. Each 



528 THE HEBREW. 

must be tried on its own merits; and it belongs to the 
great Biblical and Semitic scholars to investigate the one 
under notice. The question of permanence is one which 
is, more or less, regulated by circumstances. A language 
which resists influences for a century may fail to do so 
for a millennium ; or a language, which, with no altera- 
tive influences to touch it, may remain unchanged for a 
century, may, under conditions unfavourable to its per- 
manence, transform itself into something else in a gene- 
ration or two. 

Haggai, then, and Zechariah are loci standi for the 
typical, historical Hebrew of the Jewish Scriptures, 
with its massive quadrate alphabet, with Jerusalem as 
its local centre, with the tribes of Benjamin and Judah 
as its speakers, with Jewish or Hebrew as its name, 
and with the middle of the fifth century B.C. as its date. 
It covers everything in the Old Testament with the 
exception of Ezra and Daniel, and gives us nothing 
beyond ; i. e. nothing which exactly coincides with the 
standard it exhibits. 

From the names of the families or tribes in Ezra, 
some of which are named from the localities which they 
inhabited before the Captivity, it was the language of 
Jerusalem and something more — as is to be expected. 
That it did not all go back to Jerusalem we learn from 
the subsequent notices of the Jews in various parts of 
the Persian Empire, not to mention those of Egypt. 

That Hebrew was the name for the language of the 
Holy Land at the time of our Saviour's Crucifixion, we 
learn from the trilingual inscriptions over the cross — ^in 
Greek, in Latin, and in Hebrew : and that the Galilean 
was a well-marked dialect of it, we learn fi-om the 
answer of the woman to Peter, whose " speech bewrayed 
him." — St. Matthew xxvi. 73. 

In no part of the world do small differences in the 
way of speech appear greater than they do about 
Judsea. The ordinal value of the whole Semitic class 



THE HEBREW. 529 

itself is of the smallest ; but in Judaea and on the 
Hebrew frontier everything creates distinctions. To 
differences in nationality and religion differences of 
alphabet are added ; and, out of all these combined, 
come names like Hebrew, Samaritan, and Phenician — 
names through which dialects take the guise of languages. 

That these complications increase as we proceed we 
shall soon find. How the Hebrew comported itself to 
the SjT-ian on the north, to the forms of speech on the 
Tigris and Euphrates on the east, and to the Arabic on 
the south, is a difficult question : for it must be remem- 
bered that, over and above the differences of name, 
alphabet, and nationality, there was a difference of 
time ; the newest Hebrew being older than the oldest 
Syriac, and much older than the oldest Arabic. 

As far, at least, as name went, the Aramaic of 
the time of the kincrs of Judali was recogrnized as 
a different language from the Hebrew, both before 
the Captivity and afterwards. " Then said Eliakim, 
Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Aramaic 
language ; for we understand it : and talk not with us 
in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are 
on the waU." "Then Rabshakeh stood and cried 
with a loud voice in the Jews' language, and spake," &c. 
(2 Kings xviii. 26, 28.) Then they cried "in the 
Jews' speech unto the people that were on the walls," 
&c. (2 Chron. xxxii. 18.) This applies to an ad- 
dress of Eabshakeh, on the part of the King of -4 s- 
syria, who, as speaking to Jews, addressed them in their 
language — not in his. I do not look, however, upon 
this answer as conclusive to the fact that, on all occasions 
and under all circumstances, the Syrian was unintel- 
ligible to a Jew. All that it tells is, that Eliakim, who 
understood Syrian, considered that Rabshakeh, who was 
unnecessarily departing from the use of his own mother 
tongue, would do well in using, out of two languages, 
the one which, besides being his 5wn, was less patently 

M M 



530 THE HEBREW. 

plain to the common people than the one he was using. 
A latent wish too, to let Rabshakeh know that he (Eli- 
akim) could speak Aramaic is not to be overlooked. All 
that Eliakim said to Rabshakeh might be said by a 
Dane who spoke Swedish to a Swede unnecessarily talk- 
ing Danish, or by a Portuguese to a Spaniard under 
similar circumstances. This means, that I do not look 
upon the passage as conclusive to the Aramaic and the 
Judsean having been mutually unintelligible languages ; 
which I think they were not. 

In thus calling these two forms of speech Judaic and 
AraraaiG I give the original terms of the Jews them- 
selves. The Greek, Latin, and ordinary equivalent of 
Aramaic is Syrian. Here it applies to the Assyrian, 
i. e. the language of the subjects of Sennacherib rather 
than those of Benhadad. 

In Ezra we find a similar distinction, the date being 
the time of Ai'taxerxes ; when the notification that the 
re-constitution of Jerusalem was going on, and that it 
ought to be stopped, is written in Aramaic ; as were other 
documents appertaining to the administration of Judea. 
But too much stress must not be laid on this ; inas- 
much as a slight difierence between the languages would 
be enhanced by the difierence between the alphabets. 

In Daniel we get a new term, and it is because this 
name is an important one ; an obscure one ; one which, 
from its ambiguity, has created no little confusion ; and 
one of which the history is mixed up with that of the 
Aramaic and Jewish, that the preceding minutioi have 
been indulged in. Along with Shadrach, Meshach, 
and Abednego, Daniel is brought up under the master 
of the eunuchs to be taught "the learning and the 
tongue of the Chasdim {Chaldees)." Elsewhere the 
Chasdim and Arameans (Chaldees and Syrians or 
Assyrians) are associated. Now, it is only in the 
latter half of the book of Daniel, and only when the 
kingdom of which Babylon was the capital is con- 




THE SYRIAC. 531 

trasted with that of the Medes and Persians, that CTuls- 
dim is a national name. In the earlier chapters, and 
when the contrast is between the Babylonians and Jews, 
it means astrologer. 

The Aramaic that was spoken by Rabshakeh was the 
language of J..ssyria rather than Syria. It was also 
the language of Nineveh rather than Babylon. The 
Aramaic of Ezra and the earlier chapters of Daniel was 
also Assyrian rather than Syrian ; but it was the 
Assyrian of Babylon rather than Nineveh. 

It is from the Assyrian of Babylon that Chaldee, as 
a name of the later Hebrew, is taken, and it is from 
Nineveh that we get Caldani, as a name of the exist- 
ing Christians of the parts about TJrumiah. 

Of the true Syriac of Damascus, Emesa, and Edessa, 
the literary history begins no earlier than the fourth 
century. 

It is Christian. It is embodied in an alphabet 
which, though it agrees with the Hebrew in the number, 
order, and names of its letters, diflers from it in the 
form of them : the language itself being in contact with 
the Greek and encroached upon by it. If it were 
really spoken in Cappadocia it was the most northern 
dialect of its class. The Palmyrene, known only by 
inscriptions of the third century, is either a peculiar 
alphabet or the ordinary alphabet adapted to lapidary 
purposes. 

In the third century, as now, Irak and Khuzistan 
were districts in which the Persian and the Arab popu- 
lations came in contact ; and in the third century (and 
even eai-lier) the Syrian language was widely current in 
both Arsacidan and Sassanian Persia. In his life of 
Antony, Plutarch tells as how ilithridates, a cousin of 
Moneses, asked for some one who could communicate 
^vith him in either Parthian or Syrian. In the seventh 
century a Syrian abstract of Aristotle's Dialectic is said 
to have been made for Chosroes Nashirvan. More than 

M M 2 



532 THE SYRIAC. 

this, the geographical details of the Semitic tribes of 
south-western Persia are known. The particular popula- 
tion which occupied Khuzistan and Irak was that of the 
Nabatheans ; so-called by both the Arabian and Persian 
historians ; though the name has a wide as well as a 
limited signification, Masudi writes that Ardeshir Ba- 
began besieged a Nabathean king in Sevad. The date, 
however, is too early for this to pass as actual history. 
Tabari, however, states that "at this present time the 
Nabatheans who dwell in Sewad are descended from the 
Arameans." 

That these Nabatheans were of the rudest is likely 
enough ; indeed, it is specially stated that such was tlie 
case. Nevertheless, they could mix up their language 
with that of the traders, the soldiers, and the common 
people as well as more learned men. Meanwhile but a 
little beyond them was the alphabet, the literature, and 
the civilization of Palmyra — largely Greek; but, at the 
same time, Semitic as well. It is to the Palmyrene that 
the lapidary Sassanian most closely approaches. 

It is not for nothing that I have gone into these 
details. With the multiplicity of names and alphabets, 
the differences between the languages under notice have 
been exaggerated. Let any one who doubts about 
their being essentially dialects of a single language pre- 
pare himself for the investigation by a due valuation of 
the extreme differences between the different dialects of 
Germany, France, or Italy. If he come to the conclu- 
sion that such an examination proves too much, and 
that the result of it is a splitting up of several French, 
Italian, and German dialects into so many separate 
substantive languages, I have nothing to say against his 
conclusion, I have only to ask him to suppose the 
Arabic, the Syriac, and Hebrew all written in the same 
alphabet, and compared with one another in the same 
stage. Unless this be doiie, differences will be exagge- 
rated and names will mislead. 



I 



THE GHEEZ AND TIGRE. 633 

If this uniformity be admitted, the conclusion must 
give the comparative recent diffusion of the forms of 
speech in which it appears — either this or a great indis- 
position to change. Of the two alternatives, the former 
is the more likely, though I do not press it as the only one. 

The direction in which the stream of language moved 
is obscure ; all that can be said is, that there are none of 
the lanoruaores on the Asiatic side of the Red Sea into 
which they graduate. The converse is the case in 
Africa. This induces me to leave the Arabic for the 
present, and to begin at the other side of the Semitic 
area, and, having fii-st considered the extremes, to pro- 
ceed to the consideration of the middle ground. 

The Glieez ls the language of the earliest .^thiopic 
translation of the canonical Scriptures, of more than one 
apocryphal portion of them, and of a few writings on 
ecclesiastical subjects. It is read, at the present time, in 
the churches, in the way that the Latin is read in the 
Roman Catholic countries, and the Old Slavonic in 
Russia. Its alphabet is syllabic, and the writing runs 
from left to right, and not from right to left, as is the 
case with the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic. The details 
of its origin we cannot give, nor name its immediate 
prototype. 

Of the descendants of the Gheez, the nearest is that 
of the present province of Tigrd ; indeed, the Tigre is 
generally looked upon as modem Gheez, the Gheez as 
ancient Tigv4 — the Tigr^ being a written language ; its 
alphabet, the Gheez with modifications. Of its dialects 
and sub-dialects we know nothing. The parts about the 
ancient city of Axum are the probable localities of these 
two varieties of the -^thiopic. 

Grondar, on the other hand, and the southern pro- 
vinces of Abyssinia, give the Amharic area : the Am- 
haric language being spoken at the present time by the 
majority of the southern Abyssinians ; and being written 
in an alphabet of Gheez origin. 

The Gafat lies in contact with the Amharic and Agaw 



534 



THE GAFAT. 



on the north, and the Galla on the south ; by both of 
which it has been encroached on — by the former first, 
by the latter recently : indeed, the Galla encroachment 
is still going on. Bruce has given a specimen of it, so 
has Dr. Beke : who remarks that his own vocabulary is 
more Amharic than his predecessor's. 



English. 


Gafat (1). 


Gafat (2). 


Man {homo) 


sabush 


sebew 


{vir) 

People 


tab^tish 
s§,boach 








Woman 


^nsit 


an set 


Boy 


busMn 






GiH 
Head 


^skharai 
ddmoa 




demow 


Hair 


tsagera 


chegur 


Eye 


yena 


ein 


Ecvr 


ankwagi 


ankwagi 


Nose 


&unfwa 


anfu 


Mouth 


simota 


semota 


Lip 


kanfarish 


semota 


Tongue 


melasish 


melasi 


Tooth 


sinna 


Sena 


Hand 


ts4tan 


edzhedzhe 


Foot 


cMmme 


cbama 


Bone 


damush 
atsemo 




atsant 


Sky 


samai 






Swn 


dzhember 


cheber 


Moon 


chereka 


tserakit 


Star 


kokab 


kokeb 


Pi/re 


esSitsh 


satawi 


Water 


ega 


ege 


^one 


dzhindzish 


denguish 


Tree 


zafi 


mazafash 


One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 


edzhe 

helitta 

sdsta 

arb&tta 

h&mista 

sMista 

seb&tta 

semlnta 

zat6il& 

asser 























It is into the Amharic that Dr. Beke believes that the 
Gafat is gradually merging. The special Gafat locaUty is 



THE GAFAT. 535 

a small district in the south of Daraot. It apparently falls 
into dialects, or sub-dialects ; since the language of Dr. 
Beke's informants varied according to the district from 
which it came. Some gave to almost every word the ter- 
mination -ish ; others -oa ; others no addition at all. The 
former of these affixes is truly Gafat : the latter is Agaw 
as well. 

The alphabet of the present Arabic is closely akin to 
that of the Syriac ; from an early form of which, the 
Cufic, it seems to have been derived. But the Arabic of 
the Koran is not the oldest language of which we find 
memorials in Arabia. Neither dees it give us the only 
Arabic dialect. Certain valleys in the south-east abound 
in in.scriptions to which the name Himyaritic has been 
applied. The alphabet of these is the ^thiopic, which 
differs from aU the other Semitic alphabets in being not 
only written from right to left, but in being syllabic. 
Whether this give us a new language in the strictest 
sense of the term is uncertain. It is certain that it 
gives as as much of one as is given by the Phenician, or 
even the Syriac. At any rate, it gives us a dialect of 
the south-east rather than one of the parts about Mecca ; 
a dialect of the fourth century, rather than one of t"he 
seventh ; and, finally, a dialect which, in its literaiy as- 
pect, at least, connects Arabia with .Ethiopia. 

In fevour of ^thiopic elements thus introduced upon 
the cognate Arabic, the Himyaritic inscriptions only give 
us a presumption, Arabic elements, however, in Africa 
are important realities. That the present language of 
./Egypt, Barbary, and large tracts elsewhere, is Arabic is 
well-known. In all these cases, however, the analysis 
is, comparatively, easy — the mixture being heterogeneous. 
Arabic, however, introdiiced into .Ethiopia would be 
like Dutch introduced into England ; in which case it 
would, with certain words, be hard to say to which lan- 
guage they belonged. Even if the language were, for 
aU practical purposes, Dutch, there might still be a basis 
in the older tongue. 



536 



TIGRE, AMHARIC, ETC. 



Mutatis mutandis, this applies to several forms of 
speech on the Ethiopia frontier — in all of which 
analysis is required ; in all of which, amid much which 
is Semitic, there is something that is ^thiopic rather 
than Arabic. When the Arabic has overlaid two lan- 
guages instead of one the analysis becomes more intri- 
cate. 

The languages of Hurur and Adaiel are of this kind. 



English. 


Tigr6. 


Amharic. 


Arkiko. 


Hurur. 


Adaiel. 


Man 


saboi 


wond 


nas 


abbok 


adma 


Woman 


saboite 


set 


eseet 


edok 


barra 


Head 




ras ' 


ras 


roos 


mooiya 


Hair 


tsuqure 


tsequr 




tsequr 




Eye 


aire(ou) 


ain 


en 


ain 




Nose 




afintcha 


anf 


oof 




Mouth 




af 


af 


adde 


aof 


Teeth 


sinne 


ters 


inob 


sin 




Tongue 


melhas 


melas 




arrat 




Ear 


izne 


djoro 


izun 


ut'hun 




Beard 


tchame 


tim 


dimne 


dubnn 




Hwnd 


eed 


eedgekind 








Leg 


iggere 




igger 


igger 




Foot 




tscham^ 








God 


eager 


igzer 




goeta 


alia 


Swn 


tsai 


tsai 


tsai 


eer 


airo 


Moon 


werhe 


tcherka 


werhe 


werhe 


alsa 


Star 




quokub 


kokub 


toowee 


urtoohta 


Fire 


howwe 


a'sat 


essaat 


issat 


gira 


Water 


mi 


waha 


mi 


mi 


ii 


Wind 


nef^ 


nefas 


nefas 


doof 


arhoo 


Rain 




zinam 




zenab 


rooboo 


River 


koUe 


bahr 




zer 




Earth 


midre 


mider 


midur 


diche 


bare 


HUl 


amba 


amba 


dubr 






Mountain 




tarara 




sare 


alii 


Stone 


hemne 


dengea 




un 


daha 


Fountain 


ain 


mintch 




ain 




Fish 




assa 


assur 


tulum 


kullum 


Horse 


f'raa 


feras 


fei'as 


feras 


ferasa 


One 


adde 


and 


ante 


ahad 


» 


Two 


kiUete 


quillet 


killi 


kout 




Three 


selaste 


sost 


selass 


sheeste 




Fowr 


erbahte 


arrut 


ubah 


harrut 




Fim 


aumishte 


aumist 


amoos 


hammest 




Six 


sedishte 


sedist 


soos 


sedeest 





* Numerals said to be the same as the Danakel. 



TIQRE, AMHARIC, ETC. 



537 



Eoglish. 


Tigrf. 


Amharic. 


Arkika Hnrnr. 


AdaieL 


Sevtn 


shabarte 


subhat 


sabhn sate 




Eight 


shtununte 


semint theman sut 




Nine 


tish4t€ 


zetti 


tse 


zeythan 




Ten 


ashur 


assin assor assir 




Another lanoniage of this kind is the 




English. 




Gindzhar. 




English. 


Gindzhar. 


Man 




radzhU 




Leg 


kurab 


Woman 




maira 




Foot 


kafat kai4i 


Boy 




dzhenna 




Day 


mahar 


Girl 




bint 




Night 


Uel 


Father 




§bu 




Morning 


sobahh 


Mother 




um 




Evening 


ashir 


Brother 




&kha 




Earth 


w6to 


Sister 




okht 




Water 


&lma 


Head 




ras 




Gras8 


gesh 


Hair 




shar 




Mountain 


g^Uah 


Eye 




^in 




River 


hor 


Nose 




adftn 




Good 


samnu 


Mouth 




shamak 




Bad 


tasal 


Neck 




raggaba 




Black 


fiswad 


Hand 




id 




White 


4biad 


Arm 




derah 




Red 


4hinar. 



Of the following, the former is the dialect which 
most approaches the Himyaritic ; the latter that of the 
island of Sokotra. 



English. 


Hahati 


Sokotnn 


Back 


dara mothan 


tadah 


Belly 


djof 




Cow 


bakaret 




Donkey 


heir 




Eyebrow 


ahajor 


bajhar 


Fire 


sheewot 


sheiwat 


Father 


heb 




Fish 


seit 


sodah 


Frog 


dthafzat 




God 


bal 




Hair 


shof 


fihif 


Knee 


barak 




Milk 


ishakhof 


hnf 


Mouth 


warak 




Nose 


nakhrir 


nahir 


Red 


an far 


aafer 


Rice 


hiraz 


arhaz 


Sun 


heiom 


shobum 


Star 


kabkob 


kokab. 



538 MODERN SYRIAC 

We now return to the Hebrew and Syriae in. the 
newer forms. The language of the Talmud, written 
in a modification of the Hebrew alphabet, represents 
the language of the Jews after the destruction of 
Jerusalem. It has largely influenced the Hebrew of 
common life in conjunction with other causes ; so much 
so that it may be doubted whether this latter be a true 
vernacular ; by which I mean, that is it to be compared 
with Latin as spoken by a mass of individuals who have 
learned it either directly or indirectly through books rather 
than with the Italian or Spanish which have developed 
themselves freely and spontaneously. In all languages 
the continual reference to written works developes an 
artificial element. In the modern J ewish this is believed 
to be considerable. It is a matter, however, upon which 
no one but a learned and critical Jew can speak with 
confidence. 

The same applies, in a still greater degree, to the 
fragmentary Samaritan. 

The same, too, to the modern Syriae. It is said to 
be spoken by a few individuals in the Lebanon. It 
would, perhaps, be better to say that there are some 
individuals in the Lebanon who can speak it. 

Further north, the evidence of either it or an allied 
dialect being a true vernacular improves ; it being spe- 
cifically stated that most of the Nestorians, though they 
use their own language in intercourse with each otiier, 
are able to speak the so-caUed Tartar of the Turks around 
them with ease and fluency. Very few, however, have 
any tincture of literature ; their MSS. being scarce, and 
printed works, up to A.D. 1829, non-existent. In that 
year, however, the Gospels were printed from a copy, ob- 
tained from Bishop Mar Johannan, through Dr. Wolff, 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1840, the 
American missionaries introduced a printing-press ; so 
that, over and above some important translations from 
the Scriptures, a series of tracts, from the Dairyman's 
Daughter to Dr. Watts's hymns, has been published. In 



AND HEBREW. 



539 



thus adapting an ancient language to the spiritual wants 
of a poor and illiterate communitj^ of oppressed Chris- 
tians, the names Perkins, HaUiday, Grant and Stoddart, 
to the preface of whose grammar of the Modem Syrian 
the foregoing facts are due, are honourably conspicuous. 
The schools of the mission have gradually increased in 
number, and in 1853 they amounted to eighty. 

We can scarcely consider either the modem Syriac 
or the modem Hebrew as a true spontaneous develop- 
ment of the old language. Literary influence has en- 
gendered an artificial element in them ; and the fact of 
every community where either Ls spoken using a second 
language has taken them out of conditions under which 
true philological growth proceeds. What they do illus- 
trate is, the laws by which such forces as the ones just 
noticed act — and, in this respect, they deserve all the 
attention that has been awarded them. 

Even the Arabic is scarcely a language that has been 
left to its own natural growth. Except in the ruder 
dialects of Arabia itself, of which we know little or 
nothing, the Koran has always exercised a conservative 
influence ; whilst, in Malta, where there is no Koran, 
there is a second language. 



English. 


Arabic. 


Syriac. 


Hebrew. 


Head 


ras 


rish 


rosh 


Hair 


saro 


shar 


sear 


Eye 


ayn 


eyn 


ayn 


Ear 


adzn 


adno 


ozen 


Nose 


anph 


}iTiat,Tn 


aph 


Mouth 


pham 


pham 


pi 


Tooth 


sen 


sheno 


shen 


Tonrjvx 


lishan 


leshono 


lashon 


Hand 


yad 


yad 


rad 


Foot 


rigl 


r^o 


regel 


Sun 


shams 


shemsbo 


shemesh 


Star 


kaukab 


kukbo 


kokab' 


Day 


yawm 


yemn 


yom 


Night 


laila 


laUo 


laila 


Fire 


anisat 


eshotto 


esh 


Water 


ma 


mayo 


mayim 



540 



THE AMAZIG OR BERBER GROUP. 



Eiiglisli. 


Arabic. 


Syriac. 


Hebrew. 


One 


akhad 


hhad 


ehhad 


Ttpo 


thana 


tharin 


shanim 


Three 


thaleth 


tholth 


shelosh 


Four 


arbat 


arba' 


arba' 


Five 


hliams 


hhamesh 


hhamesh 


Six 


sit 


sheth 


shesh 


Seven 


sab' 


sheba' 


sheba 


Eight 


sam&ra 


thmon 


shemoneh 


Nine 


tish 


tsha 


tesha' 


Ten 


ashar 


'sar 


'asar. 



The Amazig (or Berber) area is the largest in Africa, 
extending from the confines of Egypt to the Atlantic 
Ocean. More than this — the Canary Islands, until the 
extermination or fiision of their aborigines, were Amazig. 

Again — the ancient Mauritanians and Gsetulians 
were not only the occupants of the Amazig area, but of 
Amazig blood. Of Amazig blood were the native tribes 
with which the Greeks of the Cyrenaica came in con- 
tact. Of Amazig blood were the native tribes with 
which the Phenicians of Utica and Carthage came in 
contact. The subjects of Masinissa and Jugurtha occu- 
pied localities of which the ancient names are explained 
by means of the modem Amazig. 

At the present time there are five names for five 
divisions of the Amazig populations, and seven names 
for the Amazig forms of speech. How far either series 
is natural is another question. 

(1 .) The Kdbails — who speak the Kabail language, 
are the Amazig of the northern part of Algiers rather 
than Morocco. 

(2.) The Shoimah are the Amazig of Morocco rather 
than Algiers. They occupy, however, some of the 
central districts of Algiers ; their language being the 
Showiah. 

(3.) The Shiluk lie to the south of Morocco, their 
language being the Shiluk. 

(4.) The Berbers belong to the south-eastern parts of 
Algiers, to Tunis, to Tripoli, and the corresponding ^ 



THE AMAZIG OR BERBER GROUP. 



541 



parts of the Sahara. Their dialects are the Larua and 
Zenaitia. 

The extent to which the few fragments of the Lance- 
rotta and Fuerteventura dialects of the Canary Islands 
agree with the Shelluh may be seen from the following 
table : — 



English. 


Canary. 


Shellnb. 


Barley 


temasin 


tnmzeeii 


Sticks 


tezzezes 


tezezerat 


Palm-tree 


taginaste 


taginast 


Petticoat 


tahuyan 


tahuyat 


Water 


ahemon 


amen 


Priest 


faycag 


faquair 


God 


acoran 


mkoom 


Temple 


almogaren 


talmc^area 


House 


tamoyanteen 


tigameen 


Bog 


tawaeen 


tamouren 


Green fig 


archormase 


akermuse 


Sky 


tigot 


tigot 


Mountain 


thener 


athraar 


Valley 


adeyhaman 


douwaman. 



The Canary Islanders were called Guances, and their 
langruacfe the Guanch. 



;42 



THE AGAW. 



CHAPTER LXVII. 

The Agau, Agaw, or Agow, and Falasha. — The Gonga dialects. — The Kekuafi. 

Agaumidr = Agau-land, and one of the vocabularies 
of Dr. Beke, is headed Agau of Agauvnidr : a name 
which suggests the notion that one part of the Agau area 
was more decidedly Agau than the remainder. And 
this seems to have been the case ; since Agaw is either 
an Amharic or a Gheez term ; Aghagha being the native 
name. 



English. 


Waag. 


Faslaha. 


Agaumidr. 


Man (homo) 


egir 


ira 


aghi 


{mr) 


gelua 


garwa 


ngardzhi 


People 


yek 




aghi 


Woman 


yehona 


yewina 


bona 


Boy 


ashkir 


korri 


ansai 


Girl 


yehon-ashkir 


korra 


ansagha 


Head 


aur 


agher 


ngari 


Hair 


tsabka 


aghet 


tsitsifi 


Eye 


yel 


iU 


el 


Ear 


keretz 


anko 


ankwagi 


Nose 


yassin 


komba 


san 


Mouth 


miya 


af 


kambi 


Lip 


kifar 


kanfer 


kanfar 


Tooth 


erruk 


Irku 


arkui 


Tongtie 


lakh 


lanah 


tsangi 


Hand 


nen 


nan 


taf 


Foot 


tsab 




chappi 




chafu 


lukkokochdm 


chammi 


Bone 


ngas 


ngach 


ngats 


Blood 


bir 


karbat 


beri 


Sun 


kwora 


kuara 


awas 


Moon 


arba 


serk 


arfa 


Star 


tsegaloa 


chingaroa 


])ewa 



I 





THE AG 


lAW. 




English. 


Waag. 


Faslaha. 


Agaumidr. 


Wind 


figia 




nefas 


Rain 


sawa 


sua 


heri 


Fire 


Ha 


ea 


ag 


Water 


4k.wo 


agho 


agho 


Hill 


aroa 


debba 


kan 


Plain 


shuwa 


wulagha 


»-utaghi 


Stone 


kamga 


kringa 


karing 


Tree 


zaf 


chafa 











satsi 




haa 


kana 


kani 


Rivers 


wirba 


kura 


beni 


Lake 


bahar 




bar 


One 


Iowa 


lagha 


lagha 


Two 


linga 


linga 


langa 


Three 


shakwa 


sighs 


shuga 


Pour 


siza 


sigha 


shuga 


Five 


akwa 


ankaa 


ankaa 


Six 


walta 


wolta 


walta 


Seven 


langata 


langatta 


langatta 


Eight 


sohota 


saghotta 


saghatta 


Nine 


tsaicha 


sessa 


sesta 


Ten 


tsikka 


chikka 


tsikka. 



54.3 



The Agaw is bounded on the east, north, and north- 
east by the Tigre ; being spoke in the province of 
Lasta, and along the banks of the Tacazze. The par- 
ticular dialect of the district named Waag is called 
Hhamara — which, word for word, seems to be Xafiapa 
and Amhara ; the former term being as old as the time 
of Agatharchides, who uses the expression Kafidpa Xe^is 
for one of the languages of these parts. In the southern 
parts of Lasta, the Agaws are genuine mountaineers. In 
Waag, and along the Tacazze, the land lies somewhat 
lower. As a general rule, however, the Agau districts 
lie in the more impracticable parts of Abyssinia, and the 
dialects, pi'o tanto, take the appearance of aboriginal 
forms of speech. The Agaws of Waag are the Tsherats 
Agaws of Bruce. 

Gonga is a name found in Ludolf : who places the 
tribes to which he applies it in the Bahr-el-Abiad, 
about 10" N. L. Dr. Beke has supplied as vocabu- 
laries for the forms of speech referable to this class ; (1 .) 



544 



THE GONGA DIALECTS. 



the Kaffa; (2.) the Woraita; (3.) the Wolaitsa; (4.) the 
Yangaro. Word for word, I imagine that Yangaro is 
Zinzero or Qingero, a name which in the old maps de- 
notes one of the most southern provinces of Abyssinia. 
To this district belongs Enarea, believed to have been 
once a Christian kingdom. Now, however, it is over- 
run by the Galla. 

The name Gonga is native. In the western parts 
of the valley of Bahr-el-Abiad, visited by Dr. Beke, 
and named in the native dialect Shinasha, in Agawi, 
Tsintsi, in Amharic and Gafat Shinasha, and con- 
verted by the Portuguese into Ghinchon, the natives 
believe that, before the invasion of the G alias, their 
country was both populous and powerful, and their lan- 
guage was spoken far, to both the south, and the west. 
They also apply the name Gonga to a large tract of 
country to the south. 



English. 


Gonga. 


Kafifa. 


Woratta. 


Yangaro. 


Man {homo) 


aso 




asso 


assu 


(mr) 


lugsho 




atuma 


gunagfisha 


People 


asachi 








Woman 


manlia 




machoa 


nawase 


Boy 


lolo 




naha 


nangoto 


Oirl 


na 




machenat 


keredzho 


Head 


toko 


tommo 


kommo 




Hair 


chig 


fungilla 


kommo (?) 




Eye 


abo 


afi 


afo 




Ear 


wadzho 


wamo 


aitsa 




Nose 


sicho 


sullia 


sidi 




Mouth 


nono 


nona 


nona 




Lip 


lelfo 


nono 


mitharsa 




Tooth 


gasso 


gasho 


acha 




Tongue 


elbeto 


milaso 


intsarsa 




Hand 


kiso 


kusha 


kushia 





Foot 


chammi 








God 


Tiko 


Yero 


Tsossa 


Balamo 


Shy 


dare 






bid&ni 


Svm, 


aba 


abo 


awa 


&nwa 




ainehei 








Moon 


azicba 


agino 


agena 


kita 




gumbehei 








Star 


keno 


kurchihe 


tsolentsa 


garkamo 



THE KEKUAFI. 



545 



English. 


Gouga. 


Kaffii. 


WorattsL 


Tangaro. 


Earth 


decho 


showo 


saha 


donokamo 




a&reni 








Wind 


dzhongo 




agatsa 


kocho 


Rain 


amso 




iia 


iro 


Pin 


tamo 


kako 


tammo 


gea 


Water 


acho 


acho 


hatsa 


akka 


Stone 


saco 


hechechence 


shucha 


shuha 


Tree 


mitto 


mitto 


mitsa 


ihho 


One 


ikko 


ikka 


itta 


is90 


Two 


gitta 


gutta 


laha 


hep 


2^«e 


kedxha 


kedzha 


hej^a 


kes 


Four 


aada 


haudda 


hoida 


achech 


Fire 


hacha 


hacha 


huchesa 


huch 


SU 


shirta 


shirita 


hosapona 


isson (?) 


Seren 


sabata 


shebata 


lapona 


nafan 


Eight 


seminta 


shiminta 


hospona 


nangiii 


Nine 


dzheta 


jidea 


hoddpoDa 


i^in 


Ten 


tacha 


ashiri 


tama 


assir. 



Word for word, Kekuaji is Eloikob. Let us see how 
this can be. Eloikob is the native name : the name 
which certain tribes of the part of Afiica now under 
notice give themselves. Their neighbours, the Wakamba, 
who lie between them and the coast, and from whom 
the term has been taken, change it into Akahi, for the 
singular, and Mukabi, for the plural, number. A further 
change converts it into Mkuofi, and Wakuaji. The 
Eloikob, or Kekuafi, area, lies, then, in contact with that 
of the Wakamba 



English. 


Ukuafi. 


Engtidi. 


Ukuafi. 


Man 


ortaba 


Bone 


orl-oido 


Nose 


orldongiiana 


Hand 


engaina 


Head 


eloginia 


Foot 


engeja 


Hair 


orlbabid 


Day 


engorlon 


Face 


engomon 


Shy 


engadambo 


Ear 


engiok 


Sun 


engoiion 


Eye 


engon 


Moon 


orlaba 


Tooth 


orlala (?) 


Star 


orlogirai 


Tongue 


orlala (?) 


Earth 


engorlu 


Back 


orl-gfinim 


Bird 


enkeni 


Beard 


osiiirimi 


Fish 


esingeri. 


Blood 


osaige 







N N 



546 THE COPTIC. 



CHAPTER LXVIII. 

The Coptic. — The Bishari. — The Nubian Languages. — The Shilluk, Denka, 
&c. — The Mobba and Darrunga. — The Galla Group. — The Dizzela, 
Dalla, Shankali or Shangalla. 

The language of ^gypt in its oldest form is that 
of the oldest hieroglyphic inscriptions. Upon the 
details of the interpretation of the hieroglyphics them- 
selves I can form no independent opinion. I can only 
remark that the strictest test of a deciphered cypher, 
viz, that of enabling the master of it to apply it 
according to the rules of its decipherers and to obtain a 
result of literal and self-apparent accurac}^, is one which 
in the existing transliterations is not come up to. If 
otherwise, why have we not a series of old iEgyptia: 
texts in the ordinary Coptic alphabet, of which an ordi- 
nary Coptic student could judge ? 

The language in its newer form is written in ai 
alphabet derived from the Greek, and embodies an early 
translation of the New Testament, parts of the Old, and 
several ecclesiastical compositions. It falls into three dia- 
lects : the Sahitic, or Thebaic, of Upper, the Memphitic 
of Middle, ^Egypt, and the Bashmuric of the Delta ; all 
giving a considerable mixture of Greek words : which, 
in the Bashmuric, are the most numerous. 

As a true vernacular it is extinct ; at least, though I 
have heard of its being still spoken, I have not succeeded 
in finding the details of the evidence. Neither would 
the mere fact of its being spoken make it a true verna- 



If 

] 



THE COPTIC. 547 

cular. It might be spoken merely as any other literary 
languaore might be used in conversation. It is the Arabic 
that has superseded it ; in the case of which language the 
difference, in ^gypt, between the blood and the speech 
is considerable. 

In structure the Coptic is more simply agglutinate 
than the full Semitic tongues, with which it chiefly 
agrees in the personal and possessive pronouns. It is 
often (perhaps generally) treated as Sub-semitic ; though 
in the application of this name ethnographical reasons 
have, either consciously or unconsciously, been mixed up 
with philological ones. That it is, to some extent, Se- 
mitic is true ; but it is inconsistent to make it this to the 
exclusion of other lanffuao^es that are more so. It will 
be noticed again in the sequel when a language from a 
very different quarter — the Basque — comes under notice. 

It is the valley of the NUe which gives us Egypt ; 
the plateaux and hiUs between the river and the Red 
Sea being other than Egj^tian. This is what they 
are now. This is what they seem to have been at the 
beginning of the historical period. That the Arabic 
prevails largely in these districts is well-known : indeed, 
in the northern half it prevails exclusively. The blood, 
however, is less Arab than the language : while the Ian- 
guage itself, as we proceed southwards, becomes other than 
Arabic. In the parts about Kosseir, the Bishari, or Beja, 
is spoken ; the Bishaii tribes being the conquerors of 
the Ababde ; the Ababde being Bishari, and the Bishari 
Ababde, with this difference — the Bishari speak their 
own language, the Ababde have exchanged it for the 
Arabic. Such, at least, is the common statement ; the 
presumptions being in favour of it. At the same time 
the evidence is capable of improvement. That the 
Ababde are other than Arabs is shown by their colour 
and by the texture of theh* hair. They may, however, 
have been other than Arab, and yet not, necessarily, 
Bishari. Tlie presumptions, however, as aforesaid, are in 

N N 2 



548 THE BISHARI. 

favour of the common doctrine. The Ababde lie nearer 
to the Nile ; the Bishari to the sea. Both extend into 
Nubia ; both into Egypt. 

The country about Suakin is the occupancy of the 
Adareb, of whose language, eo nomine, I have seen no 
specimen. A Suakin vocabulary, however, eo nomine, 
is Bishari. 

No Bishari compositions are known ; nor is it known 
that the Arabic alphabet has been applied to the language 
— though the tribes that speak it are, with few or no ex- 
ceptions, real or nominal Mahometans. For the Haden- 
doa and Hallenga languages, vocabularies, iis nom^inibus, 
are wanted. They are spoken between the Mareb and 
the Tacazze ; the few words known as Taka or Boje 
(? Beja) probably represent them. 

In language, as well as in physical form, and in geo- 
graphical position, the nearest neighbours to the Bishari 
are the Nubians. 

Nubia begins where Egypt ends, i. e. at Assuau, 
or Syene ; and where Nubia begins a new language 
presents itself We may call it Nubian : subject to the 
necessity of remembering that the term has a wide and 
a restricted sense. There is the name of the class and 
there is the name of a special dialect. 

The Nubian class falls into two divisions of uncertain 
value ; (1.) the Nubian Prajper, (2.) the Koldagi. 

The Nubian Proper is spoken along the Nile, from 
Egypt to Sennaar ; falling into three dialects, (1.)] 
the KeTisy of Kenliz on the north, (2.) the Noub, orj 
Nubian, in the limited sense of the word, in the middle 
districts, and (3.) the Dongolawy of Dongola. The 
Nubians are also called Berbers, Berberins, or Barabbra 
a term which, from being applied to the Araazig tribe 
has occasionally created confusion. It is the Nubians, 
however, to whom it applies with the least impropriety. 

One of the numerous languages of Kordovan is named 
the Koldagi, and I believe that it is the language of the 



THE BISHARI. 



549 



capital. It is, however, only one form of speech out of 
many. Like the Nubian, it is known through vocabu- 
laries only. Like the Nubian, it is the language of a 
nide and imperfectly Mahometan population. Its Nubian 
affinities were pointed out by RiippeU. 



English. 


Bishari. 


Nubian. 


KoldagL 


Man 


otak 


itga 


kordn 


Woman 


tataket 


ideynga 




Head 


ogurma 


nrka 


oar 


Hair 


tamo 


ahigertyga 




Eyes 


tilyly 


mainga 


kale 


Nose 


ogenuf 


soringa 


hein 


Tongue 


medabo 







Mouth 


oyaf 


akka 


aul 


Teeth 


tongrek 


nyta 


gehl 


Ear 


tongy 


okiga 


uilge 


Beard 


hamoi 


sameyga 




Foot 


ragad 


oyga 


kaddo 


Sky 


otryk 


8ema 




San 


toyn 


mashakka 


es 


Moon 


ondzhim 


inatiga 


nnndo 


Star 




vrindzhega 


onda 


Fire 


toneyt 


ika 


eka 


Water 


ayam 


amanga 


otu 


Tree 




dzhoUaga 


saleg 


Stone 


awey 




kagen 


One 


engaro 


werka 




Two 


molobo 


onogha 




Three 


mehay 


toskoga 




Four 


fadyg 


kemiM^ 




Five 


eyyib 


didsha 




Six 


essagonr 


gordzhoga 




Seven 


essarama 


kolodga 





Eight 


essambay 


idon(^ 




Nine 


ogamhay 


oskoda 




Ten 


togasenuua 


dimaga 





To the south of Obeyd, the capital of Kordovan, the 
geography is obscure. In Africa, however, we may often 
procure specimens of a language where we fail in finding 
the place where it is spoken. This is because it is the 
land of slavery ; and because residents in any of the 
great centres of the traffic may generally find representa- 
tives of even very distant languages. The vocabularies 
maj' be relied on ; because when a man says that such 



550 THE SHABUN, FAZOGLO, ETC. 

or such a word means horse, man, and whatever else it 
may be, he is to be believed. Their geography, however, 
is to be criticized ; because when we hear that such or 
such a place lies so many miles west of so and so, the 
likelihood of error, both in respect to distance and in 
respect to the points of the compass, is considerable. 

I find it difficult to say where Kordovan ends and 
Sennaar begins. Sennaar, pre-eminently an African — 
not to say a Negro — country, is also the occupancy of 
the Sheyga Arabs ; and where Arabic is the current 
language, the indigenous dialects stand a fair chance of 
being neglected. Such is the case with Sennaar. Of 
non-Arab vocabularies brought from Sennaar, in the 
limited sense of the term, I know none. All I know is 
certain vocabularies brought from certain frontier dis- 
tricts, which may reasonably be believed to belong to 
Sennaar forms of speech. The proportion that the in- 
digence bear to the Arabs is unknown. The chief native 
population, however, is called Funge. But who has ever 
seen a specimen of the Funge, eo nomine ? 

That some, however, of the languages spoken to the 
south of Obeyd represent the Funge is probable. Of 
these we have samples in E-uppell, and others. Thus — 

The Shabun is said to be spoken to the south of 
both the Kordovan and the Sennaar frontiers. It is 
not very closely allied to anything. It is nearest, how- 
ever, to the Fertit — the most southern of the languages 
of Riippell. 

The Shilluk, whose name, from the fact of its appear- 
ing elsewhere, I imagine to be Arab rather than native, 
lie on the Bahr el Abiad, and, like the Denka, their 
frontagers, are Pagans. 

The Fazoglo language is the same as the Qamamyl 
of Caillaud, and — less like the Shilluk than is the 
Denka — apparently belongs to the same class ; that 
class being one of small dimensions. 

There is an imperfect Mahometanisra in Darfur, tlie 
country of the Furian language; of which only one 



THE FURIAN, SHILLUK, ETC. 



551 



lancfuaoje 


(probably one out of many) is 


known by vo 


cabularies 






(10 






English. 


Furian. 




TakeU. 


Fertit. 


Shabun. 


Man 


duedeh 


ead 


koshi 


le 


Head 


tobu 




aik 


kummu 


eldah 


Eye 


kuU 




undik 


allah 


leg 


Nose 


dormi 




endir 


alu 


nagol 


Mouth 


udo 




engiarr 


ammali 


keing 


Tooth 


kaki 




nim 


ensi 


engar 


Tongue 


dali 




auga 


timi 


denkela 


Ear 


dUo 




hennu 


Qtai 


neni 


Hand 


donga 




ora 


adgianas 


nimel 


Foot 


taroh 




dakaak 


tibrenu 


ongi 


Fire 


utu 




ebe 


ouwe 


yah 


Water 


kori 




ek 


ongou 


knaf 


Sun 


dulle 




ani 


aloh 


kwedyude 


Moon 


dual 




oai* 


ibue 


eiwah 


Star 


uri 




lain 


berabe 


robah 


Tree 


kume 




fa 


doQZU 


yareh 


Stone 


dete 




arnan 

(2.) 


ekbur 


kokoL 


English. 




ShiUuk. 




Denta. 


Fazoglo. 


Man 




ugaila 




moed 


meloko 


Head 




uidzh 




nam 


alio 


Eye 




uang 




nina 


are 


No3e 




ung 




oum 


kara 


Mouth 




dok 




tok 


' anta 


Tooth 




lek 




ledzb 


dovidit-ofati 


Tongue 




leb 




leb 


halla 


Ear 




yib 




yet 


ilai 


Hand 




kiam 




mib 


laba 


Foot 




lustiella 


kwen 




Fire 




maidzl 


I 


maid 


mo 


Water 




& 




fiou 


fi 


Sun 




kiong 




akol 


mondzo 


Moon 




goi 




fai 


dug 


Star 




kielo 




kuol 


iso' 


Tree 




yad 




tiem 


engoule 


Stone 




niaxkiddi 


kur 


bele. 



The following are to the south of the Denka and 
Shilluk areas. 

(3.) 

English. Dor. English. Dor. 

Man boodoo Hair biddoo 

Woman koomara Forehead hickomoo 



552 



THE MOBBA. 



Englis).. 


Dor. 


English, 


Dor. 


Eye 


komo 


Swn 


kade 


Nose 


homogi 


Star 


kir 


Lip 


taragi 


Water 


mini 


Beard 


betara 


Wood 


ungor 


Foot 


umbundo 


Fish 


gooboo 


Fire 


fudoo 


Bird 


umboroam. 


Shy 


hitero 








(4.) 




EngUsh. 


Nyamnani. 


English. 


Njamnam. 


Man 


koombai 


Flower 


mooma 


Bwj 


godee 


Shield 


abrooda 


Girl 


iimbagadda 


Lance 


baasoo 


Slave 


buroo 


Trombash ? 


gangoo 


Chief 


mumba kindoo 


Knife 


sali 


Woman 


meckeri 


Pig 


akoroo 


Hut 


beia 


Fire 


yaw 


Elephant 


omburra 


Wood 


naaki 


Buffalo 


jari 


Pipe 


cabunga 


Antelope 


ombuddi 


Tobacco 


goondoa 


Fowl 


kundoo 


Come here 


moicundoora 


Ivory 


rinda omburra 


Go 


mundo. 



The Mohba, Maha, or Bora Mdhang is the lan- 
guage of Waday Proper, and the chief tongue of Dar- 
saleh : being understood by many populations to whom 
it is not vernacular. It is known by a few specimens 
in the Mithridates, and by a longer vocabulary of Bur- 
chard t's. Earth, too, has collected more than two thousand 
words of it, along with some phrases and a translation 
of the Lord^s Prayer, a part only of which is published. 
The tribes who speak it are — 



1. 


The Kelingen 


7. 


Kumo. 


13. 


BUi. 


2. 


Kajanga. 


8. 


Jambo. 


14. 


Bilting. 


3. 


Malanga. 


9. 


Abue Gedam. 


15. 


Ain Gamara 


4. 


Madaba. 


10. 


Ogodongda. 


16. 


Koromboy. 


5. 


Madala. 


11. 


Kawak. 


17. 


Girri. 


6. 


Kodoyi. 


12. 


Ashkiting. 


18. 


Sheferi. 



Mararit and Menagon are the names of two tribes 
of the Abu Sharib, who are specially stated to speak the 
same language — a language in which Barth has collected, 
but not published, about 200 words, along with a trans- 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



553 



Lition of the Lord's Prayer. The Tama speak an alhed 
dialect. As for the remainder of the group, it is said 
to consist of numerous tribes whose dialects differ so 
much, that one can scarcely understand the other with- 
out recourse to the Mobba. The Mimi are said to 
speak a peculiar- language, so are the Kaudard : as also 
the Kon^inga, about 17° N. L. 



English. 


Mobba 


English. 


MobiMk. 


Head 


kidjy 


Sun 


anyk 


Hair 


sonfa 


Moon 


ayk 


Eye 


kapak 


Stars 


meniet 


Nose 


kharsonnak 


Day 


dealka 


Cheek 


gliambilanak 


Night 


kosonga 


Beard 


gamur 


Fire 


■wossyk 


Mouth 


kana 


Water {rain) 


andjy 


Teeth 


saateni 


Stone 


kodak 


Tongue 


adalmek 


Mountain 




Ear 


kozah 


Wood 


songoa 


Neck 


bitik 


River 


bettak 


Arm 


galma 


Bird 


abyl 


Hand 


kara 


Fish 


bout 


Foot 


djastongoly 


Milk 


sila. 


Blood 


ary 

(2 


.) 




EngUsh. 


Dar-rnnga. 


English. 


Dar-mnga. 


Man 


kamere 


One 


kadenda 


Woman 


mimi 


Two 


embirr 


Eye 


khasso 


Three 


attik 


Ear 


nesso 


Powr 


mendih 


Hand 


tusso 


Six 


sabotikeda 


Foot 


itar 


Seven 


ow 


Sun 


agning 


Eight 


sebateis 


Water 


tta 


Nine 


atih 


Fire 


nissiek 


Ten 


buf. 



The Bishari (for it is to them that we must now 
return) are succeeded by the most northern members of 
the great Gallo. class. 

Next to the Caffre and Berber this is the largest of 
all the African groups. It is also a complete one ; 
at any rate, it faUs into three well-marked divisions : 
(1 .) the Danakil ; (2.) the SoTnaulij (3.) the Ilmonno, or 



554 THE aALLA CLASS. 

Oalla Proper. It has a vast known extent from north 
to south. It has a vast unknown extent from east to 
west. It has an irregular outline, being deeply indented 
by the languages of the Abyssinian class ; or, rather, it, 
itself, cuts deeply and irregularly into Abyssinia — for 
the Galla tribes have long encroached upon the southern 
provinces of that empire ; and much that was once 
Semitic is now Galla. Bounded on the north by the 
Bishari and Nubian, and on the east by the sea, it is 
limited by the Tigrd, Amharic, and other languages in the 
north-west. South, however, of the latitude which coin- 
cides with the southern boundary of Abyssinia, it ex- 
tends indefinitely inland. In the parts about Hurur the 
Semitic forms of speech protrude themselves largely and 
irregularly. To the south-east it comes in contact with 
the northernmost members of the Kaffir family : the 
boundary lying near, but not on, the Equator. The 
Ukuafi seem to touch it on the interior. 

The Galla population is pastoral rather than agricultural, 
and African rather than either Negro or Arab in 
physiognomy ; i. e. the colour is more brown than black, 
the features more prominent than depressed, the hair long 
and twisted, rather than woolly. Paganism is still rife 
amongst the southern, or pure Galla (or Ilmormo) tribes : 
an imperfect Mahometanism is adopted by the Danakil. 
Fragments of an early Christianity — Abyssinian in its 
origin — are believed to be discoverable. The language 
is known both by grammars and vocabularies. It is 
unwritten ; i. e. there is no native alphabet, and no appli- 
cation of the Arabic. 

The Danakil call themselves Afer, and it is not im- 
probable that the term Africa comes from them. The 
Egyptians may have diffused it. Danakil itself is, like 
so many others, a word strange to the language to which 
it applies. I cannot but think that, word for word, it 
is Dongola, yet the Dongolawy are Nubians. Probably, 
some third population gave them both the same name. 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



555 



The Danakil begins between Suakin and Arkiko, and 
extends from the Red Sea to the frontiers of Abyssynia. 

The Somaull area begins near the straits of Babel- 
mandel, and runs southward and inland; Berbera, the 
great shive mart being the chief Somauli town : the 
Somauli tribes, too, being the occupants of the parts about 
the Semitic town of Hurur. 

The Galla Proper, or Ilmormo, belong to the interior 
rather than the coast, their area being one of great, but 
unknown magnitude, with a sinuous outline, and an en- 
croaching fi'ontier. Sometimes this encroachment is 
effected at the expense of the Danakil : sometimes (per- 
haps oftener) at that of the Abyssinians. The former, 
for instance, has given way before the Asubu, the latter 
before the Edjow, tribes. The kingdoms of Shoa and 
Efat are, now, more Galla than Abyssinian. The town 
of Ankober is a Galla capital : though mixed in respect 
to its population. No tribe in Africa has the discredit 
of being ruder and more savage in its warfare than the 
Gallas, Their physical appearance is that of the Bishari 
rather than the NeOTO. 



English. 


Galla. 


Danakil. 


Shiho (about 


Man 


nama 






Woman 


rete 






Head 


mata 


ammo 


ammc 


Eair 


refensa 






Eye 


hedzha 


inte 


inte 


Nose 


funyan 


san 


Ban 


Tongue 


arraba 






Mouth 


affan 


afa 


afa 


Teeth 


ilkae 


budena 


ekok 


Ear 


gura 






Beard 


arreda 






Foot 


fana 






Sun 


addu 


aero 


aire 


Moon 


dzhea 


alsa 


alsa 


Star 


urdzhe 


ettukta 


ittnk 


Fire 


ibiddeh 


gira 


gera 


Water 


veshan 


leh 


le 


Tree 


mouka 







The Arkiko of the town is Amharic. 



55G 



THE GALLA CLASS. 



Englisli. 


Galla. 


Datiakil. 


Shibo (about Arkiko). 


Stone 


dagga 


data 


dak 


One 


toko 


inneke 


inek 


Tioo 


lumma 


lumma 


lamma 


Three 


sedde 


sudde 


adda 


F(mr 


afFur 


fere 


afur 


Five 


shur 


konoyoie 


ken 


Six 


dzha 


lelehe 


leh 


Seven 


turbah 


melhene 


inelhen 


Eight 


seddet 


bahara 


vahr 


Nine 


suggul 


segala 


suggai 


Ten 


kudun 


tubban 


tummum. 



The following are languages, more or less isolated, of 
the Abyssinian frontier. 



(1-) 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eyes 

Nose 

Ear 

Teeth 

Tongue 

Sun 

Moon 

Star 

Water 

English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Eyes 

Nose 

Ear 

Sim 

Moon 

Stars 

Fire 

Stone 

English, 
Seven 
Sun 
Sky 



Dizzela. 

gunza 

kwa 

illukoma 

illikumah 

kotuma 

tsema 

kuusma 

kotettuma 

woka 

bega 

bega 

iah 

Ualia. 

kwa 

dukka 

annasunga 

wa 

bubuna 

ukuna 

wah 

terah 

shunda 

tuma 

uga 



(2.) 



(3.) 

Shankali. 
langitta 
oka 



English. 

Tree 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



Dizzela. 

gea 

metama 

ambanda 

kwokaga 

zaacha 

mankiis 

wata 

linyeta 

sugguata 

sasa 

chik'ka. 



DaUa. 

ilia 

bella 

sette 

salle 

bussume 

erde 

varde 

kwon kweda 

kwuuntelle 

kwuuUakudde. 



Agawmidr. 

langata, &c. — Agaw 

wak^Oalla 



THE SHANKALI, OR SUANGALLA. 



.57 



English. 


ShankalL 


Agawmidr. 


Star 


bawa 


bewa — Again 


Water 


sya 


ahu — Again 


Bain 
Cloud 


dema 




dimna — Agaio 


Smoke 


tukwa 


tikki—Tigre 


Clay 


tiikwa 


dhoke — Galla 


Tree 


mugha 


muka — do. 


Shade 


gisa 


chiso — Gong a 


Sprinff 


aimnsa 


minclia — Afjaio 


Market 


gabea 


gebaia — Galla 


Bridle 


sagha 


lugh warn — A ga m 


Whip 


jilanda 


halinga — do. 


Mouth 


sima 


simota — Gafat 


Tooth 


knR.sa 


gasso — Gonga 


Rainy season 


china 


gana — Galla. 



In Salt, the DaJla and Dizzela, like the language 
represented by the third vocabulary, are given as Shan- 
galla. They are all spoken by Negroes rather than 
true Abyssinians. 



558 THE KAFFIR CLASS. 



CHAPTER LXIX. 

The Kaffir Class of Languages. 

Within a degree or two of the Equator the Galla and 
Ukuafi are succeeded by that large class of languages, 
which those who have no dislike to double names call 
South African, whilst others, who have no objection to 
using a word in a general as well as a particular sense, 
call Kaffre or Kaffir ; a word which is both the name 
of a class and the "name of a particular division. 

On the western coast the languages of this group ap- 
pear north of the Equator, and, with the exception of 
the Hottentot area, they cover all the intervening space. 

Their peculiarities of grammar have been carefully 
studied and illustrated. 

(1 .) If a new word be introduced into the language of 
the Amakosa Kaffres, it takes an inseparable prefix 
before it can become naturalized. Priest, for instance, 
becomes itm-priest ; Pharisee, tT^n-pharisee. In the 
■words ura-iu = person ; i-hashe = horse ; i?i-kosi = cap- 
tain ; isi-caca zz servant ; u-sansi =z infant ; um-lamho 
=. river ; u-hnso zzface ; aku-iya, = force ; aha-ntuzz 
people; ar)ia-zwe =z words ; in-homo = cattle ; inii-tizz 
trees, &c., the syllables in Itahcs are wholly foreign 
to the root. Adventitious, however, as they are, the 
system of prefixing them is general. 

(2.) When two words come into certain syntactic 
relations, one of them changes its initial letter according 
to that of the other, just as if, in English, we said, for 



THE KAFFIR CLASS. 559 

sunbeam or white Tuan, bunbeam (or sunseam) for 
whiteinian (or miteman). 

(3.) The prefix, however, is part of the word ; 
whence it follows that, for the purposes of determining 
the change which one word, in these syntactic relations, 
impresses on another, we must look to the initial letter 
(or letters) of the prefix rather than to those of the 
words to which it is united. A word (no matter how 
it begins) takes um as its prefix ; the rule being that 
when one word begdns with iim the other begfins with 
w. The Kaffre for a man of the people is ura-iu wa- 
bantu, whereas a captain of the people is i^i-kosi yor- 
bantu. 

In this way the System of Prefixes and the System 
of Alliteration, in the Amakosa Kafire at least, are con- 
nected. 

That facts of this kind should tell upon the phrase- 
ology of the grammarian is only natural. They give 
him his declensions ; for it is clear that according to the 
nature of the prefix we may arrange the noims to which 
they are united into classes. Doing this, we may talk 
of the Classification of Nouns, just as Latin scholars 
talk of the Declensions. 

Again — the form of the Plural is often determined 
by the prefix. Thus, in Bakeli : — 

First Declension. 

SUfGFLAR. PLCBAL. 

a-Tata=oAes< 6i-vata=chests 

a-bobi=/ta< hi-hoh\^hats 

i-eli=<rc« j«-li=<ree». 
Second Declention. 

SINGULAB. PLTTRAI,. 

di-c'kx=law m-eki=/at?<. 

And so on for seven other classes or declensions ; the 
number of classes in the Bakeli being nine. In other 
languages, however, they are more numerous ; e. g. in 
the Herreo they are eighteen. 



560 



THE KAFFIR CLASS. 



The origin of these prefixes is another question. They 
are noticed here for the sake of ascertaining their value 
as characteristics. 

The forms of speech which immediately underlie the 
Galla and Ukuafi are the following — belonging to the 
inland districts rather than to the coast. On the coast 
the language is the Suaheli, Suwaheli, or Sohili, contain- 
ing numerous Arabic elements and partaking of the na- 
ture of a Lingua Franca. 



Englisli. 


Wanika. 


Wakamba. 


Msambara. 


SohilL 


Man 


muta 


muntu 


mgossi 


mtu 


Woman 


mtsheta 


muka 


mdere 


mtunke 


Head 


dzitzoa 


mutue 


mtoe 


kitoa 


Eye 


dzityo . 


ido 


yisso 


dshito 


Nose 


pula 


embola 


pum 


pua 


Tongue 


lammi 


uimi 


uraka 


ulimi 


Tooth 


dzino 


ino 


zino 


' dzliino 


Ear 


sikiro 


idu 


gutui 


shikio 


Hand 


mukono 


mukono 


mukono 


makono 


Fool 


gulu 


mudumu 


emrondi 


gu 


Sun 


dzua 


kua 


zua 


dzhua 


Moon 


muesi 


moi 


muesi 


muesi 


Star 


nioha 


nioa 


niniesi 


niota 


Fire 


muotto 


muagi 


muotto 


muotto 


Water 


madyi 


mandzi 


mazi 


madzhi 


Stone 


dziwe 


dziwe 


ziwe 


dzhiwe 


Tree 


muLi 


mutte 


muti 


mti 


One 


emmenga 


umue 


mosi 


emmodsha 


Two 


embiri 


ili 


kaidi 


embili 


Three 


tahu 


itatu 


katatu 


tatu 


Four 


enne 


inna 


kanna 


enne 


Five 


tyano 


idano 


kashano 


tano 


Six 


tandaho 


dandatu 


ententatu 


setta 


Seven 


fungahe 


mama 


fungate 


sabaa 


Eight 


Dane 


muuda 


nana 


nani 


Nine 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


Ten 


kumi 


kumi 


kumi 


kumu. 



The Makua extends, at least, as far as Quilimani. 

The Monjti, Muntu, or Makoa, is spoken to the back 
of the Mozambik coast ; of which the Maravi of Kolle's 
Polyglotta is, perhaps, the most inland dialect. In In- 
hambane, where Portuguese influences succeed to Arabic, 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



5G1 



such differences as exist are, probably, political rather 
than philological. At any rate, the dialects seem to 
graduate into each other. South of Inhambane and 
Sofala begins the Kaffraria of the British and Dutch 
frontiers with, iis nominibus, the Zulu, the Kaffre 
Proper, and the Bechuana as important and well-illus- 
trated languages — the last in contact with the Hotten- 
tot ; to the north of which the Heriro, a true Kaffir 
tongue, appears in the parts about Walwisch Bay. To 
this, on the north, succeed the Benguela, the Angola, the 
Congo, and, on the Equator, the Rungo, or Orungo, of the 
Gabun. For the parts about Corisco Bay, we have 
evidence that the language is essentially the same ; 
whilst for Fernando Po and the Came'roons we have 
abundant details — the languages being the Ediya of 
Fernando Po and the Isubu and Dualla (little more than 
dialects) of the Cameroons. 

At the head waters of the Gabun lie the districts of 
the Bakele, estimated by the missionaries at about 
100,000 — lighter coloured than the tribes between them 
and the sea ; darker than those of the mountains 
behind them. Compared (as it is by either the author 
or the editor of the grammar) with the Mpoiif/ive of 
the Gabun it differs very materially ; the verbal resem- 
blances being about one in ten. The present list, 
however, makes them more. 



English. 


Mpongwe. 


Bakde. 


Man 


kadia 


makalie 


Woman 


owanto 


miali 


Child 


onwana 


niana 




erumbe 


ndenbishili 


White man 


otaDgani 


ntasga 


Head 


e won jo 


langaka 


Hair 


orue 


lashoi 


Tongue 


onleme 


lathem 


Mouth 


ogwana 


gwana 


Tooth 


ilia 


dishoa 


Eye 


intya 


dishi 


Ear 


oroi 


gwale 




562 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



English. 


Mpongwe. 


Bakele. 


Nose 


inyoi 


dioi 


Beard 


ilelu 


jeli 


Blood 


ntyina 


dikitha 


Belly 


iwumu 


mai 


Bone 


epa 


avesha 


Heart 


ntyondo 


lema 


Foot 


ntyozyo 


dibo 


Arm 


oga 


mbo 


Neck 


ompele 


kinh 


Nail 


ntyanga 


landaka 


Milk 


ambeningo 


manyadibo 


House 


nago 


mbank 


mil 


nomba 


mbeka 


Sun 


iikombe 


dioba 


Moonlight 


ilanga 


mieli 


Star 


ogegeni 


vietcL 


Cloud 


evindi 


avingi 


Flower 


olonda 


tapesha 


Tree 


erere 


jeli 


Sand 


intya 


dishi 


Fire 


inu 


du 


Water 


aningo 


madiba 


Wind 


ompunga 


punga 


Eat 


nye 


dia 


Bum 


pia 


dika 


Bite 


noma 


kiele 


Dig 


tumba 


kwete 


Write 


tenda 


lenda 


Fill 


jonia 


lonisha 


Speak 


kamba 


lubila 


Brink 


jonga 


nata 


Bv/n 


pula 


punda 


Die 


juwa 


shasha 


Boil 


benla 


taka 


Kiss 


samba 


viba. 



The following are miscellaneous illustrations of the' 
languages on the north-western portion of the Kaffir 
area. 

{From the Polyglotta Africana.) 



English 


Man 


Woman 


Head 


Kisama 


diala 


muhata 


mnntue 


Songo 


diala 


mehetu 


mutue 


Randa 


ekiunds 


mbant 


umodsfa 


Luhalo 


diyala 


muhetu 


muntue 



LANGUAGES OP THE GABUN, ETC. 



563 



English 


Man 


Woman 


Head 


Basunde 


bakala 


kento 


tn 


Nyombe 


iyakala 


nkelo 


nta 


Kasange 


diala 


muketu 


motne 


Bumhete 


balera 


okasu 


modsae 


Babuma 


balga 


mokas 


modsne 


Mutsaya 


lebalaka 


mnkeat 


motsne 


Ntere 


bara 


mokas 


motsue 


Kanyika 


mnan amnion 


muanumekas 


motn 


MbaTTiba 


balera 


okas 


otae 


Musentando 


yakala 


kento 


ntn. 


English 


Nose 


Eye 


Ear 


Kisama 


dizola 


diso 


ditae 


Songo 


diznnu 


liso 


lita 


Runda 


mushor 


liz 


didsh 


I/ubalo 


lizulo 


liso 


litne 


Basunde 


mbombo 


odiz 


kata 


Nyombe 


dizulu 


liso 


kuta 


Kasange 


dizola 


aso 


katne 


Bumhete 


yolo 


odisa 


ledsae 


Bahama 


yolo 


dsis 


dsae 


Mutsaya 


yul 


dsiz 


dsni 


Ntere 


yilo 


dsis 


dsae 


Kanyiha 


mnol 


diz 


dita 


Mhamha 


yolo 


diz 


tae 


Musentando 


luzuna 


diza 


katn. 


English 


Mouth 


Tooth 


Tongue 


Kisama 


dikana 


diso 


demi 


Songo 


ndikanon 


lizo 


lemi 


Runda 


mulam 


dizea 


ardim 


Luhalo 


likano 


lizo 


Hmi 


Basunde 


noa 


dinn 


ludimi 


Nyombe 


mono 


dieno 


ludimi 


Kasange 


kanaa 


lizu 


limi 


Bumhete 


moya 


dinn 


nkomonyat 


Bah/ma 


monyna 


dsino 


lelim 


Mutsaya 


monyna 


dseni 


lilim 


Ntere 


monyna 


dsina 


limi 


Kanyiha 


mosuk 


din 


ludim 


Mhamha 


onynn 


dini 


lelemi 


Musentando 


nna 


dbiu 


ludimi. 


English 


Fire 


Water 


Sun 


Kisama 


tuwia 


menya 


de kombi 


Songo 


tnbia 


menya 


moanya 


Runda 


kaah 


menyi 


ranten 

o 2 



564 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



Water 
mema 
nlangu 
nlangu 
meya 
andsa 
madsa 
xaadsa 
madsa 
moaz 
andsa 
maza 

To these add the numerals of the Fan, 
much is made in Mr, Du Chaillu's work, 
to the same class as the rest. 



English 


Fire 


Luhalo 


tibia 


Basunde 


mbazu 


Nyombe 


mbazu 


Kasange 


tubia 


Bwnibete 


mba 


Bdbuma 


mbaa 


Mutsaya 


mba 


Ntere 


mba 


Kanyiha 


mudil 


Mbamha 


mba 


Musentando 


tiwia 



English. 

One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Five 



Fan. 

fo 

vei 

la 

ne 

tani 



English. 

Six 

Seven 

Eight 

Nine 

Ten 



Sun 

moanya 

muini 

tangu 

likombi 

ntangu 

mi , 

mui 

tari 

munyenyi 

nyango 

tango. 

of which so 
They belong 



Fan, 
sheme 
zangoua 
modm ouam 
iboum ibou 
wo6m aboum. 



On the Old Calabar the change is somewhat greater. 
Still, the so-called Kaffir or South-African characters 
have long been recognized in these parts ; and the 
nearest congeners of the Otam, Udom, or Old Calabar, 
are the Isubu and Dualla. 

(Languages with Otam, Isuhu, Bakele, and Nuji, 
affinities from the Polyglotta Africana.) 



English. 


Afu'lu. 




Mfut. 


Mbe. 




Nso 




Nose 


idsion 




nkodiu 


etsoei 




dzui 


Eye 


edsi 




dsit 


ero 




ze 




Ear 


kato 




ti 


atone 




ketor , 


Movth 


akuar 




ndum 


etsou 




su 


1 


Tooth 


edsin 




dedson 


ason 




son 


J 


Tongue 


nyuam 


derim 


inemi 




kendemi. M 


English. 


Murundo. 


Undaza. 


Ndob. 


Tumu. 


Nkele. 




Konguan 


Nose 


mofiki 


dsolu 


dsu 


edsu 


diodsu 




nyuen 


Eye 


diso 


diz 


dziet 


dzid 


dis 




nies 


Ear 


ditoi 


eloi 


inyu 


eyu 


ore 




atu 


Mouth 


mombo 


madumba num 


num 


wuana 




nyn 


Tooth 


disonga 


dini 


min 


dzen 


disuna 




nenyan 


Tongue 


woena 


lelimi 


dcmog 


demo 


lawem 




deler. 



LANGUAGES OP THE GABUN, ETC. 



565 



English. 


Mbarike. 


Tiwi. 




Boritsu. 


Nose 


man 




ehinga 




geu 


Eye 


ayip 




asie 




egi 


Ear 


aton 




ator 




ata 


Mmiih 


ndso 




itsoa 




onu 


Tooth 


anyi 




inyik 




odnn 


Tongue 


odsia 




nomboro 




omien. 


EngUsh. 


Yala.* 




English. 




Tala. 


Man 


onuro 




Tongue 




ugblenye 


Woinan 


onya 




Fire 




ola 


Head 


lefu 




Water 




yenyi 


Hair 


ndsirehu 




Sun 




yeno 


Nose 


leni 




One 




osi 


Eye 


eyi 




Two 




epa 


Ear 


woro 




Three 




eta 


Mouth 


okono 




Four 




ene 


Tooth 


anuro 




Five 




ema. 


Roglish Mouih 


Tooth 


Tong\ 


le Nose 


Eye 


Ear 


Bayon ndsu 


sonta 


lem 


dsi 


li 


eton 


Pati nso 


nzou 


lim 


adsi 


aU 


aton 


Kum ndso 


son 


den 


nkontse 


tse 


ton 


Bagha ndsu 


aso 


alo 


atse 


all 


aton 


Balu nsud 


nzon 


lem 


le 


le 


ntud 


Bamon ndsot 


nson 


alem 


edyi 


ele 


atot 


Ngoala atsor 


ason 


andio 


esuye 


ndi 


atonuri 


Momenya ndsue 


son 


lam 


dzoti 


Utab 


tonti 


Papiah nsu 


esan 


alam 


nquerse 


arse 


tonule 


Param ndzue 


izon 


titep 


atsi 


eti 


eton. 


English 


Fire 




Water 




Siwn. 


Bayon 


mu 




ndsib 




nyum 


Pati 


ma 




ndsi 




nyu 


Kum 


ma 




ndsab 




nyam 


Bagha 


mu 




ndsab 




no 


Balu 


mu 




nke 




ngam 


Bamon 


mu 




nke 




nyam 


Ngoala 


mu 




nki 




mono 


Momenya 


mu 




ndsob 




no 


Papiah 


mu 




nsi 




nyam 


Param 


mo 




nzi 




minoch. 


English. 


Ngoten. 




Melon. 




Nhalemoe. 


Nose 


dio 




dio 




do 


Eye 


dis 




dek 




deih 


Ear 


etc 




eto 




eto 


Mouth 


nsiol 




nsol 




nsear 


Tooth 


esyon 




eson 




ason 


Tongue 


egeam 




egiem 




^em. 




• 


See pa 


«e 588. 







566 



LANGUAGES OF THE GABUN, ETC. 



English. 


Ekamlulufii. 


Udom. 


Mbofon. 


Eafen. 


Man 


manum 


manu 


manun 


nindun 


Woman 


raanka 


manka 


manka 


nike 


Head 


esi 


esi 


esi 


idsi 


Hair 


nnu 


nnu 


nyu 


ndu 


Nose 


mia 


ntanaman 


ntanamin 


nnui 


Eye 


amar 


lemar 


amoramer 


ayet 


Ear 


eton 


eton 


etun 


otun 


Tooth 


aman 


leman 


nemen 


eyin 


Tongue 


liliwi 


leliwe 


neriwe 


erib 


Sun 


no 


ndsol 


ndon 


ndsudsi 


Fire 


ngon 


ngun 


ngon 


ngun 


Water 


alap 


alap 


aneb 


ayib. 



The languages akin to the Otam have been so 
thoroughly recognized as Kaffir, or South African, that 
they are given in the present chapter ; though they are, 
really, transitional. Of those that next come under 
notice all that can be said is that they have, gene- 
rally, been associated with their congeners to the north 
rather than the south. They have, however, affinities 
on either side. 



BONNY AND IBO DIALECTS. 



567 



CHAPTER LXX. 

The Bonny, Brass Town, Rw, and Benin languages. — The Mandingo, Accra, 
Krepi, Kru, &c. — Remarks on the Mandingo class. — The Begharmi.-- 
Mandara. — Kannri. — Hawssa. — Sungai. — Konri. — Yoruba. — Tapna or 
Nufi — Batta.— Fula, &c.— The Serawulli— Woloff, &c.— Hottentot. 



The Okuloma and Udso are Obane (or Bonny), the Aro 
and Mbofia, Brass Town (Oro or Ejo), dialects. The 
remainder belong to the interior of the Delta of the 
Niger ; the Isoama and Isiele being Ibo Proper, or Ibo in 
the limited sense of the term. It is a name, however, 
which may be given to the whole class. 



English. 


Okuloma. 


Udso. 


Arc 


Mbofia. 


Sobo. 


Man 


onbo 


. owebo 


nowoke 


nnyoka 


osale 


WoTnan 


ere bo 


yorobo 


unwai 


naame 


aye 


Head 


dsibe 


tebe 


isi 


isi 


ahiomi 


Hair 


name 


dime 


abosi 


ebesd 


eto 


Nose 


nini 


nine 


imi 


imi 


onwe 


Eye 


torn 


toro 


anya 


enya 


ero 


Ear 


bell 


beri 


nte 


nte 


esc 


Tooth 


aka 


aka 


eze 


ezie 


ako 


Tongue 


bele 


belo 


lie 


Ue 


ereme 


Sun 


erua 


erei 


anyano 


enyan 


ore 


Fire 


fene 


fene 


oko 


oko 


esale 


Water 


minqi 


beni 


mmeli 


min 


ame. 


English. 


Egbele. 


Biid. 


Ulomo. 


Isoama. 


Isiele. 


Man 


omoi 


okpea 


asi 


naoke 


onyeke 


Woman 


ogbatso 


ogvFoho 


asame 


ndiom 


onyni 


Head 


usumi 


oh ana 


qika 


isi 


isi 


Hair 


etc 


eto 


ehu 


asi 


edsi 


Nose 


isne 


ihae 


iso 


imi 


imi 


Eye 


eloe 


arc 


ilogo 


anya 


enya 


Ear 


eo 


eho 


goso 


nte 


anti 


Tooth 


ako 


ako 


ako 


eze 


esi 



568 



THE DAHOMEY DIALECTS. 



English. 


Egbcle. 


Bini. 


Olomo. 


Isoama. 


Isiele. 


Tongue 


olemi 


oneme 


ore 


ile 


ile 


Sun 


ele 


ufore 


ahoni 


anyanu 


enyanu 


Fire 


itari 


etare 


igesane 


oko 


oko 


Water 


ame 


ame 


ame 


mmeli 


mmi. 



I now come to a group, which, in the present state 
of our knowledge, must be treated as the Bhot and 
Burma group was treated in Asia. It is a large one in 
every respect : large in respect to its geographical area ; 
large in respect to the members of which it consists. 
It is a complex one as well : inasmuch as it falls into 
divisions and sub-divisions. And it is also a wide one ; 
i. e. its extremities differ greatly from each other. 
Lastly, it is provisional, and, more or less, artificial. 
I shall exclude from it the Woloff and some other 
tongues on the north. I have excluded from it the Ibo 
and some other tongues on the south. Yet, I fail to 
find a clear line of demarcation. The class, in short, is 
certainly either too large or too small. It stands, how- 
ever, as it is, because it is valid as far as it goes ; be- 
cause it is convenient ; and, finally, because any miscon- 
ception as to its character, any possibility of mistaking 
it for a natural instead of an artificial one, has been 
guarded against. 

Roughly speaking, it extends from the Niger to 
the Gambia, and includes the numerous dialects and 
subdialects of the Slave, Gold, Ivory, Pepjper, and Grain 
Coasts, along with the Mandingo languages. Towards 
the interior its extent is uncertain ; whilst, on the coast, 
there is a strip of low land not belonging to it : so 
that, in tracing it along the Atlantic, we first lose and 
then find it again. 

At the mouth of the Formosa the Yebu dialect of 
the Yoruba touches the sea with the Benin at its back 
stretching inland. The main language, however, is that 
of Dahomey, spoken (there or thereabouts) from Lagos to 
the Volta, and extending far inland, with ^he Anfue, the 



THE DAHOMEY DIALECTS. 



569 



Dahomey Proper, and the Mahi as its chief dialects ; 
each with divisions and subdivisions. The numerous 
vocabularies headed Fot, Popo, Widah, Atye, Mahi, 
and Badagry, fee, belong to this great group. 



£nglish. 


Widah. 


Dahomey. 


Mahi. 


Man 


BxmvL 


sunu 


nyaneoa 


Woman 


nyoni 


nyonu 


iyon 


Head 


ota 


ta 


onta 


Hair 


da 


da 


oda 


Nose 


awoti 


asti 


awote 


Eye 


nnka 


nuku 


onutu 


Ear 


oto 


to 


otogne 


Tooth 


adu 


ada 


ada 


Tongue 


ede 


de 


ede 


Sun 


ohwe 


pewesiwo 


nque 


Fire 


ozo 


zo 


ozo 


Water 


zi 


xi 


ezi. 



The Accra, InJcra, or, as the natives call it, the Gha 
language, is nearly related to the Otshi, being spoken 
near Cape Castle ; the Adampi being a dialect of it. 

The Ken^apay is spoken in Abiraw, Odaw, Aokugwa, 
Abonse, Adukrmn and Apiradi, villages or towns of 
Akwapim, other than Otshi ; in which, however, the 
Otshi, as the language of the dominant population, is 
generally understood. 

Date and Kubease, like Abiraw, &c., are Akwapim 
villages, whereof the language is other than the Otshi. 
It is, also, other than the Kerrapong, Kerrapay, Kerrapi, 
or Krepee ; what it is being uncertain. 



(1-) 



English. 


Adampi. 


Anfiie. 


Man 


jvaza. 


natsa 


Woma'T, 


nyoni 


lona 


Head 


eta 


ita 


Hair 


eda 


eda 


Nose 


noti 


anati 


Eye 


onka 


anku 



570 



THE GOLD COAST DIALECTS. 



Euglish. 




Adampi 




Aufue. 


Ear 




eto 




eto 


Tooth 




adu 




adu 


Tongue 




ade 




ade 


Sun 




ewo 




oudo 


Fire 




ezo 




itso 


Water 




ezi 




edsi. 






(2.) 




English. 


Accrah. 




Adampi. 


Krepee. 


God 


mah'u 




mah'wu 


mah'nu 


Devil 


bo'san 




az'za 


baiya 


Man 


bom' ma 




nu'mu 


u'chu or amiL? 


Woman 


yo 




ye'o 


yonno 


Boy 


baka 




jho'qiia 


deyve 


Girl 


ob'bli'o 




ya'yo 


tubboqua 


Infant 


abbe'fah'o 




jho'qna-borbio 


veve'ahja 


White man 


blofonyo 




blofon'o 


yovo 


Wife 


n'yah 




ayo 


sun'no 


Head 


echu or echo 


ye 


tah 


Hair 


echawe 




yebuoh 


dah 


Eye 


emay or hingma 


hingmai 


unku 


Nose 


gungo 




gugon 


watt6 


Mouth 


narbo 




ny'am 


nume 


Teeth 


neoneeng 




lun'go 


addu 


Tongue 


lilla 




lilla 


add a 


Ear 


toe or toy 




toe 


etto 


Sun 


un 




pun 


awa 


Moon 


yon'clie'16 




u'ranime 


wala 


Star 


ou'rahme 




u'ramme dodo'e 


rotev'e 


Air 


koy'ah 




koiyo 


av'vuvoh 


Fire 


lah 




lah 


edjo 


Water 


noo 




Vl^XI. 


eche 


SJcy 


n'wa 




e'om 


jimma 


One 


eku'me 




kok'ka 


dek'kah 


Two 


en'yo 




en'yo 


a va 


Three 


etia 




et'ta 


atong 


Four 


edj'wa 




adj'way 


en'na 


Five 


en'nu'mo 




en'nuo 


atton 


Six 


ek'pah 




ek'pah 


ad' da 


Seven 


pah' wo 




m'pah'go 


addeiT^ 


Eight 


pah' no 




pahn'yo 


en'yfi 


Nine 


na'ing 




ra 


en'yeda 


Ten 


nu'mah 




nu'mah 


a* wo. 



The Otshi is the language of the Gold Coast ; siicb, 
at least, is the name given by the chief authority for 



THE AVEKVOM. 



571 



its grammatical structure — Riis. The numerous vocabu- 
laries of Bowdich named Inia belong to this class. 
Another general name, (and perhaps) the best, is Fanti. 

The Ashanti of Coomasee, the capital, along with 
the Coromantin and the Boroom, belongs to this group. 
So do the numerous vocabularies of the Mithridates 
headed Akkim, Akripon, Fetu, &c. 

For the Ivory coast the following vocabulary of the 
Avekvoyn is the only one I know. 



English. 


Avekvom. 


other Languages. 


Arm 


ebo 


ubok, EJik. 


Blood 


erie 


eyip, Ejik; eye, Jebu. 


Bone 


ewi 


beu, Fanti. 


Box 


ebru 


brAnh, Grebo. 


Canoe 


edie 


tonh, Grebo. 


Chair 


fata 


bada, Grebo. 


Dark 


esfaim 


esmn, Fanti ; ekim, E^. 


Dog 


etye 


aja, ayga, /s5m. 


Door 


eshinavi 


nsuny, Ejik. 


Ear 


eshibe 


esoa, Fanti. 


Fire 


eya 


ija, Fanti. 


Pish 


etsi 


eja, eya, Fanti. 


Fowl 


esa 


suseo, Mandingo ; edia, Jebu. 


Ground-nut 


ngeti 


nkatye, Fanti. 


Hair 


emu 


ihwi, Fanti. 


Honey 


ajo 


ewo, Fanti; oyi, Jd)u,. 


House 


eva 


ifi, Fanti; ufog, EJik. 


Moon 


efe 


habo, Grebo ; ofiong, ^k. 


Mosketo 


efo 


obong, Fanti. 


Oil 


inyu 


ingo, Fanti. 


Rain 


efuztuno-sohn 


sanjio, Mandingo. 


Bainy season 


esbi 


ojo, rain, Jebu. 


Salt 


etsa 


ta, Grebo. 


Sand 


esian-na 


utan, Ejik. 


Sea 


etyu 


idu, Grebo. 


Stone 


desi 


sia, shia, GrAo. 


Thread 


jesi 


gise, Grebo. 


Tooth 


enena 


nyeng, Mandingo; gne, GvAo. 


Water 


esonh 


nsu, Fanti. 


Wife 


emise 


moso, Mandingo ; mbesia. 


Cry 


yam 


isn, Fanti. [Fanti 


Give 


nae 


nye, Grebo; no, Ejik. 


Go 


le 


olo, Jebu. 


KUl 


bai 


fa, Mamdingo ; pa, Jebu. 



572 



THE MANDINGO LANGUAGES. 



That the Kru languages are either actually Man dingo, 
or members of a closely-connected class, is certain. Dr. 
Kolle, indeed, separates them. The present writer did 
so in 1847 ; the data being, at that time, both insuffi- 
cient and imperfectly known to him. Soon, however, 
after the publication of his treatise Mr. Dupuis informed 
him that he held the two groups to be intimately allied ; 
if, indeed, they, really, were two. Dr. Bleek has expressed 
himself (and I believe he is the first writer who has done 
so in print) to the same effect: — "The Mena " (Man- 
dingo) " family which includes the dialects spoken by the 
Krumen," &c. 

(From the Polyglotta Africana.) 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Hair 

Nose 

Eye 

Ear 

Tooth 

Tongue 

Sun 

Fire 

Water 



Dewoi. 

gae 

nyero 

duru 

mi 

mera 

gire 

lo 

mire 

mia 

own 

nae 

ni 



English. 

Man 

Woman 

Head 

Hair 

Nose 

Eye 

Ear 

Tooth 

Tongue 

Swti 

Fire 

Water 



Kru. 

nyiyu 

nyiro 

debo 

nui 

mera 

gie 

nogu 

nye 

me 

giro 

ne 

ni 



Grebo. 

nyebeyu 

nyire 

lu 

pumle 

mia 

yie 

nua 

nye 

mme 

unwe 

na 



Bassa. 

gae 

ma 

tm 

mi 

mola 

gire 

lo 

nire 

mio 

giro 

nye 

ni. 

Gbe. 

gandsie 

nyiro 

duru 

mi 

mra 

girie 

dohu 

nyire 

meo 

giro 

nasuru 

ni. 



The Mandingo Proper is the language of the Maho- 
metan Blacks of Medina and the Lower Gambia. Being 
occasionally written in the Arabic character, it has a 



THE MANDINGO LANGUAGES. 573 

tincture of cultivation. Though we can scarcely call it 
classical, the Mandingo of Medina is the standard dialect 
of the group. 

If we look to the Polyglotta Afi^icana for the proper 
Mandingo forms of speech we find the following thir- 
teen : — 1 . Mandingo = Kalbunga, Toronka, Jallunka, 
Kankanka ; 2. Bambarra ; 3. Kono ; 4. Vei ; 5. Soso 
(Susii, or Soosoo) = Solima and Kisekise ; 6. Tene ; 
7. Gbandi ; 8, Landoro ; 9. Mendi'; 10. Gbese ; 11. 
Toraa; 12. Mano ; 13. Gio. 

The difierences between the Mandingo, Jallunka, and 
Bambarra, have always been considered small. The 
Kono is an allied form of speech under a new name. The 
Vei is more like the Mandingo Proper than its geogra- 
phical position suggests. 

The Susti, probably, includes the Tene. 

In Jallonkadu the language is in contact with the 
Fulah of Futa-torro. 

In Bambarra, the language is said to be mixed 
with the Woloff and Fulah. 

In Bambarra, too, it has departed considerably from 
the strict Mandingo type, and becomes either a well- 
marked dialect, or a fresh language. Between S^o and 
Jenn^ (both on the Niger) it is replaced by the Sunghai. 

More divergent than the Jallunka and Bambarra, 
but, still, visibly Mandingo, the Susu is spoken over a 
large unexplored tract at tlie back of Sierra Leone, of 
which the best-known tribes are the SuHmas, described 
by Major Laing. Bounded on the north by the Fulahs 
of Futa-dzhallo, they are Black Pagans, with warlike 
dispositions, and commercial aptitudes. 

The Kissi lies to the south of the Sulima ; being, 
probably, a dialect of the Susu. 

Between the Vei district about Cape Mount and the 
Kissi country, lies the Mendi. 

The Veiy spoken over a small tract of country, extends 



674 THE VEI ALPHABET. 

from the Gallinas to Cape Mount : extending inland 
40 or 50 miles. It seems to be intrusive; and there 
is a belief amongst the Vei themselves that they 
migrated from the Mani country under the captainship 
of two brothers Fabule and Kiatamba. When this took 
place is uncertain. 

The existence of a native alphabet has given promi- 
nence to the Vei language. The first notice of it was 
given by Lieut. Forbes, in 1849, who inquired whether 
the missionaries of Sierra Leone had ever heard of a 
written language amongst the natives of the parts about 
Cape Mount. He also showed a MS. which was soon 
afterwards in England and in the hands of Mr. Norriss, 
who deciphered and translated it. Meanwhile the 
missionary committee appointed Mr. Kolle to visit the 
country referred to by Lieut. Forbes and to make 
inquiries on the spot. This led him into the presence 
of a Vei native, named Doalu Bukere, about forty years 
old ; who, assisted by five of his friends, invented the 
alphabet in question. 

Without undervaluing Doalu Bukere's ingenuity, we 
must remember that, as a boy, he had learned to read 
English, and afterwards, Arabic. When grown-up to be 
a man he was all but a regular letter-carrier. His 
masters, who were slavers, and traders, despatched him 
to distant places as a messenger, and he told Mr. Kolle 
that the communication of distant events by means of 
the letters he conveyed struck him forcibly. " How is 
this, that my master knows everything I have done in 
a distant place ? He only looks at the book, and this 
tells him all. Such a thing we ought to have, by which 
we could speak to each other even though separated by 
a great distance." 

The Sokko is associated with the Jallonka in the 
Miihridates ; and when we remember how scanty 
were our data when that great work was composed, 



THE SOKKO, ETC. 575 

we may readily infer that its affinity is pretty palpable. 
It probably belongs to the most eastern division of 
the proper Mandingo class ; since it must be looked 
for in the district of the Kong Mountains, with their 
direction from west to east, and their parallelism with 
the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. Whether it lie to 
the back of the Grain Coast, where the Kru prevails, 
is uncertain. It is more likely to be found to the north 
of the Ivory Coast. At any rate Oldendorp, who took 
his information fi-om three individuals of three tribes, 
states that their country bordered on that of the Amina 
— the Amina belonoring to the Fanti class, the Fanti class 
of which the Gold Coast is the special occupancy. I 
have enlarged upon this, because the extent to which an 
undoubted Mandinfjo tongue comes in contact with both 
the Fanti and the Kru areas is a point in favour of the 
affiliation of the three groups. 

I now give a sketch of eleven languages which are 
conveniently taken together. They form as natural a 
group as circumstances permit ; and are as follows : — 

1 . Begharmi, the most eastern of the group. 

2. The Mandara. 

3. The Kauuri of Bornti. 

4. The Hawsa. 

5. The Sunghai. 

6. The Kouri. 

7. The Yoruba. 

8. The Tapua or Nufi. 

9. The Batta. 

10. The Fula. 

11. TheTibbu. 

Their general order is from east to west ; and the dis- 
trict to which they belong reaches from Lake Tshad to 
the Niger. It is pre-eminently an inland district. It is 
an intertropical one. It is, to a great extent, destitute 
of great rivers ; without being a desert. It is sub- 
tended by the parts below 9° N. L., or, the terra incog- 



576 THE BEGHARMI, ETC. 

nita, for tlie northern half of Africa ; from which it 
follows that, whether the languages under notice have or 
have not affinities on their southern frontiers, such affi- 
nities as may exist are unknown. This is much the 
same as saying that the further we go south, the further 
we recede from Mahometan, and advance into Pagan, 
Africa. 

So much for its southern limit. On the north it under- 
lies the Sahara in respect to its geography, and the 
Arab and Amazig areas in respect to its ethnology and 
philology — the Arab and Amazig areas both being 
Mahometan. It may be added (though the remark is 
in anticipation of what will appear as we proceed) that 
it is nearly co-extensive with the ground covered by 
the Fula conquests. 

It is a zone, or band, and, though some of its occu- 
pants have comparatively light-coloured skins, it is, as 
contrasted with the broader zone to the north, a Black 
Band. It has been called Nigritia. It has been called 
Sudania. But it is a Black Band only when contrasted 
with northern Africa. 

All the above-named languages are, in the present state 
of our knowledge, separated from each other by definite 
lines of demarcation. It may, perhaps, be added that 
they are all equi-distant from each other, i. e. the first 
on the list is (about) as like or unlike the second as the 
second is like or unlike the third. They have all miscel- 
laneous affinities ; though the special ones are less than the 
geographical relations suggest. At the same time, as far 
as they go, it is with the geograpliical relations that 
the affinities coincide. Tlie intrusive Fula, with its 
wide and irregular distribution, is, perhaps, an exception 
to this rule. 

To the north of Lake Tshad, along with the Tibbu of 
Kanem, the Arabic of the Beni Suliman and otlier tribes, 
is spoken; whilst farther to the west lies Darsaleh, Wa- 
day, or Borgho, of which notice has already been taken. 



THE BEGHARMI, ETC. 



577 



(1.) The Begharmi is conterminous with theTibbu, the 
Bomui, and the Mandara on the north, west, and south, 
the details of its eastern frontier being unknown. It 
may or may not touch the Mobba and Dar-runga areas. 
It is known by vocabularies only, of which Denham's is 
the chief. 

(2.) The Mandara is the nearest approach we have to 
a language of the interior of Africa, being the only one 
spoken south of the tenth degree of latitude in any part 
of the continent equally central. Indeed, the tenth 
degree on each side of the equator bounds the terra 
incognita. Towards the eastern and western extremi- 
ties of the zone thus described, Bm-ton, Livingstone, 
and others have explored ; but for the interior Denhara 
and Barth are our only authorities. The Mandara is 
one of the languages given in the forthcoming ILst of 
the languages of Adamowa, Hamarua, and the parts 
around. (See p. 589.) 



English. 


BeghannL 


Mandara. 


Man 


gaba 


geela 


Woman 


nee 


mugsa 






gala igirl) 


Head 


geujo 


erey 


Eye 


kammoo 


echey 


Teeth 


nganah 




Mouth 


tara 


okay 


Nose 


amo 


ukteray 


Feet 


njanja 




Sicn 


kaja 




Fire 


heddoo 




Water 


mane 


yowah 


Wind 


belee 




Wood 


clieree 




One 


keddy 


mtagne 


Tico 


sub 


sandah 


Three 


mattah 


kighah 


Four 


soh 


fuddah 


Five 


mee 


elibah 


Six 


meeka 


^quaha 


Seven 


chilly 


^oullay 


Eifjht 


marta 


teesa 


Nine 


doso 


musselman 


Ten 


dokemy 


klaon. 



p p 



578 '• THE KANURI, ETC. 

(3.) It is a current statement that as many as thirty 
different tongues are spoken in Bornu. This we get 
from a notice by Lucas whose informant was an official 
of that country. Seetzen throws a little light upon this ; 
his informant having been a negro of Affadeh. The first 
language enumerated by him is — 

1 . The Mana Birniby, or speech of Bornu itself 

2. The Amszigh Mpade, a country six days' journey 
northwards. 

3. The Mszmn mkalone Kamma, or the speech of a 
country seven days east of Affadeh, called by the Arabs 
Kalphey. 

4. The Amszigh Affadeh. 

Towards our knowledge of the other twenty-six, the 
following list was obtained by Seetzen from a negro of 
Mobba, whom he met at Cairo. 

5. The Kajenjah. 6. The Upderrak 7. The Alih. 
8. The Mingon. 9. The Mararet 10. The Massalit. 
n. The Szongor. 12. The Kuka. 13. The Dadshu. 
14. The Bandalah. 15. The Masmajah. 16. The 
Njorga. 17. The Demhe. 18. The Malangoe. 19. The 
Mime. 20. The Koruhoih. 21. The Qonuh. 22. The 
Kahka. 23. The Ouranguk. 24. The Dshellaha. 

Of these the Amszigh Mpade may be the Amazigb, 
a language of the Sahara rather than Bornti itself In 
like manner some of the others may belong to the Bornii 
Empire rather than to the district so-called. Of the 
Affadeh, however, we have, eo nomine, short specimens. 
It is closely akin to the Mana Birniby, the Proper 
Bornui, or Kanuri. 

The Arabic alphabet has been applied to the Kanuri ; 
the data for Norriss's Kanuri Grammar having been a 
collection of dialogues from Madame de Genlis's Manuel 
de Voyageur, a translation of two chapters of the New 
Testament, and the draft of an agreement to be made 
with one of the petty kings of the interior of Africa. 
These were written at Tripoli, and sent to England by tlie 
late Mr. Ricliardson ; there was a similar translation into 



THE KANURI, ETC. 



579 



the Hawsa. The author was an Arab. Kolle's gi-ammar 
was framed upon conversations with a native of the pro- 
vince of Gazir whom the author found at Sien-a Leone. 
Mr. Norriss, enlarging upon the extent to which the 
Kanuri differs from the other languages, compares its 
structure with that of the Turk dialects. Its roots are 
not subject to any modification ; it forms its plural by 
adding a syllable, and it has a somewhat full inflection, 
consisting wholly of postpositions. 

(Bornu dialects.) 



EngUsh. 




Bude. 


Ngodzen. 


Dodi. 


Man 




gemsenen 


gemseg 


amsey 


Woman 




game 


ama 


ama 


Head 




adatka 


ada 


ada 


Hair 




dadsLn 


yat 


yad 


Nose 




iskinen 


ten 


Stan 


Eye 




dat 


da 


Ida 


Ear 




gatanen 


aqnt 


qoat 


Tooth 




yanuanen 


yanon 


nayon 


Toncfue 




muret 


marinyi 




Sun 




afan 


a£a 


afa 


Pirt 




akan 


aka 


aka 


Water 




amu 


am 


aam. 


English. 


Kannri. 


Mania 


NgUTU. 


Kanem. 


Man 


koa 


kangoa 


kangoa 


koa 


Woman 


kamn 


kamn 


kamn 


kamn 


Head 


kala 


kala 


kala 


kela 


Hair 


kandali gazi 


kanduli 


knndali 


Nose 


kentsa 


kindsa 


kindsa 


kenza 


Eye 


sim 


sim 


sim 


asim 


Ear 


sumo 


somo 


snmo 


tsnmo 


Tooth 


timi 


temi 


temi 


temi 


Tongue 


telam 


telam 


tetam 


tatam 


Sun 


kaa 


kaa 


kan 


kengal 


Fire 


kann 


kann 


kann 


kann 


Water 


nki 


engi 


ngi 


ngi. 


English. 




Badnma. 


English. 


Badnma. 


Man 




hagoei 


Ear 


homogu 


Woman 




nger^m 


Tooth 


haneni 


Head 




kodagu 


Tonguf 


talamdagn 


Hair 




ndsige 


Sun 


adsi 


Nose 




dsenegu 


Fire 


on 


Eye 




yelegu 


Water 


amei. 



p p 2 



580 • THE KANURI, ETC. 



English, 


Logone.* 


Mobba.* 


One 


teku 


tek 




ser^dia 




Two 


ksde 


bar 


Three 


gaxkir 


kungal 


Four 


gade 


asal 


Five 


sesi 


tor 


Six 


venaxkir 


settal 


Seven 


katul 


mindri 


Eight 


venyade 


lya 


Nine 


disxien 


adoi 


Ten 


xkan 


aWk. 



(4.) Whatever may be the areas for the (?) twenty- 
seven unknown languages of Bornii, they are not on any 
of the explored portions of the Hawsa frontier, inasmuch 
as the two languages meet. The Hawsa, like the 
Bornii, has been written in Arabic characters, whilst 
from Schon's grammar we learn the details of its struc- 
ture. It gives either the germ or the fragment of a pe- 
culiarity, of which more will be said when the Yoruba 
comes under notice. 

(5.) Roughly speaking, the Sunghai area is bounded 
by 1 3° N. L. and the Niger ; the line of demarcation 
being a chord and an arc. The line of latitude runs 
straight, whilst the river, which meets it at both its 
extremities, approaches N, L. 18°. Between these lies 
the great mass of the Sunghai area, though not ex- 
clusively. On the north it is bounded by the Arabic 
and the Amazig, both encroaching languages ; on the 
west by the SerawulH (?) and the Bambarra ; on the 
East by the Fula and Hawsa ; on the south by the 
Kouri of Tombo, Mosi, and Gurma ; the line of de- 
marcation here being pre-eminently obscure. All along 
the northern frontier there is gi'eat intermixture — 
men of Sunghai blood using the Fula, Hawsa (?), 
Amazig, Arabic, SerawulH (?), and Mandingo dialects, 
and vice versa. G6g6, the ancient capital of a kingdom, 
stands in Sunghai ground. Timbuktu, more famous 

* For the explanation of these two columns see the appendix. 



TUE KOURL 



581 



still, does the same. To the south of Timbuktu the 
Iregenaten Tuariks have intruded far in the direction of 
the Kouri frontier ; between whom and the Niger lie 
several independent tribes ; amongst whom, it is proba- 
ble, that foreign admixture is at the minimum. Their 
land, however, is a terra incognita. Of their language 
I only know one sample from the extreme west, and 
one from the parts about Timbuktu. 

(6.) The chief districts of the KouH area are Gurraa, 
Tombo, and Mosi. Of these, the former is less Kouri 
than the other two ; this is because Gurma is on both 
the Sunghai and the Bambarra frontiers, from each of 
which there have been pressure and encroachment. Pres- 
sure, too, and encroachment have also been effected by 
the Fulas. That Gunna is a Sunghai name, as sug- 
gested by Barth, is probable. At any rate, it is not 
native. The Gurma people call the Hawsa people 
Jongoy. The Tombo, like Gurma, has been encroached 
upon by the Fulas, so that Mosi is the district which 
is most especially Kouri. It is Pagan, and broken up 
■ into small principalities. The Bamban-a name for the 
M<5si is Moreha. The Mosi themselves caU — 



The Fulas . 


Chilmigo, 


— Sunghai 


Marenga, 


— Gurma 


Bimba, 


— Wangara 


Taurearga, 


— Hawsa 


Zangoro, 


— Ashantis 


Santi. 



KoUe calls it the North-Eastem High Soudanian, but 
the present writer, in 1855, suggested the name under 
notice on the strength of a vocabulary of Mrs. Elil- 
ham's, representing the same language with the Tembu 
of the Mithridates. In the Polyglotta Afrieana there 
is also a Kaure, as well as a Kiamba, Dzhamba, or 
Tern specimen. 

The members of this group, according to Kolle, are 



o82 THE KOURI. 

1. Mose ; 2. Dselana ; 3. Guren ; 4. Gurma ; 5. Le- 
gba ; 6, Kaure ; 7. Kiamba ; 8. Koama ; 9. Bagba- 
lan; 10. Tula; 11, Kasm. Of all of these forms of 
speech KoUe gives specimens. 

To this we may add the Yngwe, and Dagwhumba 
numerals of Bowdich. 

In Clarke we get the following additions: — 1. Yaua; 

2. Brinni ; 3. Nibulu ; 4. and no less than 4 Tsham- 
bas. 

Yana is stated to be near Appa and Tshamba. It is, 
probably, a transitional dialect, with Inta, Mandingo, 
Yoruba, and Ibo affinities. 

The Brinni are called a tribe of the Fnla race in the 
interior, not far from Umwalum and Tshamba. Bangsa 
and Pumpluna are near to Tshamba. This statement as 
to the Fula affinity is exceptionable. They are de- 
cidedly in the same class with the Nibulu. 

Nibulu is simply said to be in the Tshamba country. 

When we look to the word Tshamba itself, we learn 
that there are three or more places of this name, 1st, 
near Igarra, on the river Odu ; 2nd, between Mandingo 
and the Kong Mountains ; 3rd, near Corisco Bay at 
Nibulu. Now as Tshamba is the word of salutation 
at this place, some confusion may have arisen, which 
future researches will explain. At any rate, the 
combination m6 preceded by k, t, sh, &c., is common. 
There is the Tim6u country on the Senegambia, Kimbo, 
Tim6u-ctu, Aquim6o, Adampi. In Balbi there is a 
Tjem6u or Kassenti, The Tambu of Oldendorp is the 
TcZampi of the Gold Coast. Whatever may be the 
explanation of all this, it is clear that the word as a 
name of the class under consideration is inconvenient. 
Whether Kouri (the term proposed by the present wi'iter) 
be the best name is another question. It is less am- 
biguous than Tshamba ; shorter than Nortli-Eastern High 
Sudanian. 

The watershed, marked in the map as the Mountains 



THE KOURL 



583 



of Koug, between the rivers which empty themselves into 
the Gulf of Guinea (the Volta, &;c.) and the feeders on 
the right bank of the Niger, belongs to the Kouri country, 
which, in some parts, touches the Niger itself. It lies in 
the longitude of Greenwich, and (perhaps) 8 degrees on 
each side of it, and in ] N. L, It is certainly a broken 
and mountainous country with a pagan population. 

The question which now arises touches the accuracy 
of the boundary by Kolle, who limits the group under 
notice to the forms of speech enumerated by him. I 
would add to it, at least, two of his South Afi'ican lan- 
guages, the Barba, and the Boko. The Barba he iden- 
tifies, from memory, with the Borgu of the Hawsa. 
Boko touches Busa on the Koara. 



English, head, hair. 
Barba, imru, siru. 
Mose, zuru. 
Legba, nyoro. 
Kaure, nyoro. 
Rasm, yuru. 
Akn, &c., oru. 

English, face. 
Barba, ipusoa. 
Legba, esa. 
Kaure, esa. 



I Kiamba, esanda. 
' Aku, odsu. 
I Kambali, lisu. 

English, nose. 
Barba, nueru. 
Mose, nyore. 
Guresa, nyor. 

English, eye. 
Barba, noni. 
Mose, nini. 
Guresa, nun. 



English, ear. 
Barba, so. 
Boko, zea. 
Guresa, tui. 

English, mouth. 
Barba, no. 
Legba, noio. 
Koama, ni. 
Kasm, ni. 



That the Boko and Barba should be Kouri is only 
what we expect from their geographical situation. 

Is there any other class besides the Kouri for the un- 
explored parts between the Kong Mountains and the 
Niger ? In other words, do we, when we get the Kouri 
class, get a class that completes our ethnographic and 
philologic knowledge for these parts? We do. No 
unplaced language is likely to be discovered. This is 
inferred from the fact of the limits of the Kouri class, 
being formed, on all sides, by some known language. 
Thus: 

1. On the north, it touches, and, perhaps, graduates 
into, the Mandingo, Sunghai, and Hawsa. 



584 



THE KOURI. 



2. On the south, it touches the Kru, the Avekvom, 
the Inta, the Dahomey, and Yoruba groups of the 
Grain, Ivory, Gold, and Slave coasts, 

3. On the east it reaches the Hawsa, and 

4. On the east, and south-east, the Nufi. 
With all of which it has miscellaneous affinities. 

If the Kouri has relations to the Mandingo and the 
Nufi on one side, it has also relations to the Sunghai of 
Timbuktii on the other. Perhaps, it is the language to 
which the Sunghai of Timbuktti is most especially like. 
The pronoun of the first person singular is ai, or a in 
both the Timi)uktli of Kolle, and his Yula and Kasm ; 
to say nothing of other definite glossarial likeness. 

That the so-called South-African characteristics were 
likely to be found in the Kouri is stated in the paper 
of April 27, 1855. I now add that ahalozzman. 
The name of a Kouri population is nibalu ; probably 
=zmen. Should this be shown to be the case, we have 
the Kaffir-like plurals in a firesh language. 





{Kouri dialects.) 




English. 


Koama. 


Bagbalan. 


Man 


mbal 


bala 


Womcm 


hal 


hala 


Read 


njTin 


nyi 


Hair 


njdpose 


nyupun 


Nose 


mese 


misan 


Eye 


se 


sian 


Ear 


dera 


deral 


Tooth 


kele 


nila 


Tongue 


mandelem 


dendelman 


Sun 


iya 


iwia 


Fire 


nien 


nyin 


Water 


le 


uen. 


English. 


Kasm. 


Yula. 


Man 


nokio 


baro 


Woman 


kam 


kam 


Head 


yiru 


yuru 


Hair 


iye 


yua 


Nose 


moe 


mui 


Eye 


yi 


yibu 


Ear 


ze 


zoa 





THE YORUBA. 




5 


EngUsh. 




Kasm. 






Ynla. 


Tooth 




nyal 






iyele 


Tongue 




dendele 






dendele 


Sun 




iya 






we 


Fire 




men 






men 


Water 




na 






na. 


English. 


Kambali. 




English. 


KuDibali. 


Man 


wale 






Ear 




atsuvu 


Woman 


waha 






Tooth 


nno 


Head 


adsin 






Tong 


ue 


anga 


Hair 


hondsi 






Sun 




urana 


Note 


Tunu 






Fire 




ahina 


Eye 


lisu 






Water 


moni. 


English. 


Mose. 


Dzelana. 




Goresa. 


Gunna. 


Man 


dawa 


do 




nedo 


odso 


Woman 


para 


pora 




pora 


wopua 


Head 


zuru 


zoh 




zu 


yuli 


Hair 


kodwdo 


zuih 




su 


tiyudi 


Nose 


nyore 


mer 




nyuara 


ami are 


Eye 


nine 


namp 




nun 


nomu 


Ear 


towre 


tepar 




tui 


tuwili 


Tooth 


nyena 


nor 




nanbana nyawu 


Tongue 


zilamd 


dselenk 


gingelona lamba 


Sun 


nuende 


gmint 




wnmbr 


oyenu 


Fire 


bunun 


borom 




bolam 


omu 


Water 


kom 


nyam 




nylam 


nyima. 


English. 


LegbJL 




Kaore. 




Keamba. 


Man 


abalo 




abalo 




ebalo 


Woman 


alo 




alo 




alo 


Head 


nyoro 




nyopo 




kudyo 


Hair 


nyos 




nyos 




nyoz 


Nose 


mire 




moro 




nnmbon 


Eye 


esire 




esire 




esire 


Ear 


mungbanuro 


tingbanu 


eligbamu 


Tooth 


noio 




nor 




noa 


Tongue 


isuromule 


nsolomere 


esuromo 


Sun 


elim 




wea 




▼oze 


Fire 


koko 




gmin 




nimin 


Water 


lam 






lem 




lem. 



oiio 



(7.) The Yomiba area lies, there or thereabouts, be- 
tween 2° and G° W. L., and 6° and 10° N. L., being 
bounded by the Bahomey, the Kouri (?), the Nufi, and 
the Ibo languages and the sea. The Fula has en- 
croached upon it. It has a well-defined boundary, and the 



586 THE YORUBA. 

language is well defined also : indeed, few African lan- 
guages are better capable of being definitely limited. So 
is it geographically, so philologically. Its nearest con- 
geners are the Kouri, Nufi, and Ibo, and it has miscel- 
laneous affinities besides. Until the publication of Crow- 
ther's grammar, the author of which, himself a native 
of the country, is a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, little was known of it beyond a few vocabulary 
specimens. It has now been studied with more than 
average attention. A paper upon it by D'Avezac in 
the Transactions of the E'rench Ethnological Society 
enlarged upon the extent to which it was what was 
called a Tnonosyllahic language. But are not all lan- 
guages, when we get to the roots, something of the 
kind ? The real fact is this — without being more mono- 
syllabic than many other tongues, the Yoruba is more 
easily than many others reducible to its elements. The 
best analysis of it is by Bishop Vidal the editor of Crow- 
ther's second edition. He enlarges upon the extent to 
which it is deficient of inflection. This means that the 
relations of time and place are expressed by separate 
words. He takes note of the important part played by 
accents. 

He notes, too, what he calls the Vocalic Euphony. 
Let the vowels be separated into two classes, and let o, e, 
i, I, u, and u be called open ; whilst o, e, a, and a, are 
close. Let the full forms of the pronouns be erne ■=. I, 
iwo=.thou, on = he, she, or it. When these precede 
verbs like ko, shi, she, shi, ku, or lit, they are mo, o, and 
0, i. e. open. Whereas if they precede verbs like kg, fe, 
la, or ka, they are close. The same is the case with the 
negative particle which is ki, ko, or ko, according to the 
vowel of the verb. He indicates either a geim or a 
fragment of a like system in the Hawsa. 

Another remarkable phenomenon — by means of a 
regular system of prefixes we get from a root like sloe =. 
sin, the following derivatives : — 



THE YORUBA. 587 

a. Prefix i, and the root becomes either an infinitive 
verb, or something closely akin to it, i. e. if she = do, fe 
rzlove, 7no'=:zhno'W, or lorzgo, ise, ife, imo, ilq-=.the act 
of doing, loving, &c. 

6. A more concrete meaning is given by substituting 
a for i. Thus, afe =. a state of loving, alo = a going. 

c. Ali gives an inchoative sense ; thus atilozzthe act 
of going ; atife-=.the act of loving, considered as not 
yet in full exercise, but about to be so. 

d. A is, a. negative; hence, a-imozznot knovnTig, or 
ignorance. 

e. A also denotes an agent; thus, from pej jazz fish, 
and konrin ■=. »ing, we get apejja ■=. a fisherman, akonrin 
zza singer. 

f. Ni = have ; and, as a prefix, implies the posses- 
sion of the attribute suggested by the verb. Thus, 
idajg— judgment comes nidajo — to possess judgment. 
In certain cases in which the vocalic euphony plays a 
part, this n becomes I, as it is in the example of the 
table. 

g. Prefix, where ni is retained, o, and, in other 
cases, the initial vowel of the word which it precedes, 
and it gives a noun like onidajo — one who judges, or 
judge. 

Vocabularies headed (1) Ota, (2) Egba, (3) Idsesa, 
(4) Yagba, (5) Eki, (6) Dsumu, (7) Oworo, (8) Dsebu, 
(9) Ife, (9) Ondo, (10) Dsekiri, in addition to the 
Yoruba Proper, are all to be found in Kolle, as sub- 
dialects of the Aku : followed by one of the Igala as a 
separate dialect — falling, however, into no sub-dialects. 

(8.) The Xufi Class. — Mutatis mutandis, the criticism 
which applies to Kolle 's North-Eastern High Sudanian, 
applies to his Niger-Tshadda, class. It may more con- 
veniently be called Nufi, from its chief language. 

Additions are to be made to it fiom the pages of the 
Folyglotta Africana itself; viz. : — 



588 



THE NUFI. 



1. The Yala, an unclassed language, is Nufi. 

2. The Dsuku and Eregba, which Kolle makes South 
African, are Nufi. 

In the Polyglotta Africana, the Dsuku, along with 
the Eregba, forms the third section of the eighth group, 
headed Atam Languages ; whilst the first of Part 2 
contains South African Languages, distinguished by 
an initial inflection. As such, it is separated from 1. 
Nupe; 2. Kupa ; 3. Esitako ; 4. Musu ; 5. Goali; 6. 
Basa ; 7. Ebe ; 8. Opanda ; 9. Egbira-Hima. To 
these, however, the vocabulary connects it, at least, as 
much as to any other group. 



English. 


Appa. 


Eregba. 


Dsuku. 


One 


uniieen 


unye 


atsu 


Two 


ifa 


ifa 


apiana 


Three 


ita 


ita 


atsala 


Pcnur 


ini 


ini 


anyera 


Five 


itun 


itliu 


tsoaua 


Six 


teniieh 


itinye 


tsindse 


Seven 


tifa 


itafa 


atsumpi 


Eight 


tita 


itita 


tsuntsa 


Nine 


tini 


itini 


tsunyo 


Ten 


ubo 


ubo 


atsue. 



If we now look back upon the details of these two 
classes, we find them to run as follows : — 

1. In the Kouri, we have the Kouri of Mrs. Kilham, 
the Tembu of Oldendorp, and the Mithridates, the Hio, 
Yrgwe, and Dagumba of Bowdich, the Mose, Dselana, 
Guren, Gurma, Legba, Kauri, Kiamba, Koama, Bagba- 
lan, Barba, and Boko of Kolle ; the Yana, Brinni, 
Nibulu, and 4 Tshambas of Clarke. 

2. The Nufi contains the forms of speech illustrated 
by the following vocabularies : Nupi, Appa, Kupa, 
Esitako, Musu, Goali, Basa, Ebe, Opanda, Egbira-Hima, 
Ergeba, Dsuku, Tapua (Tappa), Biyanni, Shabbie, Ka- 
kanda, Nupaysi. 

Apparently, a language of Kolle's, called the Kambali, 
is intermediate to the Nufi and the Kouri. 



THE BATTA. 



589 



(9.) The preliminary remarks of Dr. Barth on the 
Batta lancruage are as follows : — " The Batta-ntshi is 
spoken from Garrua, a place three days E. of Yola, in the 
district of Kokorni, as far as Batshama, three days E. of 
Hammarua. To this lancniaije beloncj the names of the 
two large rivers of Adamawa, Faro, ' the river,' and 
Benoe, ' the mother of waters.' 

" The other languages are the following : — The Burna- 
ntshi, spoken by the Umbmn and in Baia ; the Dama- 
ntshi, the language of Bobanjidda ; the Buta-ntshi ; the 
Tekar-tshi ; the Muuda-ntshi ; the Fala-ntshi ; the 
Marga-ntshi ; the Kilba-ntshi ; the Yangur-tshi ; the 
Guda-ntshi, spoken by a very learned people, the Gudu, 
living on a plain surrounded by mountains, near Song ; 
the Tshamba-ntshi ; the Kotofa-ntshi, spoken by the 
Kotofo, whose Lirge river, the Dewo, comes from Kout- 
sha and joins the Benue ; the Wera-ntshi ; the Dura- 
ntshi ; the Woka-ntshi ; the Toga-ntshi : the Lekam- 
tshi ; the Parpar-tshi ; the Kankam-tshi ; the Nyang- 
eyare-tshi ; the Musga-ntshi ; the Mandara-ntshi ; the 
Gizaga-ntshi ; the Ruma-ntshi ; the Gidar-ntshi ; the 
Daba-ntshi ; the Hina-ntshi ; the Matuma-ntslii ; the 
Sina-ntshi ; the Momoyee-ntshi ; the Fani-ntshi ; the 
Nyega-ntshi ; and finally the Dewa-ntshi ; all these lan- 
guages being so widely different from each other, that a 
man who knows one of them does not at aU understand 
the others." 



English. 


BaUa. 


English. 


Batta. 


Sun 


motshe 


Water 


be 


Heaven 


kade 


Fire 


die 


Star 


motshe kan 


People 


manope 


Wind 


koe 


Man 


mano 


Rain 


bole 


Woman 


metshe 


Dry season 


p(ia 


Mother 


Dogi or noi 


Jiainy 


bolebasi 


Father 


bagir 


Day 


motshe 


Child, hoy 


labai 


Ni'jht 


motsheken 


Davghter 


jetshe 


Yesterday 


zodo 


Brother 


lab^nno 


To-day 


fido 


Sister 


jetshono 


To-monvw 


taa 


Friend 


dawai 



590 


THE " 


BATTA. 




English. 


Batta. 


English. 


Batta. 


Enemy 


kawe 


Mountain 


faratshe 


Sultan, Icing 


homai 


Valley 


k&dembe 


Slave 


keze 


River 


be-noe, faro 


Female slave 


kezametshe 


River overflowing be-bake 


Head 


bodashi 


Garden 


wadi 


Eye 


hashi 


WeU 


bfilambe 


Nose 


ikilo 


Tree 


kade? 


Ear 


k^kkilo 


Grass ] ' 
Herbage j 




Mouth 


bratsM 


tsharae 


Tooth 


nesudabtslie 


Small 


keng 


Tongue 


ateazido 


Large 


baka 


Arm 


b6ratshe 


Far, distant 


b6ng 


Heart 


teleshe 


Near 


abong 


Leg 


bora 


Good 


izedo 


Mil1c 


pamde 


Bad 


^zedo 


Butter 


mare 


Warm 


tenibo 


Ghussuh 


lamashe 


I hear 


h^kkeli 


Ohafuli 


kakashe 


I do not hear 


takeli 


Rice 


hoiyanga 


I see 


biUe 


Baseen 


dabtshe 


I do not see 


tale 


Honey 


moratshe 


I speah 


nabawata 


Salt 


fite 


I sleep 


bashino 


Meat 


lue 


I eat 


nazumu 


Fruit 


nawa d6kade 


Eat, imp. 


zuazum, zuengosso 


Shirt 


{irkute 


/ dnnk 


nasa 


Spear 


kube 


Brink, imp. 


zuaba&a 


Sword 


songai 


I go 


nawado 


Bow 


rie 


Go, imp. 


joado 


Arrow 


galbai 


I com£ 


nS^basi 


Quiver 


k6ssure 


Come, imp. 


sua 


Boat 


damagere 


Give, imp. 


tenigo 


Hut, home 


finai 


Take, imp. 


zu^ngura 


Nat 


kaje 


/ 


hennebo 


CooJcing-pot 


borashe 


Thou 


mano 


Basket 


sbilai 


One 


hido 


Horse 


dual 


Two 


pe 


Mare 


dometsbi 


Three 


makin 


Ox 


nakai 


Four 


fat 


Cow 


metshe nakai 


Five 


tuf 


Camel, donJcey 


do not exist 


Six 


toknldaka 


Sheep 


bag&mre 


Seven 


tokulape 


Goat 


bagai 


Eight 


farfat 


Hog 


b§,rashe 


Nine 


t&mbido 


Lion 


turum 


Ten 


bu 


Fish 


rufai 


Eleven 


bu umbidf hido 


Bird 


yaro 


Twelve 


bu 6mbidi pe 


A plain 


yolde 


Thirteen 


bu firabidi makin 





THE 


FULA. 




5 


English. 


Batta. 


English. 




Batta. 


T-xenty 


m^nobupe 


Eighty 




manoba farfat 


Ticenty-one 


m^nobnpe hido 


Ninety 




Tnanoba t&mbic 


Thirty 


manobumakin 


One hu 


ndred 


aru 


Forty 


manobafat 


One thousand debu (Hausa) 


Fifty 


manobutfif 




Forms of Salutation. 


Sixty 


manobutokuldaka 






hokuda yo 


Seventy 


maonbu tokulape 






yalabare bide. 



(10.) A few remarks may now be made upon another 
language : one of greater political and geographical im- 
portance than any of the preceding class ; a language 
hitherto uncultivated, but one which is, by no means, un- 
likely to develope itself as the medium of an imperfect 
native Hterature, nor yet likely to be overlooked by the 
missionary and merchant for religious and commercial 
purposes. I mean the Fula, Fulah, Felletta, Fellata, 
Fulani, Fulanie, Filani, and Filanie tongue. A native 
conqueror, scarcely a generation back, named Danfodio, 
spread the Fula conquests as far west as Bomu and the 
frontier of Waday. He carried them far into the Hawsa, 
Yoruba, Sunghai, and Kanuri countries. He was a Ma- 
hometan, and, as such, the leader of a popuUxtion strongly 
contrasted with the native pagans of the true and typical 
Negro conformation. From this the Fula physiognomy 
departed, though not always to the same extent. As a 
general rule, however, the Fula skin was lighter ; so 
much so, that one section has long been known as the 
Red Peuls or Fulas. 

The chief languasres with which the Fula was at 
first compared, were those of the countries into which 
it intruded ; the Hawsa, Yoruba, Bomui, kc. It was 
not likely to show very decided affinities with these ; 
inasmuch as they lay beyond the pale of its proper and 
original situs. What this original situs, however, was 
is easily investigated. The home of the race seems to 
have been the highlands that form the watershed of the 
Senegal and Gambia ; so that the languages with which it 
originally came in the closest contact were the WolofF 
and Mandincro. But as the Mandinffo itself has en- 



592 THE SERAWULLI. 

croached on the forms of speech in its neighbourhood, 
much displacement and obliteration of such intermediate 
forms of speech as may have originally existed has been 
effected. We do not, then, expect very decided affinities 
even here. It is tlie opinion of the present writer, how- 
ever, that, whether great or small, they are greater in 
tliis direction, than any other ; the Woloff being the 
nearest congener, and the nearest approach to a tran- 
sitional tongue being the Serawulli. The very scanty 
specimens of the Mithridates are enough to suggest this 
— these making the Serawulli partly Woloff, partly 
Mandingo, partly Fula. If so, the affinities are thus : 

Woloff Serawolli 



Felup, &c., Serere 



Fula 



Mand ingo 

This, however, is in anticipation of the languages of 
another group. 

(11.) The Tibbu will be noticed in the Appendix. 

The first language of the next class is the Sei^a- 
wulli or Seracolet, conterminous with tlie Arabic on the 
north, and the Woloff on the west, and spoken over an 
extensive, but imperfectly-explored district towards the 
pouth- western frontier of the Sahara. Parts of Ludamar, 
Galam, Kaarta, and the Bambarra country, are Sera- 
wulli. Kolle states that there are six Serawulli tribes, 
tlie Gadsaga, the Gidemara, the Hanyaga, tlie Dzafuna, 
the Haire, and the Gangari. Their physical form is that 
of the Woloff, and Sereres ; their Mahoraetanism equally 
imperfect. Their energy and intelligence have been 
extolled. 

The area given to the Azeriye, Aswarek, or Swaninki, 
by Barth, is of considerable size and importance : ex- 
tending from the parts about Sangsangdi, which he par- 
ticularly says was, originally, an 'Aswarek town, to Wa- 
nad, in N. L. 21°. Now this is the most northern spot 
where a Negro population is found in situ. The lan- 
guage is, of course, in contact with the Arabic and 



THE WOLOF, ETC. 593 

Amazig, or with the Arabic by which the Amazig has 
been replaced, no Negro language being at this degree of 
latitude in contact with it. On the south, it is met by 
the "Wolof, the Sungai, the Fula, and the Mandingo of 
BarabaiTa : possibly by some of the Kouri dialects. 
The blood of many a man who speaks Arabic must be 
more or less Azeriye. 

The great centre of the Aswarek seems to have been 
El Hodh; Baghena being the district wherein, at present, 
they are most numerous. 

The Sereres is spoken about Cape Verd, the Wolof 
being spoken all round it. It is isolated, but has 
miscellaneous affinities. We have no grammar of it and 
but few vocabularies. 

The Wolof, or Jolof, is spoken between the Senegal 
and the Gambia ; not, however, continuously. It is 
interrupted in the parts about Cape Yerd. On the 
north it is bounded by the Arabic of Ludamar. 

It is the firet true Negro language of the seaside 
which is met with on the western coast of Africa. 
The States or kingdoms of Walo, Baol, and Kayor 
(this last being to the north of the Senegal), are 
Wolof Kajaga, or Galam, is pai"tly so. 

A grammar by Dard (Crramriiaire Ouloff) is our chief 
authority for its structure ; in which the peculiarity 
which has attracted most attention is the initial change 
of the article. It begins with the consonant of the noun 
to which it belongs ; whatever that consonant may be. 

Such congeners as the Wolof may have had to the 
north have been swept away by the Arabic of the 
Moors ; so that on one side, at least, it is an isolated 
language. Neither are its other affinities either very 
decided or very numerous ; but, on the contrary, few and 
miscellaneous. Tliey are greatest, however, with the 
languages with which it is conterminous. On the west, 
it is cut off by the ocean. In the direction of Cape 
Yerd it seems to have encroached. 

QQ 



594 



PAPEL, ETC. 



Now comes a group of a miscellaneous, artificial, and 
provisional character ; consisting of certain true Negro 
languages spoken between the Wolof and Mandingo 
areas and the Ocean. 

Padsade is the name of a vocabulary in Kolle. taken 
from a native of a town called Udadsa three or four 
days' journey from the sea. 



English. 


Padsade. 


English. 


Padsade. 


Man 


usia 


Ear 


kunofe 


Woman 


udsafe 


Tooth 


manye 


Head 


pofa 


Tongue 


pulema 


Hair 


pasads 


Sun 


pudyade 


Noae 


nyasin 


Fire 


nukus 


Eye 


masa 


Water 


mambea. 



The Biafada, akin to it, is spoken on some, but not 
on all, of the islands of the Bissago group. 



English. 


Biafada. 


English. 


Biafada. 


Man 


usa 


Ear 


gunufa 


Woman 


unali 


Tooth 


akede 


Head 


buofa 


Tongue 


wudema 


Haw 


gamboei 


Sun 


wunari 


Nose 


gandzini 


Fire 


furu 


Eye 


agiri 


Water 


mambia. 



The Papel, a representative of a fresh class, lies to 
the south of the Cacheo and on one or more of the 
Bissago islands. 



English. 


Papel. 


Kanyop. 


Man 


nyient 


nent 


Woman 


nyas 


nat 


Head 


bene 


behen 


Hair 


oyele 


uel 


Nose 


bihl 


biea 


Eye 


pekil 


kikasi, behen 


Ear 


kebars 


kabat 


Tooth 


pinyi 


iromagi 


Tongue 


perempte 


priamd 


Sun 


ono 


buno 


Fire 


buro 




Water 


mnnsop 


mleg. 



THE FELUP, ETC. 



595 



En^idi. 


Sarar. 


Bolar. 


Man 


nyient 


nyendz 


Woman 


nyat 


nyadz 


Head 


bngon 


bokoa 


Hair 


wel 


wuel 


Nost 


biz 


biz 


Eye 


pagas 


pekatz 


Ear 


kewat 


kebadz 


Tooth 


panin 


punyi 


Tongue 


pondiamont 


pndemnt 


Sun 


onnar 


onor 


Fire 


bndaa 


mel 


Water 


budo 


meL 



The Bulanda, akin to the Papel, &c., is spoken in a 
part of the Bissago archipelago and on the continent. 



English. 


Bulanda. 


English. 


Bulanda. 


Man 


njendz 


Ear 


gelo 


Woman 


gnin 


Tooth 


ksit 


Head 


ko 


Tongue 


demadn 


Hair 


wnl 


Sun 


lehn 


Nose 


pfuna 


Fire 


kledsa 


Eye 


fket 


Water 


wede. 



Three populations are named Bago ; one of which 
— that of the Kalum Bago — speaks a dialect of the 
Timmani. 



English. 


Timmani. 


Bago. 


Landoma. 


Man 


wandnni 


iriquni 


oruni 


Woman 


wTinibom 


irani 


orani 


Head 


rabamp 


dabomp 


dabiunp 


Hair 


rafon 


kofon 


kofon 


Nose 


asot 


tasot 


tasat 


Eye 


rafor 


dafor 


dafor 


Ear 


alens 


aranes 


alenas 


Tooth 


rasek 


dasek 


dasik 


Tongue 


ramez 


darner 


damir 


Sun 


ret 


det 


keten 


Fire 


nant 


nants 


nents 


Water 


maitt 


n&mun 


damnn mants. 



The Felups lie along the coast between the Gambia 
and the Casamanca. 

QQ 2 



596 



TUE FELUP, ETC. 



English. 


Felup. 


*• English. 


Felnp. 


Man 


aneine 


Ear 


gano 


Woman 


aseh 


Tooth 


finin 


Head 


fokou 


Tongue 


furcrop 


Hair 


wal 


Sun 


bunah 


Nose 


enyundo 


Fire 


sambul 


Eye 


gizil 


Water 


momel. 



Two other lanwuaofes still stand over for notice ; the 
Nalu and the Bagnon, spoken on and to the south of 
the Nunez. Of the Sapi, eo nomine, we have no 
specimens. 



English. 




Nalu. 




Bagnon. 


Man 




lamkiele 




udigen 


Womar 




lamfai 




udikam 


Head 




konki 




bigof 




Hair 




mileou 




dsegan 


Nose 




minyeni 




nyankin 


Eye 




nkiet 




kegil 




Ear 




mineau 




kind 




Movih 




misole 




bure 




Tooth 




mfet 




harl 




Tongue 




milembe 




buremudz 


Sum 




miyakat 




binek 




Fire 




met 




kuade 


Water 




nual 




mundu. 


English. 


Wolof. 


Serawulli. 


Mandingc 




Bullom. 


Man 


gor 


yugo 


ke 




nopugan 


Woman 


dzhigen 


yahare 


muso 




noma 


Head 


buob 


yime 


ku 




bol 


Nose 


bokan 


norune 


nu 




umin 


Eye 


bot 


yare 


nya 




lifol 


Ear 


nop 


taro 


tulo 




nni 


Mouth 


gemei 


rake 


da 




nyen 


Tooth 


bei 


kambe 


nyi 




idsan 


Tongue 


lamei 


nene 


neh 




limelim 


Sm 


dzhagat 


kiu 


tele 




lepal 


Fire 


sefara 


imbe 


ta 




dyom 


Water 


ndoh 


dsi 


dsi 




mem. 



The system of affinities here is complex. In the 
Mandingo class the Gbandi, Landoro, and Mendi, appear 
to lead, through the Kissi, the Timmani, and the Bullom, 
and through these to the Papel, Felup, Wolof, &c. 



TABLE OF AFFINITIES, ETC. 



597 



The Gbese, Toma, Mano, and Gio lead (as their geo- 
graphy suggests) to the Kru forms of speech ; these 
leading to the Inta tongues of the Gold Coast, &c. 

Lastly, the Maudingo Proper points to the Wolof, 
through the Serawulli. 

If so, the classification is that of the following map, 
table, or diagram : — 



Wolof- 



Felnp 



Serawulli, &c 

. I 
Mandingo 

I 
Sus6 

I 
Mendi 



Kissi 

I 
Timmani 

I 
Mano and Gio 

I 
Kru 

I 
Inta, &c. 



Of these the Timmani and Wolof, from the con- 
spicuous character of their initial changes, which, in the 
latter of the two languages, are well known, have gene- 
rally been treated as either isolate or South African. 



598 



THE HOTTENTOT. 



CHAPTER LXXI 



The Hottentot. 



With the Hottentots, decided philological, coincide with 
decided anatomical, differences ; though, with each, there 
has been exaggeration. In the Daramara country the 
difference between the Hottentot and the Kaffir is at 
its minimum. 



English. 


Bushman. 


Korana. 


Saldanha Bay. 


Hottentot. 


Man (homo) 


t'kui 


t'kohn 




quorque 


(mr) 


t'na 


kouh, kauh 







Woman 


t'aifi 


chaisas 


ankona 


kyviquis 


ffead 


t'naa 


minuong 




biqua 


Eye 


t'saguh 


mumh 




mu 


'Ear 


t'no-eingtu 


t'naum 


naho 


nouw 


Nose 


t'nuhntu 


t'geub 


tui, zakui 


thuke, quoi 


Tongue 


t'inn 


tarn ma 


tamme 


tamma 


Hair 


t'uki 


t'oukoa 




nuqua-an 


Hand 


t'aa 


t'koam 


onecoa 


omma 


Foot 


t'ooah 


t'keib 


coap 


itqua, yi 


Sky 


t'gachuh 




homma 




Earth 


t'kanguh 




ho 


kamkamma 


Sun 


t'koara 


sorohb 


sore 


sorre 


Moon 


tkduk&Tih 


t'kaam 




toha 


Fire 


t'jih 


t'aib 




ei 


Water 


t'kohaa 


t'kamma 


ouata 


kam 


One 


t'koay 


t'koey 




q'kui 


Two 


t'kuh 


t'koam 




k'kam 


Three 




t'norra 




k'ouiie. 



The sound expressed by t' is what is generally known 
as the Hottentot click. It is said to be found in some 
of the Bichuana dialects of the Kaffir. 



THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES IN GENERAL. 599 



CHAPTER LXXII. 

On the African Languages in general. 

Like Polynesia, Africa is connected with Asia by an 
isthmus ; a fact which narrows the range of its philolo- 
gical affinities. 

Like South America, Africa is separated from its 
nearest continent not only by an isthmus but by a 
narrow pass of water besides ; a fact which gives two 
lines of migration — neither of them either implied or 
excluded by the other. 

In the way of displacement on the frontier between 
Africa and Asia, the movement has been double. 
From Arabia there has been an extension northward ; 
from Tartary and Persia an extension southwards and 
westwards. Add to this that for the whole of northern 
Africa we have little but the dialects of the Berber 
and Arabic, and the great width of the separation of 
the languages on the outcrop becomes evident ; for, 
from Nubia and Abyssinia there is little in situ 
before we reach Caucasus on the one side and the 
Brahui districts of Persia on the other. Let those, how- 
ever, who believe that any amount of displacement pro- 
duces anything like absolute isolation (i. e. a language 
without, at least, miscellaneous affinities,) compare, en 
Tna^sse, Beke's Abyssinian and Klaproth's Caucasian vo- 
cabularies. Should they put down the coincidences to acci- 
dent, let them compare the vocabularies of either series 
with something still further apart and they will find a de- 



600 THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES 

crease. Whether few or many, coincidences are distri- 
buted regularly rather than hap-hazard. 

The African and Semitic languages are said to be cha- 
racterized by a great development of the predicate, the 
Indo-European by a great development of the copula. 
This means, so far as it means anything, that whilst 
certain modes of action, such as the inchoative, fre- 
quentative, and the like, are predicative ; others, like 
those involving the ideas of certainty, contingency, and 
time — those that give us the moods and tenses — are 
copular. As a matter of fact this is absolutely erro- 
neous : inasmuch as the copula merely denotes agree- 
ment or disagreement between the subject and the 
predicate, having nothing to do with modes of any kind. 
There are few elementary works upon logic, which fail 
to tell us this. All, then, that can be said concerning 
the difference between a form giving a tense or mood, 
and a form giving an inchoative or a causative verb, 
is that, though they are both modes, they are modes 
belonging to different divisions of the genus ; and this 
the grammarian well know-s, or, not knowing, acts upon 
it unconsciously ; making words like now and then 
adverbs, whilst he makes words like frequently, often, 
&c,, no more — ^the one adverbs of time, the other of 
manner. Whether he be consistent in drawing so broad 
a distinction between mood and tense {vocavi and vo- 
carem) on one side, and simple mode, &c. (vocito), on 
the other, is a different question. 

The expression, then, is exceptionable. How stands 
the fact it is meant to convey ? As far as it goes it is 
real. It is, however, anything but the fact in its integ- 
rity. The dictum applies to other languages besides the 
African : indeed, to all in an early stage of their de- 
velopment. In other words, forms like vocito, &lc., origi- 
nate earlier than forms like vocavi, vocem. 

Upon the African character here given to the so- 
called Semitic languages, I should find it necessaiy to 



I 



IN GENERAL. 601 

enlarge had there been any definite ciiticism applied to 
the question. However, what with mixing up ethno- 
logy with philology and looking out for Indo-European 
aflSnities in grammar because the Jews and Arabs are 
liker to Europeans than to Negroes ; what with treating 
an order consisting of a single genus as a large 
family or sub-kingdom ; what with the fanciful dicho- 
tomy between the Semitic and the Hamitic — what with 
these and similar elements of confusion, the main facts, 
(viz. those found in the actual examination of the African 
languages themselves) have been omitted ; the researches 
upon the Berber and Coptic being exceptions. Out of 
these has come the term >S'i'.6-semitic ; a term which tells 
its own story. More than this — philologues, like Newman 
and others, have recognized beyond the pale of the Berber 
(or Amazig) Berber (or Amazig) ajQBnities ; the Hawsa 
and other languages being what they might (but do not) 
call Sub-amazig, or Sub-coptic ; affinities which, in- 
directly, extend the Semitic class Still, unless I read 
them wrongly, all these observations, however true, seem 
to be run one way only, i. e. they make the Hawsa, the 
Galla, and their congeners, Asiatic, rather than the 
Arabic, &c., African. 

Yet the system of initial changes with the conso- 
nants and of medial changes with the vowels — characters 
which have always been held Semitic — is far commoner 
in Africa than it is in Asia, and far more characte- 
ristic of many African languages than it is of any 
Asiatic ones. 

Something of the same kind of single-sightedness 
appears in the criticism upon the Kaffir characteristics. 
They have been found far beyond the Kaffir area. But 
the effect has been to get the Fanti, the Grebo, and 
other languages, called Smith, rather than to get the 
Kaffir called North, African. 

The Semitic and the Kaffir (laying aside the Hot- 
tentot) are the two classes for which the lines of demar- 
cation have been the strongest. They are, also, those 



602 THE AFRICAN LANGUAGES 

which I confidently predict that further inquiry will, 
more especially, break down. Respecting the other 
groups, it need only be added that Africa is the land 
which, above all others, requires us to classify by type 
rather than definition ; and that, where the divisions are 
the clearest, and the isolation the greatest, the evidence of 
encroachment and obliteration is, sometimes, historical 
as well as inferential. It is pre-eminently historical 
with the Fula. It is a most legitimate inference with 
the Hottentot. It is historical with the Galla. It is a 
legitimate influence with the Berber. 

On the direction in which the languages of the 
larger groups seems to have extended themselves I 
have but little to suggest. The uniformity of speech, 
prima facie evidence in favour of recent diffusion, 
seems to point in the great Galla class to the Danakil 
area as the starting-point. The Berber has, apparently, 
moved from east to west ; the Fula from the 
high regions between the Senegal and Gambia. The 
Hottentot, probably, has its nearest congeners to the 
north of the great Kaffir area ; but where does this 
end ? The Semitic dialects are, perhaps, Abyssinian in 
origin. 

The phenomena of distribution are those of Asia and 
America, giving large groups, like the Berber and Kaffir, 
in contrast with moderate, though rarely with excessively 
small, ones. The difficulty, however, in the present state 
of our knowledge, of saying where the dialect ends and 
where the language begins prevents us from generalizing 
here. 

The range of type, as well as the multiplicity of 
types, is greater in Africa than elsewhere ; by which I 
mean that, if we look to single characters alone, there 
are more languages in Africa which exhibit strong 
single characteristics, than there are in Asia, America, 
or Europe. Of the internal changes of the Semitic, 
and of the alliterations and prefixes of the Kaffii, 
languages, notice has already been taken. The Man- 



IN GENERAL. 603 

dingo, as far as it is known, is distinguished by the 
want of them ; wh